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Exploring the Positive Utility of Travel and Mode Choice

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Patrick Singleton, Portland State University Civil & Environmental Engineering

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Exploring the Positive Utility of Travel and Mode Choice

  1. 1. Exploring the positive utility of travel and mode choice Patrick A. Singleton Portland State University TREC FridayTransportation Seminar 24 February 2017 Maseeh College of Engineering & Computer Science Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering
  2. 2. Positive utility of travel • Research questions • Background • Study design & data • Results • Implications Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 2 https://www.google.com/selfdrivingcar/images/gallery/prototype-early.jpg
  3. 3. Research questions A. What is the positive utility of travel (PUT)? – Literature review, synthesis, critique B. How do we measure PUT? – Original survey data collection C. What factors are associated with PUT? – Results for mode of transportation Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 3
  4. 4. Background Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 4 Travel demand Activity demand Travel as a disutility– Generation Distribution Mode Choice Assignment Demand Model Extrinsic (instrumental) vs. intrinsic (autotelic) Hedonic (affective) vs. eudaimonic (symbolic) Motivations Utility pleasure, happiness, fulfillment, and subjective well-being Psychology: associated with outcome of preference- satisfying decision Economics:
  5. 5. Definition Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 5 Mokhtarian & Salomon’s (2001) “affinity for travel” 1. The activities conducted at the destination. 2. The activities that can be conducted while traveling. 3. The activity of traveling itself. The positive utility of travel (PUT) includes… any benefits accrued to the traveler through the act of traveling. Mokhtarian, P. L., & Salomon, I. (2001). How derived is the demand for travel? Some conceptual and measurement considerations. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 35(8), 695-719. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0965-8564(00)00013-6
  6. 6. Destination activities Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 6 Travel as… A means to a productive end: going somewhere. Definition: Benefits from reaching a destination with activity potential. Motivations: Extrinsic, instrumental. “The activities conducted at the destination.” (MS, 2001) Examples: https://www.flickr.com/photos/scottdavies/5671889074/ https://www.flickr.com/photos/krawcowicz/4279213591/
  7. 7. Travel activities Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 7 Travel as… The setting for other activities. Definition: Benefits from activity participation during travel. Motivations: Extrinsic, instrumental. “The activities that can be conducted while traveling.” (MS, 2001) Examples: https://www.flickr.com/photos/giuseppemilo/15734343208/ https://www.flickr.com/photos/ai-dealer/4616142327/
  8. 8. Travel experiences Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 8 Definition: Affective enjoyment of the travel experience. Symbolic expression or fulfillment from the travel experience. Travel as the activity. Travel as… The setting for experiences. A means to a fulfilling end. An end in and of itself. Examples: “The activity of traveling itself.” (MS, 2001) Motivations: Hedonic, affective. Eudaimonic, symbolic. Intrinsic, autotelic. https://www.flickr.com/photos/aerialcamera/10238940444/https://www.flickr.com/photos/divinedecay/5225460351/
  9. 9. Study Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 9 3 2 1
  10. 10. Data Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 10 ≈ 30 minutes ten $100 gift cards Home- to-work trips
  11. 11. Data Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 11 371 114175 30 Commute trips by mode, & mode shares (N = 690) 49% 16%30% 4% Survey dates: October 17, 2016 – December 16, 2016 2015 ACS (1-year): Portland urban area Portland city 83% 70% 8% 14% 3% 8% 4% 6%
  12. 12. Results • Can we measure a positive utility of travel? – Yes, in various ways: • Travel-based multitasking • Travel experiences & well-being • What factors are associated with PUT? – Commute mode • Walking and cycling commutes are more positive • Transit and auto commutes are less positive Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 12
  13. 13. Travel multitasking Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 13
  14. 14. Travel multitasking Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 14
  15. 15. Travel multitasking Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 15
  16. 16. Travel multitasking Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 16
  17. 17. Travel multitasking Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 17
  18. 18. Travel experiences Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 18
  19. 19. Travel experiences Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 19
  20. 20. Travel experiences Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 20
  21. 21. Travel experiences Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 21
  22. 22. Travel experiences Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 22
  23. 23. Travel experiences Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 23
  24. 24. Travel experiences Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 24
  25. 25. Travel experiences Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 25
  26. 26. Travel experiences Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 26
  27. 27. Findings • Positive utility of travel… – Exists and can be measured! – Strongest for walking & bicycling, because: • Valuing exercise, physical and mental health – Moderate for public transit, because: • Ability to relax and/or multitask – Weakest for automobile, because: • Few activities; some negative affect (congestion?) Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 27 * Preliminary findings. Additional analyses use multivariate models to statistically control for other explanatory factors. *
  28. 28. Implications Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 28 https://www.google.com/selfdrivingcar/images/gallery/prototype-early.jpg http://www.techrepublic.com/article/ces-2016-carmakers-kick- off-the-year-with-big-moves-in-autonomous-vehicles/ https://hypebeast.com/2016/12/uber-san-francisco-autonomous-cars Autonomous vehicles (self-driving cars)
  29. 29. Implications Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 29 Value of travel time savings  Cost-benefit analysis Mode Choice Activity Experience Improving quality of service
  30. 30. Questions? Background – Positive Utility ofTravel – Study – Results – Implications 30 Patrick A. Singleton patrick.singleton@pdx.edu

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