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Powering the Future of Transportation

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Scott Samuelsen, Director, National Fuel Cell Research Center, UC Irvine

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Powering the Future of Transportation

  1. 1. University of California, Irvinehttp://www.apep.uci.edu National Fuel Cell Research Center Advanced Power and Energy Program POWERING THE FUTUREOF TRANSPORTATION Scott Samuelsen, Director Oregon Transportation Research and Education Consortium April 10, 2009
  2. 2. 2/27 Portland State University, April 2009
  3. 3. 3/27 Portland State University, April 2009 COMBUSTION CO2+ H2O + N2+ POLLUTANTSGHG SMOG AIR FUEL COMBUSTION ENGINE EXHAUST THERMAL ENERGY •94% OF WORLD’S CO2 •90% OF WORLD’S POLLUTANTS SOURCE: SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY •80% OF WORLD’S POWER TON
  4. 4. 4/27 Portland State University, April 2009 WORLD ENERGY DEMAND ENERGY DEMANDWORLD ENERGY DEMAND[Million B/D Oil Equivalent] SOURCE: IEA WORLD ENERGY OUTLOOK Other Transportation Industry Electric Power Residential and ServicesTRANSPORTATION ELECTRIC POWER2000 2030
  5. 5. 5/27 Portland State University, April 2009 SOURCE: IEA WORLD ENERGY OUTLOOK GHG INTENSITY WORLD GHG INTENSITY [Billion Metric T/Y] 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 2000 2030 Transportation Residential and Services Other Electric Power Industry ELECTRIC POWER TRANSPORTATION
  6. 6. 6/27 Portland State University, April 2009 #1GREEN HOUSE GAS INTENSITY (1990) FORCES FOR CHANGE #2POLLUTANT IMPACTS (1940) #3HUBBERT’SCURVE (1980) #4FUEL INDEPENDENCE (9/11) #5NATIONAL SECURITY (9/11)
  7. 7. 7/27 Portland State University, April 2009 HUBBERT’SCURVE BILLION BBL/Y YEAR 2020 PETROLEUM PRODUCTION RATE
  8. 8. 8/27 Portland State University, April 2009 #1GREENHOUSE GAS INTENSITY (1990) #2POLLUTANT IMPACTS (1940) #3HUBBERT’SCURVE (1980) #4FUEL INDEPENDENCE (9/11) #5NATIONAL SECURITY (9/11) PARADIGM SHIFTS •ELECTRIC POWER •TRANSPORTATION –FUEL –ENGINE •CONSERVATION –ELECTRICAL POWER –PERSONAL VEHICLE –PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION •BUILDING DESIGN •URBAN DESIGN FORCES FOR CHANGE
  9. 9. 9/27 Portland State University, April 2009 CALIFORNIA 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 1990 2000 2004 2020 Year 80% Reduction 30% Reduction GHG Emissions [MMT CO2 e] AB 32 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 1990 2000 2004 2020 2050 0 Year
  10. 10. 10/27 Portland State University, April 2009 #1GREENHOUSE GAS INTENSITY (1990) #2POLLUTANT IMPACTS (1940) #3HUBBERT’SCURVE (1980) #4FUEL INDEPENDENCE (9/11) #5NATIONAL SECURITY (9/11) PARADIGM SHIFTS •ELECTRIC POWER •TRANSPORTATION –FUEL –ENGINE •CONSERVATION –ELECTRICAL POWER –PERSONAL VEHICLE –PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION •BUILDING DESIGN •URBAN DESIGN FORCES FOR CHANGE
  11. 11. 11/27 Portland State University, April 2009 COMBUSTION AIR FUEL COMBUSTION ENGINE EXHAUST THERMAL ENERGY
  12. 12. 12/27 Portland State University, April 2009FOSSIL FUEL FUEL CELLS ELECTROCHEMISTRY COMBUSTION ELECTRICITY COMBUSTIONTHERMAL ENERGYEXPANSIONPISTONGENERATOR ELECTRICITY FOSSIL FUEL •80% OF WORLD’S POWER •94% OF WORLD’S CO2 •90% OF WORLD’S POLLUTANTS
  13. 13. 13/27 Portland State University, April 2009LoadeProduct GasesResidual FuelFuel Oxidant Anode Cathode Electrolyte(ION CONDUCTOR) Product Gases Residual Oxidant e eH2H2O O2 H+ FUEL CELL STACK
  14. 14. 14/27 Portland State University, April 2009Fuel Cell Types Slide © National Fuel Cell Research Center
  15. 15. 15/27 Portland State University, April 2009Fuel Cell VehicleFC 60 %
  16. 16. 16/27 Portland State University, April 2009Fuel Cell Vehicle National Fuel Cell Research Center University of California, Irvine
  17. 17. 17/27 Portland State University, April 2009 0.2 0 1.0 0.4 0.6 0.8 Gasoline Vehicle CO2EMISSION: FUEL and VEHICLE Today Gasoline HV Hydrogen HV FCHV Fuel Vehicle FCHV (H2O→H2by Renewable Energy) FCHV (Coal→Hydrogen) FCHV (Natural GasHydrogen) FCHV (Biomass) Target Fuel Vehicle (Natural GasHydrogen)
  18. 18. 18/27 Portland State University, April 2009 Fuel Cell Types Slide © National Fuel Cell Research Center
  19. 19. 19/27 Portland State University, April 2009 •WASTEWATER TREATMENT 6.10 •MOBILE RENEWABLES3.90 •HOTELS2.75 •GOVERNMENT2.25 •UNIVERSITIES1.00 •BREWERIES1.00 •INDUSTRIAL1.20 •MANUFACTURING0.50 •FOOD PROCESSING0.50 •UTILITIES0.25TOTAL = 19.45 MW Sierra Nevada Brewery Chico SOURCE: WWW.CASFCC.ORG Waste Water Treatment Plant Tulare California State University Northridge Sheraton Hotel San Diego
  20. 20. 20/27 Portland State University, April 2009ENERGY STATION •Electric Power Generation •Thermal Power Generation •Hydrogen Generation NATURAL GAS National Fuel Cell Research Center University of California, Irvine
  21. 21. 21/27 Portland State University, April 2009 HTFC 47 MJelectricity η=47% 43 MJH2 η=100% 53 MJhigh quality heatwith Tri- Generation 143 MJof CH4 HTFC heat with Tri- Generation High-Temperature Fuel Cell with H2Tri-Generation
  22. 22. 22/27 Portland State University, April 2009ENERGY STATION •Electric Power Generation •Thermal Power Generation •Hydrogen Generation NATURAL GAS DIGESTER LAND-FILL GAS “GREEN ENERGY STATION” •Green Electricity •Green Thermal Power •Green Hydrogen National Fuel Cell Research Center University of California, Irvine
  23. 23. 23/27 Portland State University, April 2009 STORAGETANK ADG HOTWATER HEAT EXCHANGER ANAEROBICDIGESTIONGAS HOLDER SLUDGEDIGESTER National Fuel Cell Research Center University of California, Irvine High-Temperature Fuel Cell with H2Tri-Generation BOILERHYDROGEN HYDROGENSTORAGE HYDROGENDISPENSER FUEL TREATMENT ACPOWERPROJECTHIGH-TFUEL CELLPROJECT •Orange County Sanitation District •Euclid Exit, I405, Fountain Valley •Support: DOE, ARB, AQMD •October 2009
  24. 24. 24/27 Portland State University, April 2009 DUAL FUEL POWER CONTROL UNIT SECONDARY BATTERY MOTOR FUEL CELL HYDROGEN FUEL CELL “PLUG-IN” HYBRID VEHICLE
  25. 25. 25/27 Portland State University, April 2009 HYBRID FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE SYSTEMSC C C AIR FUEL C T T GENERATOR C = Compressor; T = Turbine 60% 70% 70+% EMERGING TECHNOLOGY HYBRID FC/GT
  26. 26. 26/27 Portland State University, April 2009 • Locomotives • Ships • Trucks • Aircraft HYBRID FC/GT HYBRID FC/GT HYBRID FC/GT HYBRID FC/GT
  27. 27. 27/27 Portland State University, April 2009 NEXUS: TRANSPORTATION and ELECTRICITY SOURCE: SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY NEXUS: TRANSPORTATION and WATER NEXUS: ELECTRICITY and WATER GHGs POLLUTANTS CONSUMPTION OF OXYGEN POWERING THE FUTURE OF TRANSPORTATION
  28. 28. University of California, Irvinehttp://www.apep.uci.edu National Fuel Cell Research Center Advanced Power and Energy Program POWERING THE FUTUREOF TRANSPORTATION Scott Samuelsen, DirectorOregon Transportation Research and Education ConsortiumApril 10, 2009

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