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Toward a Spatial-Temporal Measure of
Land Use Mix
Steven R. Gehrke
Kelly J. Clifton, PhD
Civil & Environmental Engineering...
2
Presentation Outline
I. Background: Research Context, Motivation, & Element Introduction
II. Land Use Mix: Strategies & ...
3
Background
Toward a Spatial-Temporal Measureof Land Use Mix
4
Research Context
Urban policies encouraging active travel, reducing auto dependence, and
mitigating peak hour travel are...
5
Benefits of Land Use Mix
Transportation
• Reduce auto travel, auto ownership, & emissions production
• Induce rideshare ...
6
Research Motivation
Problem
• Despite purported benefits, practice remains guided by limited theory and empirical
eviden...
7
Land Use Mix Elements
Land Use Interaction
• Quantification of complementary activities
• Proximity of synergisticactivi...
8
Land Use Mix
Land Use Mix and Travel Behavior
Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availabili...
9
Land Use Interaction
Toward a Spatial-Temporal Measureof Land Use Mix
10
La nd Use M i x E l ement:
Land Use Interaction
Accessibility Measures
• Distance-based
Intensity Measures Pattern Meas...
11
La nd Use I nteraction:
Pattern Measures
Config ura tion Com plex ity
CompositionComplexity
Background | Land Use Inter...
12
La nd Use I nteraction:
Conceptual and Methodological Concerns
Conceptual Concerns
• Limited consideration toward funct...
13
Geographic Scale
Toward a Spatial-Temporal Measureof Land Use Mix
14
La nd Use M i x E l ement:
Geographic Scale
• Administrative
• Statistical
• Artificial
• Areal Buffer
• Network Buffer...
15
G eographic Sc ale:
Conceptual and Methodological Concerns
Conceptual Concerns
• Single operationalization strategy sel...
16
Temporal Availability
Toward a Spatial-Temporal Measureof Land Use Mix
17
Neighborhood-Level Site-Level
Te mporal A v ailability:
Representing Temporal Availability
S TAT IC
Entropy = 0.73 Avai...
18
Neighborhood-Level Site-Level
Te mporal A v ailability:
Representing Temporal Availability
12am – 6am
Entropy = 0.25 Av...
19
Neighborhood-Level Site-Level
Te mporal A v ailability:
Representing Temporal Availability
6am – 6pm
Entropy = 0.48 Ava...
20
Neighborhood-Level Site-Level
Te mporal A v ailability:
Representing Temporal Availability
6pm – 12am
Entropy = 0.38 Av...
21
Te mporal A v ailability:
Representing Temporal Availability
Known Temporal Availability
• Stated opening hours at whic...
22
Conclusions
Toward a Spatial-Temporal Measureof Land Use Mix
23
Measurement Synthesis
Land Use Mix
Element
Level of Operational Complexity
Low Moderate High
Land Use
Interaction
Class...
24
Measurement Synthesis
Land Use Mix
Element
Level of Operational Complexity
Low Moderate High
Land Use
Interaction
Class...
25
Research Implications
Guide Transportation-Land Use Policies
• Provide empirical measure to define neighborhoods along ...
26
Preliminary Research
Element 1: Land Use Interaction
Gehrke, S.R. & Clifton, K.J. A structural equationmodeling approac...
27
Thank you. Questions?
Steven R. Gehrke sgehrke@pdx.edu
Kelly J. Clifton kclifton@pdx.edu
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Gehrke Slides, 01-23-2015

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Steven Gehrke, GRA in civil and environmental engineering, Portland State University

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Gehrke Slides, 01-23-2015

  1. 1. Toward a Spatial-Temporal Measure of Land Use Mix Steven R. Gehrke Kelly J. Clifton, PhD Civil & Environmental Engineering Portland State University Winter 2015 Friday Transportation Seminar Series | January 23rd, 2015
  2. 2. 2 Presentation Outline I. Background: Research Context, Motivation, & Element Introduction II. Land Use Mix: Strategies & Shortcomings in Element Representation III. Conclusions: Element Synthesis & Research Implications Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availability | Conclusions
  3. 3. 3 Background Toward a Spatial-Temporal Measureof Land Use Mix
  4. 4. 4 Research Context Urban policies encouraging active travel, reducing auto dependence, and mitigating peak hour travel are often rooted in growth management strategies Mixed use development improves built environment efficiencies and increases local accessibility to out-of-home activity locations Variety of metrics established to evaluate effectiveness of mixed use policies in relation to travel Research of interest to urban planning and public health fields Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availability | Conclusions
  5. 5. 5 Benefits of Land Use Mix Transportation • Reduce auto travel, auto ownership, & emissions production • Induce rideshare and shared parking opportunities • Distribute travel demand across the day and week • Promote transit and active travel mode choice Public Health • Locate variety of opportunities in close proximity • Heighten visible interest in built environment • Increase propensity for physical activity • Positive implications for physical and mental health Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availability | Conclusions
  6. 6. 6 Research Motivation Problem • Despite purported benefits, practice remains guided by limited theory and empirical evidence to substantiateland use mix as a construct impactingtravel behavior Objectives • Summarize current approaches to measuring land use mix, identify inherent limitations, and propose a research agenda • Provide research and practice with an improved theoretical and empirical understanding of the influence of land use mix on active travel behavior • Develop a land use mix measure(s) reflecting these behavioral relationships that may be used to better inform time-sensitive transportation-land use policies Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availability | Conclusions
  7. 7. 7 Land Use Mix Elements Land Use Interaction • Quantification of complementary activities • Proximity of synergisticactivity locations has implications regarding viability of active travel Geographic Scale • Spatial boundary selected to measure extent of land use interaction • Scale for representing built environment has influence on modeling determinants of travel Temporal Availability • Opportunity to access activity location (or land use) at a specific time • Availability of activity locations has consequences for transportation-land use forecasts Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availability | Conclusions
  8. 8. 8 Land Use Mix Land Use Mix and Travel Behavior Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availability | Conclusions Demographics Travel Behavior Contextual Factors Land Use Interaction Geographic Scale Temporal Availability Built Environment
  9. 9. 9 Land Use Interaction Toward a Spatial-Temporal Measureof Land Use Mix
  10. 10. 10 La nd Use M i x E l ement: Land Use Interaction Accessibility Measures • Distance-based Intensity Measures Pattern Measures • Count-based • Percent-based • Composition • Configuration 0.25 miles 1 2.5 % Entropy 0.73 ? ? ? Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availability | Conclusions
  11. 11. 11 La nd Use I nteraction: Pattern Measures Config ura tion Com plex ity CompositionComplexity Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availability | Conclusions
  12. 12. 12 La nd Use I nteraction: Conceptual and Methodological Concerns Conceptual Concerns • Limited consideration toward functional complementarityof land use types • Ideal level of mixing often represented as equal distribution of land use types • Insufficient attemptsto link land use types with primary trip/tour purpose Methodological Concerns • Variety of land use typologies linking mix to different travel purposes • Absence of spatial configuration as pattern measure • Trip segment rather than tour-level analysis Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availability | Conclusions
  13. 13. 13 Geographic Scale Toward a Spatial-Temporal Measureof Land Use Mix
  14. 14. 14 La nd Use M i x E l ement: Geographic Scale • Administrative • Statistical • Artificial • Areal Buffer • Network Buffer • Activity Space • Mental Maps Fixed Scale: Statistical Sliding Scale: Areal Buffer Fixed Scales Sliding Scales Perceptive Scales Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availability | Conclusions
  15. 15. 15 G eographic Sc ale: Conceptual and Methodological Concerns Conceptual Concerns • Single operationalization strategy selected for all travel modes • Single spatial extent selected for all travel purposes Methodological Concerns • Measure mix at single trip end for all travel purposes • Insufficient attention to mix at both local and regional scales • Spatial extents for sliding scales rely solely on distance as impedance factor • Modifiable Areal Unit Problem • Uncertain Geographic Context Problem Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availability | Conclusions
  16. 16. 16 Temporal Availability Toward a Spatial-Temporal Measureof Land Use Mix
  17. 17. 17 Neighborhood-Level Site-Level Te mporal A v ailability: Representing Temporal Availability S TAT IC Entropy = 0.73 Available Land Use = School Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availability | Conclusions
  18. 18. 18 Neighborhood-Level Site-Level Te mporal A v ailability: Representing Temporal Availability 12am – 6am Entropy = 0.25 Available Land Use = None Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availability | Conclusions
  19. 19. 19 Neighborhood-Level Site-Level Te mporal A v ailability: Representing Temporal Availability 6am – 6pm Entropy = 0.48 Available Land Use = School Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availability | Conclusions
  20. 20. 20 Neighborhood-Level Site-Level Te mporal A v ailability: Representing Temporal Availability 6pm – 12am Entropy = 0.38 Available Land Use = Community Center Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availability | Conclusions
  21. 21. 21 Te mporal A v ailability: Representing Temporal Availability Known Temporal Availability • Stated opening hours at which activity locations may be accessed Assumed Temporal Availability • Fixed assignment of opening hours for all activity locations of a similar regime Activity-related Temporal Availability • Imputed assignment of opening hours based on revealed activity participation Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availability | Conclusions
  22. 22. 22 Conclusions Toward a Spatial-Temporal Measureof Land Use Mix
  23. 23. 23 Measurement Synthesis Land Use Mix Element Level of Operational Complexity Low Moderate High Land Use Interaction Classification Accessibility Intensity Pattern Strategies • Distance-based • Count-based • Composition • Percent-based • Configuration Geographic Scale Classification Fixed Sliding Perceptive Strategies • Administrative • Areal Buffer • MentalMap • Statistical • Network Buffer • Artificial • Activity Space Temporal Availability Classification Known Assumed Activity-related Strategies • Stated Hours • Assigned Hours • Imputed Hours Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availability | Conclusions
  24. 24. 24 Measurement Synthesis Land Use Mix Element Level of Operational Complexity Low Moderate High Land Use Interaction Classification Accessibility Intensity Pattern Strategies • Distance-based • Count-based • Composition • Percent-based • Configuration Geographic Scale Classification Fixed Sliding Perceptive Strategies • Administrative • Areal Buffer • MentalMap • Statistical • Network Buffer • Artificial • Activity Space Temporal Availability Classification Known Assumed Activity-related Strategies • Stated Hours • Assigned Hours • Imputed Hours Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availability | Conclusions
  25. 25. 25 Research Implications Guide Transportation-Land Use Policies • Provide empirical measure to define neighborhoods along an activity spectrum • Identify travel outcomesanticipated for new mixed-use and neighborhood infill projects • Potential to guide other innovative policies related to: (1) downtown activity and business retention (2) liberalization of opening hours (3) multipurpose shared spaces (4) shared parking arrangements Provide travel demand modeling research a spatial-temporal mix measure • Link activity opening hours to land use availability when specifying pattern measures • Temporally-static measures likely underestimatetrue extent of land use mixing Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availability | Conclusions
  26. 26. 26 Preliminary Research Element 1: Land Use Interaction Gehrke, S.R. & Clifton, K.J. A structural equationmodeling approachto examine the relationshipbetween land use mix and walking. Lectern presentationat Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning Annual Conference, Philadelphia,PA, Oct. 31, 2014. Element 2: Geographic Scale Gehrke, S.R. & Clifton, K.J. Operationalizingland use diversity at varying geographic scales and its connection to mode choice: Evidence from Portland, Oregon. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. (forthcoming). Element 3: Temporal Availability Gehrke, S.R. & Clifton, K.J. Towarda spatial-temporal measureof land use mix. Journal of Transport and Land Use. (forthcoming). Background | Land Use Interaction | Geographic Scale | Temporal Availability | Conclusions
  27. 27. 27 Thank you. Questions? Steven R. Gehrke sgehrke@pdx.edu Kelly J. Clifton kclifton@pdx.edu

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