Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Natural Pozzolans in the Pacific Northwest and their Beneficial Uses

Matthew Sleep, Oregon Institute of Technology

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Natural Pozzolans in the Pacific Northwest and their Beneficial Uses

  1. 1. Natural Pozzolans in the Pacific Northwest and their Beneficial Uses May 19, 2020 Matthew Sleep, PhD
  2. 2. Thank you “Find good students and get out of their way” Steven Reed Justin Millar Morgan Masley Damien Matzen Civil Engineering – Oregon Institute of Technology Roger Lindgren – Chair Sean StClair – Former Chair Erin Cox Ashton Greer CJ Riley Pat Kile
  3. 3. Using volcanic ash from Mt. Mazama (Crater Lake) in various transportation applications to increase access sustainably.
  4. 4. Final Reports ADA Accessible Trail Improvement with Naturally Occurring, Sustainable Materials The Use of Mt. Mazama Volcanic Ash as Natural Pozzolans for Sustainable Soil and Unpaved Road Improvement
  5. 5. Outline • 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 Presentation Agenda The Location, Motivation and Process 01 § Motivation § Geology § Mt. Mazama § Process The Materials 02 § Chemical Properties § Mechanical Properties The Lab Testing – Volcanic Ash/Surface 03 § Chemical Analysis § Fineness § Strength Activity Index § Soil Mixing The - ADA Accessible Trail 04 § Guidelines § Pour testing § Field Implementation The Conclusions 05 § Where do we go from here?
  6. 6. The Motivation – NITC Mission INCREASE ACCESS TO OPPORTUNITIES IMPROVE MULTI-MODAL PLANNING & SHARED USE OF INFRASTRUCTURE ADVANCE INNOVATION & SMART CITIES DEVELOP DATA, MODELS & TOOLS 01 - The Location, Motivation and Process
  7. 7. The Motivation Sustainability – Keep it Local! http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=405678&section=4 Keep it Local! 01 - The Location, Motivation and Process
  8. 8. Why use a natural pozzolan? Streamlined Energy & Emissions Assessment Model (SEEAM) spreadsheet calculator – Developed at the Center for Geotechnical Practice and Research at Virginia Tech, SEEAM was designed specifically for geotechnical ground improvement projects in order to calculate total embodied energy and carbon dioxide emissions. 12 ft 1Mile 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Portland cement and fly ash (1) Portland cement, volcanic ash and lime (2) Portland cement (3) Volcanic ash and lime (4) Portland cement and volcanic ash (5) CO2Emissions(tonnes) 01 - The Location, Motivation and Process
  9. 9. Why use a natural pozzolan? Streamlined Energy & Emissions Assessment Model (SEEAM) spreadsheet calculator – Developed at the Center for Geotechnical Practice and Research at Virginia Tech, SEEAM was designed specifically for geotechnical ground improvement projects in order to calculate total embodied energy and carbon dioxide emissions. 12 ft 1Mile 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Portland cement and fly ash (1) Portland cement, volcanic ash and lime (2) Portland cement (3) Volcanic ash and lime (4) Portland cement and volcanic ash (5) CO2Emissions(tonnes) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Portland cement and fly ash (1) Portland cement, volcanic ash and lime (2) Portland cement (3) Volcanic ash and lime (4) Embodiedenergy(GJ) Portland cement and volcanic ash (5) 01 - The Location, Motivation and Process
  10. 10. CampusDrive(north/south) Campus Drive (east/west) “ The Location 01 - The Location, Motivation and Process
  11. 11. Mt. Mazama/Crater Lake National Park NPS 01 - The Location, Motivation and Process
  12. 12. Mt. Mazama https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/crater_lake/geo_hist_mazama.html 01 - The Location, Motivation and Process
  13. 13. Holocene pumice-fall deposits – East side of Crater Lake http://tonallandscape.com/adventures/cascademountains.htmlhttps://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/2832/data/sim2832_sheet1.pdf 01 - The Location, Motivation and Process
  14. 14. General outline of ‘pumice – airfall’ deposits http://tonallandscape.com/adventures/cascademountains.html https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YWjum21rQVQ 01 - The Location, Motivation and Process
  15. 15. General outline of ‘pumice – airfall’ deposits 01 - The Location, Motivation and Process Williams and Bacon 1988
  16. 16. Pumice Mining in Klamath County, OR 01 - The Location, Motivation and Process
  17. 17. The Pozzolanic Process – Natural pozzolans have been used for a long time Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (/vɪˈtruːviəs ˈpɒlioʊ/; c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC) De architectura (On architecture, published as Ten Books on Architecture) By Mark Pellegrini CC BY-SA 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=5616921 “Vitruvius specifies a ratio of 1 part lime to 3 parts pozzolana for cement used in buildings and a 1:2 ratio of lime to pozzolana for underwater work” 01 - The Location, Motivation and Process
  18. 18. The Pozzolanic Process – Natural pozzolans have been used for a long time – and continue to be used Texas DOT Study of pumice and volcanic ash - in addition to other materials Fly ash replacement 01 - The Location, Motivation and Process
  19. 19. The Pozzolanic Process – What is a pozzolan? (Natural Pozzolan Association) Pozzolan is defined in ACI 116R as: “…a siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material, which in itself possesses little or no cementitious value but will, in finely divided form and in the presence of moisture, chemically react with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperatures to form compounds possessing cementitious properties.” Reduce Heat of Hydration Damage and Escalate Strength Inoculate Against Chemical Attacks Fortify Resistivity Mitigate ASR Stop Efflorescence Healthy and Safe Reduces the Carbon Footprint 01 - The Location, Motivation and Process
  20. 20. The Pozzolanic Process – What is a pozzolan? (Natural Pozzolan Association) 01 - The Location, Motivation and Process
  21. 21. The Materials - Collection 5 mi Limits of Walker 1951 Study Crater Lake Pumice Flow Contours of Airfall Pumice Thickness N 5' 0.5' Material Collection ‘A’ Material Collection ‘B’ 02 – The Materials
  22. 22. The Materials - Collection 5 mi Limits of Walker 1951 Study Crater Lake Pumice Flow Contours of Airfall Pumice Thickness N 5' 0.5' Material Collection ‘A’ Material Collection ‘B’ 02 – The Materials
  23. 23. The Materials - Properties ASTM Tests 1. Chemical Criteria 2. Fineness 3. Strength Activity Index 02 – The Materials
  24. 24. The Materials – Properties - Chemical Chemical Requirements of Natural Pozzolans ASTM C618 Mt. Mazama Ash Results Class Sample 1 (%) Sample 2 (%)N AL2O3, Fe2O3, SiO2 (%), min% 70.00 90.08 89.71 Sulfur Trioxide (SO3), max % 4.00 0.01 0.03 Loss on Ignition, Max % 10.00 2.14 2.08 Chemical composition Mt. Mazama Ash (%) Fly Ash (%) Lime (%) SiO2 65.8 >70Al2O3 18.8 Fe2O3 4.4 CaO 3.4 >80 MgO 1.5 <5 SO3 0.0 <5 Compound Average % ASTM Class N ASTM Class F SiO2 65.81 Al2O3 18.75 Fe2O3 4.4 CaO 3.42 MgO 1.45 SO3 -0.01 4.00% max 5.00% max Na2O 3.2 K2O 1.98 TiO2 0.63 P2O5 0.11 Mn2O3 0.08 Loss on ignition 2.06 10.00% max 6.00%max Total Alkali 4.51 N/A N/A N/A 70.00% min 02 – The Materials
  25. 25. The Materials - Strength https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/infrastructure/structures/06103/chapt3.cfm 02 – The Materials
  26. 26. The Materials – Strength Activity Index CompressiveStrength(Mpa) ~28% Increase ~54% Increase ~17% Increase ~26% Increase 02 – The Materials
  27. 27. The Materials – Fineness Natural material Difference to ASTM Min % % finer No. 325 17% 49% Crushed material – Through crusher % finer No. 325 58% 8% ASTM C618 requirements Min % finer No. 325 66% 0% 02 – The Materials
  28. 28. The Lab Tests – Modified SAI – Different Materials and Extended Test Time to 84 Days Alternative mixes to study cementitious and pozzolanic behavior: 1. Reduction of portland cement 2. Lime 3. Oyster shells 4. Lime and portland cement 5. Oyster shells and portland cement 6. ‘Cooked’ oyster shells 02 – The Materials
  29. 29. The Lab Tests – Modified SAI – Further reductions in PC 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 CompressiveStrength(psi) Ratio of Volcanic Ash to Portland Cement 7 21 28 42 56 70 84 Sample Age (days) 02 – The Materials
  30. 30. The Lab Tests – Modified SAIOPC-2 Powdered oyster shell and portland cement 70.0 131.3 150.0 OPC-3 Powdered oyster shell and portland cement 60.0 112.6 200.0 RC-0 Cooked powdered oyster shell 0.0 213.4 0.0 RC-1 Cooked powdered oyster shell 0.0 170.8 100.0 RC-2 Cooked powdered oyster shell 0.0 149.4 150.0 RC-3 Cooked powdered oyster shell 0.0 128.1 200.0 Portland Cement (g) Oyster Shell (g) Volcanic Ash (g) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0 20 40 60 80 100 Unconfinedcompressivestrength (psi) Cure time (days) RC-0 RC-1 RC-2 RC-3 https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/infrastructure/structures/06103/chapt3.cfm 02 – The Materials
  31. 31. The Lab Tests – Improving Surfaces 1. Organic soils 2. Dust abatement of gravel 3. Unpaved trails 03 - The Lab Testing – Volcanic Ash/Surface
  32. 32. Wood River Wetland North South Agency Lake Wood River Levee/Access Road The Lab Tests – Improving Surfaces – Organic Soil 03 - The Lab Testing – Volcanic Ash/Surface
  33. 33. The Lab Tests – Improving Surfaces – Organic Soil 03 - The Lab Testing – Volcanic Ash/Surface Replacement at 5, 10 and 15% with • Fly Ash • Volcanic Ash • Lime • Lime and Volcanic Ash • Portland Cement
  34. 34. 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 5FA 5M 5L 5M L 5PC 10FA 10M 10L10M L 10PC 15FA 15M 15L15M L 15PC CompressiveStrength(psi) Soil Sample 7 Day 28 Day Average soil strength with no additives The Lab Tests 03 - The Lab Testing
  35. 35. The Lab Tests – Improving Surfaces – Organic Soil 03 - The Lab Testing Correlation Coefficients 7 Day 28 Day Fly Ash 0.56 0.40 Mt. Mazama Ash 0.63 0.24 Portland Cement 1.86 2.24 Lime 1.58 1.36 Mt. Mazama and Lime 1.18 0.60
  36. 36. The Lab Tests – Improving Surfaces – Dust Abatement 03 - The Lab Testing – Volcanic Ash/Surface 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 PC Average PL Average PPL Average Control PercentfinerthanNo.200sieve Sample ~45% ~78% Arenadust.com Portland Cement Lime/Ash Lime/Ash/Portland Cement
  37. 37. CampusDrive(north/south) Campus Drive (east/we st) “ • Trails are considered transportation facilities. • All must be accessible, mandated by the federal Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 – Some exclusions may apply • This applies to new trail AND any undergoing ‘rehabilitation’ • Access Characteristics • Grade • Cross-Slope • Width • Passing Space • Vertical Clearance • Changes in Level • Gaps • Obstacles • Surface The ADA Accessible Trail - Guidelines 04 – The ADA Accessible Trial
  38. 38. Beneficial Designs Resists Deformation Resists Movement Frictional Counterforce The ADA Accessible Trail - Guidelines 04 – The ADA Accessible Trial
  39. 39. The ADA Accessible Trail - Guidelines 04 – The ADA Accessible Trial
  40. 40. • 7 Different gradations tested (3/4” minus to ¼” max aggregate size) • 3 Different water contents • 6 different ratios of volcanic ash to portland cement • 3 separate commercially available stabilizers • No significant, predictable relationship between the aggregate gradations tested and bound material The ADA Accessible Trail – Pour Tests 04 – The ADA Accessible Trial – Penetration testing of slurry mixes
  41. 41. The ADA Accessible Trail – Field Application 04 – The ADA Accessible Trial – Field application Section Designation Cementitious Mix Applied Lot 1 70/175 Lot 2 50/175 Lot 3 50/150 Lot 4 Klingstone Amber Lot 5 G3 Soil Stabilizer Lot 6 SoilTac 30% Dilution Lot 7 50/125 Lot 8 60/125 Lot 9 60/150 Lot 10 60/175 Lot 11 70/125 Lot 12 70/150
  42. 42. The ADA Accessible Trail – Field Application 04 – The ADA Accessible Trial – Field Application Section Designation Cementitious Mix Applied Lot 1 70/175 Lot 2 50/175 Lot 3 50/150 Lot 4 Klingstone Amber Lot 5 G3 Soil Stabilizer Lot 6 SoilTac 30% Dilution Lot 7 50/125 Lot 8 60/125 Lot 9 60/150 Lot 10 60/175 Lot 11 70/125 Lot 12 70/150 Average Percent Increase after 70 Days Lot# Mix designation Firmness Stability 1 70/175 -5.6% -2.6% 2 50/175 5.2% 5.2% 3 50/150 15.9% 15.6% 4 Klingstone -12.6% 53.1% 5 G3 -3.5% 51.5% 6 SoilTac 6.4% 53.3% 7 50/125 -4.2% 3.6% 8 60/125 16.8% 17.3% 9 60/150 4.9% 4.4% 10 60/175 -4.9% -4.3% 11 70/125 7.2% 0.1% 12 70/150 -0.6% 5.1%
  43. 43. The ADA Accessible Trail – Field Application 04 – The ADA Accessible Trial – Field Application Treated SurfacesUntreated Surfaces Statistically significant higher variability between firmness and stability when a surface is treated with a binder
  44. 44. Mt. Mazama Volcanic Ash • Mt. Mazama volcanic ash is found across Southern Oregon and is being mined at several locations for pumice aggregate • Chemically, Mt. Mazama volcanic ash classifies as a natural pozzolan • Strength testing indicates that Mt. Mazama volcanic ash produces a pozzolanic reaction • The pozzolanic reaction is higher, in terms of strength gain, when the material is processed into smaller particles • Mortar cubes created with processed Mt. Mazama volcanic ash showed significant (17%) increases in strength between curing at 42 and 84 days
  45. 45. Mt. Mazama ash and unconfined compressive strength 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 CompressiveStrength(psi) Ratio of Volcanic Ash to Portland Cement 7 21 28 42 56 70 84 Sample Age (days)
  46. 46. Mt. Mazama volcanic ash and ADA accessible trail stabilization • No predictable method was found in this study to determine penetration depth and percentage based on easily identifiable aggregate properties • In terms of stability, positive and negative changes with time were experienced for the portland cement and volcanic ash treated lots. • Negative, or decreases, in stability with time were shown in the commercially treated lots.
  47. 47. Thank you

×