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Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity for Urban Redevelopment? A Study of Los Angeles County Parking Supply and Growth

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Mikkhail Chester, Assistant Professor, Arizona State University

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Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity for Urban Redevelopment? A Study of Los Angeles County Parking Supply and Growth

  1. 1. Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity for Urban Redevelopment? MIKHAIL V. CHESTER ASSISTANT PROFESSOR CIVIL, ENVIRONMENTAL & SUSTAINABLE ENGINEERING ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY 26 February 2016Portland State University HTTP://WWW.TRANSPORTATIONLCA.ORG/LOSANGELESPARKING/ PRESENTATION TO:
  2. 2. 2Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 2 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment ● TRANSPORTATION LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT ● INFRASTRUCTURE GROWTH ● INFRASTRUCTURE & CLIMATE CHANGE ROADWAYS BUILDINGS PARKING
  3. 3. 3Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 3 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment TRANSPORTATION LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT
  4. 4. 4Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 4 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment Life Cycle Assessment VEHICLES (Manufacturing & Maintenance) INFRASTRUCTURE (Construction, Maintenance, Rehabilitation, & Operation) ENERGY PRODUCTION (Primary fuel extraction, Processing, & Transport) SUPPLY CHAINS
  5. 5. 5Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 5 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment M Chester & A Horvath, 2009, Environmental Assessment of Passenger Transportation Should Include Infrastructure & Supply Chains, Environmental Research Letters 4, http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/4/2/024008 Life-cycle Assessment
  6. 6. 6Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 6 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment US PARKING INFRASTRUCTURE
  7. 7. 7Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 7 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment 250 million vehicles in the U.S. 99% of trips start or end with free parking Vehicles spend 95% of lives parked
  8. 8. The U.S. Parking Space Inventory Scenario 1 + known metered Scenario 2 + known metered + 1 home + 1 work + zoning ft2 requirements Scenario 3 + known metered + 1 home + 1 work + zoning ft2 requirements + onstreet Scenario 4 + 4 spaces/car (urban) + 2.2 spaces/car (rural) Scenario 5 + 8 spaces/car 105 million 730 million 820 million 840 million 2 billion 1.4 billion
  9. 9. 9Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 9 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment Embedded Air Emissions: PM10 Sedan PM10 Emissions in mg per Passenger Mile Traveled - 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Vehicle Active Operation Vehicle Inactive Operation Vehicle Manufacturing Vehicle Maintenance Vehicle Insurance Infrastructure Construction Infrastructure Operation Infrastructure Maintenance Fuel Cycle Infrastructure Parking 105 Million Spaces 730 Million Spaces 820 Million Spaces 840 Million Spaces 2 Billion Spaces
  10. 10. 10Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 10 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment INFRASTRUCTURE GROWTH
  11. 11. 11Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 11 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment Transportation: Network Growth Environmental and Economic Consequences of Permanent Roadway Infrastructure Commitment: City Road Network Life-cycle Assessment and Los Angeles County, A Fraser and M Chester, ASCE Journal of Infrastructure Systems, Expected 2016, Volume and Issue Forthcoming, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)IS.1943-555X.0000271
  12. 12. 12Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 12 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment Cumulative Roadway Kilometers 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 45,000 50,000 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Local Collector Arterial 74% Environmental and Economic Consequences of Permanent Roadway Infrastructure Commitment: City Road Network Life-cycle Assessment and Los Angeles County, A Fraser and M Chester, ASCE Journal of Infrastructure Systems, Expected 2016, Volume and Issue Forthcoming, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)IS.1943-555X.0000271
  13. 13. 16Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 16 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment PARKING INFRASTRUCTURE LOS ANGELES
  14. 14. 17Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 17 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment Andrew Fraser Doctoral Candidate Civil, Environmental and Sustainable Engineering Arizona State University Carolyn Flower Undergraduate Researcher Civil, Environmental and Sustainable Engineering Arizona State University Juan Matute Associate Director UCLA Lewis Center and the Institute of Transportation Studies University of California Los Angeles Ram Pendyala Professor Civil and Environmental Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology
  15. 15. 18Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 18 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment OFFSTREET
  16. 16. 19Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 19 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment ParkingInfrastructure:AConstraintonorOpportunityforUrbanRedevelopment?AStudyofLos AngelesCountyParkingSupplyandGrowth,MChester,AFraser,JMatute,CFlower,andRPendyala, JournaloftheAmericanPlanningAssociation,2015,81(4),pp.268-286doi: 10.1080/01944363.2015.1092879.
  17. 17. 20Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 20 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment ONSTREET
  18. 18. 21Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 21 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment SURFACE LOTS & STRUCTURES
  19. 19. 22Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 22 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment Cumulative Spaces 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Millions Residential Offstreet Non-Residential Offstreet Onstreet Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity for Urban Redevelopment? A Study of Los Angeles County Parking Supply and Growth, M Chester, A Fraser, J Matute, C Flower, and R Pendyala, Journal of the American Planning Association, 2015, 81(4), pp. 268-286 doi: 10.1080/01944363.2015.1092879. 18.6 million spaces  5.5 residential offstreet  9.6 million non-residential offsreet  3.6 million onstreet
  20. 20. 23Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 23 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment 14% of incorporated land area 1.4 times larger than roadway area
  21. 21. 24Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 24 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment Annual Space Additions 0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 1901 1906 1911 1916 1921 1926 1931 1936 1941 1946 1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 Residential Offstreet Non-Residential Offstreet Onstreet Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity for Urban Redevelopment? A Study of Los Angeles County Parking Supply and Growth, M Chester, A Fraser, J Matute, C Flower, and R Pendyala, Journal of the American Planning Association, 2015, 81(4), pp. 268-286 doi: 10.1080/01944363.2015.1092879.
  22. 22. 25Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 25 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment Growth Relative to Lane-Miles 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Total Non-Residential Offstreet VMT Lane-Miles Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity for Urban Redevelopment? A Study of Los Angeles County Parking Supply and Growth, M Chester, A Fraser, J Matute, C Flower, and R Pendyala, Journal of the American Planning Association, 2015, 81(4), pp. 268-286 doi: 10.1080/01944363.2015.1092879.
  23. 23. 26Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 26 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment Growth Relative to Vehicles 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Total Parking Spaces Residential Parking Spaces VMT Vehicles Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity for Urban Redevelopment? A Study of Los Angeles County Parking Supply and Growth, M Chester, A Fraser, J Matute, C Flower, and R Pendyala, Journal of the American Planning Association, 2015, 81(4), pp. 268-286 doi: 10.1080/01944363.2015.1092879.
  24. 24. 27Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 27 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity for Urban Redevelopment? A Study of Los Angeles County Parking Supply and Growth, M Chester, A Fraser, J Matute, C Flower, and R Pendyala, Journal of the American Planning Association, 2015, 81(4), pp. 268-286 doi: 10.1080/01944363.2015.1092879. Changes in Spaces: 1950-2010
  25. 25. 28Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 28 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment
  26. 26. 29Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 29 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment Coverage Factor
  27. 27. 30Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 30 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment Minimum parking standards have been a success at encouraging greater automobility and probably a failure at lower traffic congestion. Before 1975, vehicle adoption accelerated to fill residential offstreet spaces; after 1975 the vehicle to residential offstreet space ratio has hovered around unity.
  28. 28. 31Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 31 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment Even if minimum parking requirements are reduced or reformed, the extensive parking infrastructure is likely to work against policy initiatives to curb the use of the car, reduce auto congestion, increase transit usage, and address equity issues.
  29. 29. 32Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 32 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment However, there is likely to be a “drag” from existing parking infrastructure. The current parking infrastructure may substantially reduce the positive impacts of major parking reforms
  30. 30. 33Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 33 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment Transitioning Parking Infrastructure  Conversion of parking to housing, small business, industrial and commercial use, and recreational facilities.  Replace surface lots with buildings.  Conversion of parking structures to alternative uses.  Allow “bootlegged” apartments amnesty.  Focus parking reform on areas with high quality transit access.
  31. 31. 34Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 34 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment http://www.citylab.com/cityfixer/2015/10/where-la-is-losing-parking-lots-to-transit-development/410590/
  32. 32. mikhailchester mchester@asu.edu www.transportationlca.org
  33. 33. 36Mikhail Chester | Arizona State University | Slide 36 Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity Portland State University | 26 February 2016 for Urban Redevelopment References Environmental and Economic Consequences of Permanent Roadway Infrastructure Commitment: City Road Network Life-cycle Assessment and Los Angeles County, Andrew Fraser and Mikhail Chester, ASCE Journal of Infrastructure Systems, Expected 2016, Volume and Issue Forthcoming, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)IS.1943-555X.0000271. Parking Infrastructure: A Constraint on or Opportunity for Urban Redevelopment? A Study of Los Angeles County Parking Supply and Growth, Mikhail Chester, Andrew Fraser, Juan Matute, Carolyn Flower, and Ram Pendyala, Journal of the American Planning Association, 2015, 81(4), pp. 268-286 doi: 10.1080/01944363.2015.1092879. The Growth of Urban Building Stock: Unintended Lock -in and Embedded Environmental Effects, Janet Reyna and Mikhail Chester, Journal of Industrial Ecology, 2015, 19(4), pp. 524-537, doi: 10.1111/jiec.12211. Parking Infrastructure: Energy, Emissions, and Automobile Life-cycle Environmental Accounting, Mikhail Chester, Arpad Horvath, and Samer Madanat, Environmental Research Letters, 2010, 5(1), doi:10.1088/1748-9326/5/1/014003 Environmental Assessment of Passenger Transportation Should Include Infrastructure and Supply Chains, Mikhail Chester and Arpad Horvath, Environmental Research Letters, 2009, 4(2), doi:10.1088/1748-9326/4/2/024008

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