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RichardA.Marcantonio
ManagingAttorney,PublicAdvocates
Portland StateUniversity,
September15,2015
Overview
• Then and Now: A history of failed efforts
• MPO Equity Analyses: Why they fail
• California Cap and Trade: Real...
Then and Now
Then: Urban Renewal
With Displacement
Now:
Oakland Airport Connector
$492
million
vs.
$60
million
Station Area Demographics
EJ Community Minority Poor
North of BART 98% 33.4%
Columbia
Gardens
97% 25.1%
MPO Equity Analyses
The usual equity analysis methodology
• Identify “communities of concern”
• Identify metrics that can be modeled,
such as ...
Will everything be OK in 25 years?
Source: MTC, Plan Bay Area Equity Analysis, 2013, p. 44.
“Perhaps the strongest feedback MTC staff received
from the Minority Citizens Advisory Committee this
equity analysis is t...
Models are color-blind
In a nutshell:
“… land use models cannot predict future
movement of racial or ethnic groups at a
ne...
Environmental Justice
US DOT EJ Order prohibits…
“the denial of, reduction in, or
significant delay in the
receipt of, ben...
AG Kamala Harris sues SANDAG
“The RTP/SCS places its
priority in its early years on
expanding or extending
freeways and hi...
California Cap and Trade Investments
Global Warming Solutions Act (AB 32)
Permits Air Resources
Board to implement Cap
and Trade
Requires GHG-reducing
investme...
SB 535 (de León)
Framework for Investments to Benefit
Disadvantaged Communities
• Directs CalEPA to
define “disadvantaged
...
CalEnviroScreen
Mapping
“Disadvantaged
Communities”
The theology of social equity
• Equity Agnostics: “We don’t know what equity
means. Give us a definition.”
OR
•Equity Pant...
What is equity?
Aframeworkforassessingproposedprojectsandinvestments
•Under-served communities have needs and priorities
t...
Common Needs of Underserved Communities
Public Health/
Co-pollution benefits
Reduce health harms (e.g., asthma) suffered d...
GREENHOUSEGASINVESTMENTS
INCALIFORNIA’S2015 BUDGET
Source: California Budget
Top 15 Cities for
Housing Growth by 2040
Source: Plan Bay Area
African Americans in San Francisco
and San Joaquin Counties, 1970-2008
Source: Alex Schafran
6 Wins: Thebuildingblocksofsmartdevelopment
Community
Power
Investment
Without
Displacement
Affordable
Housing
Economic
Op...
27
• Shift 5% more funding to transit operations.
• Shift 5% of the housing growth from low-income
communities to transit-...
Photo credit:
EEJ better for EJ Communities…
• 15,800 fewer struggling families at high risk of
displacement
• Annual rent savings for l...
EEJ Better for the Environment…
• GHGs down 568,000 tons per year
• 83,500 fewer cars on the roads
• VMT down 3.5 million ...
EEJ Better for the region
•3,400 more miles of local streets
repaved.
•30,000 fewer residents subject to flood
risk from s...
A New Equity Framework
Summary of what doesn’t work…
• Modeling equity in the distant future
without identifying today’s equity gaps
• Belief tha...
And what does …
Invest to meet the needs of
disadvantaged communities:
•SB 535: 25% set aside
•6 Wins’ EEJ: the community
...
Key Principles
•Invest to meet community needs
•Let the community decide
•Today’s money for today’s needs
•Tailor metrics ...
What that could look like
• Set aside 25% of new revenue in the first four
years of the RTP to meet the needs of
underserv...
Richard A. Marcantonio
Managing Attorney, Public Advocates Inc.
rmarcantonio@publicadvocates.org
www.publicadvocates.org
/...
Plenary Marcantonio
Plenary Marcantonio
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Plenary Marcantonio

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Richard A. Marcantonio of Public Advocates Inc.

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Plenary Marcantonio

  1. 1. RichardA.Marcantonio ManagingAttorney,PublicAdvocates Portland StateUniversity, September15,2015
  2. 2. Overview • Then and Now: A history of failed efforts • MPO Equity Analyses: Why they fail • California Cap and Trade: Real benefits • The 6 Wins Network: An equity alternative • A New Framework for Equity
  3. 3. Then and Now
  4. 4. Then: Urban Renewal With Displacement
  5. 5. Now: Oakland Airport Connector $492 million vs. $60 million
  6. 6. Station Area Demographics EJ Community Minority Poor North of BART 98% 33.4% Columbia Gardens 97% 25.1%
  7. 7. MPO Equity Analyses
  8. 8. The usual equity analysis methodology • Identify “communities of concern” • Identify metrics that can be modeled, such as jobs accessible within 30 minutes by transit vs. auto • Run the model and compare the outcomes on the metrics for communities of concern with all other communities
  9. 9. Will everything be OK in 25 years? Source: MTC, Plan Bay Area Equity Analysis, 2013, p. 44.
  10. 10. “Perhaps the strongest feedback MTC staff received from the Minority Citizens Advisory Committee this equity analysis is that its analytical approach does not directly address the differing levels of access and mobility that exist within the region today. Rather, the RTP equity analysis relies on long-range forecasts to estimate and compare aggregate outcomes between communities of concern and the remainder of the Bay Area region-wide in the future.” What the Minority Advisory Committee thought: Source: MTC’s 2009 RTP Equity Analysis
  11. 11. Models are color-blind In a nutshell: “… land use models cannot predict future movement of racial or ethnic groups at a neighborhood scale …” MTC, 9/6/11
  12. 12. Environmental Justice US DOT EJ Order prohibits… “the denial of, reduction in, or significant delay in the receipt of, benefits of DOT programs, policies, or activities.”
  13. 13. AG Kamala Harris sues SANDAG “The RTP/SCS places its priority in its early years on expanding or extending freeways and highways, while investment in public transit is deferred to a large extent.” Petition in Intervention of State of Calif. in Cleveland Nat’l Forest Fnd v. San Diego Assn of Governments (par. 3)
  14. 14. California Cap and Trade Investments
  15. 15. Global Warming Solutions Act (AB 32) Permits Air Resources Board to implement Cap and Trade Requires GHG-reducing investment be directed to “the most disadvantaged communities and households in the state.”
  16. 16. SB 535 (de León) Framework for Investments to Benefit Disadvantaged Communities • Directs CalEPA to define “disadvantaged communities” • Ensures at least 25% of the investments benefit disadvantaged communities • Requires at least 10% of the investment projects located in disadvantaged communities
  17. 17. CalEnviroScreen Mapping “Disadvantaged Communities”
  18. 18. The theology of social equity • Equity Agnostics: “We don’t know what equity means. Give us a definition.” OR •Equity Pantheists: “Every dollar we spend benefits an underserved community somewhere.”
  19. 19. What is equity? Aframeworkforassessingproposedprojectsandinvestments •Under-served communities have needs and priorities that may be distinct from those of the public at large. •The equity of projects and investments should be assessed based on whether/how well they address these priority needs. Meets an important community need? •Benefits should be significant, not merely incidental or nominal. Benefits to the local community are significant? •Benefits of investments should be expressly targeted to low-income residents or households. Low-income residents are the primary beneficiaries? •Projects in underserved communities should not increase toxic exposures, lead to a net loss of affordable housing, or displace residents or local businesses. Avoids substantial burdens?
  20. 20. Common Needs of Underserved Communities Public Health/ Co-pollution benefits Reduce health harms (e.g., asthma) suffered disproportionately by low- income residents/communities due to co-pollutants Reduce health harms (e.g., obesity) suffered disproportionately by low- income residents/communities due to the built environment (e.g., by providing active transportation opportunities, parks) Increase community safety Economic benefits: Increased family income and assets Increase family income (e.g., targeted hiring for living wage jobs) Increase job readiness and career opportunities (e.g., workforce development programs, on-the-job training) Revitalize local economies (e.g., increased utilization of local businesses) Economic benefits: Reduced family costs Rent savings (e.g., affordable housing) Transportation cost savings (e.g., free or reduced cost transit passes) Energy cost savings (e.g., weatherization, solar, etc.) Mobility and Access to Opportunity Improve transit service levels on systems/routes that have high-ridership of low-income riders Bring jobs and housing closer together (e.g., affordable housing in transit oriented development, and in healthy, high-opportunity neighborhoods) Sustainable Community Infrastructure Improvements that will benefit low-income residents without increasing the risk that they will be displaced.
  21. 21. GREENHOUSEGASINVESTMENTS INCALIFORNIA’S2015 BUDGET Source: California Budget
  22. 22. Top 15 Cities for Housing Growth by 2040 Source: Plan Bay Area
  23. 23. African Americans in San Francisco and San Joaquin Counties, 1970-2008 Source: Alex Schafran
  24. 24. 6 Wins: Thebuildingblocksofsmartdevelopment Community Power Investment Without Displacement Affordable Housing Economic Opportunity Healthy & Safe Communities Local Transit Service
  25. 25. 27 • Shift 5% more funding to transit operations. • Shift 5% of the housing growth from low-income communities to transit-connected suburban job centers. • Protect low-income communities against displacement. Key ingredients of the EEJ
  26. 26. Photo credit:
  27. 27. EEJ better for EJ Communities… • 15,800 fewer struggling families at high risk of displacement • Annual rent savings for low-income families $79 million • Toxic Air Contaminants (TACs) down 6.4 tons per year • Carbon monoxide emissions down 1,290 tons per year
  28. 28. EEJ Better for the Environment… • GHGs down 568,000 tons per year • 83,500 fewer cars on the roads • VMT down 3.5 million miles per day • Daily energy savings of 68 billion BTUs.
  29. 29. EEJ Better for the region •3,400 more miles of local streets repaved. •30,000 fewer residents subject to flood risk from sea level rise by 2050.
  30. 30. A New Equity Framework
  31. 31. Summary of what doesn’t work… • Modeling equity in the distant future without identifying today’s equity gaps • Belief that any money spent within a disadvantaged community is a benefit • Deciding what communities need instead of asking them
  32. 32. And what does … Invest to meet the needs of disadvantaged communities: •SB 535: 25% set aside •6 Wins’ EEJ: the community decides
  33. 33. Key Principles •Invest to meet community needs •Let the community decide •Today’s money for today’s needs •Tailor metrics and track progress
  34. 34. What that could look like • Set aside 25% of new revenue in the first four years of the RTP to meet the needs of underserved communities • Fund community groups to run the process for identifying the priority needs and solutions • Set goals and targets, measure outcomes, and repeat
  35. 35. Richard A. Marcantonio Managing Attorney, Public Advocates Inc. rmarcantonio@publicadvocates.org www.publicadvocates.org / PublicAdvocates @publicadvocates

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