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Examining the Effects of Bike Share and Rail Transit Integration in the United States


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David Soto Padin, Graduate Research Assistant at Portland State University

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Examining the Effects of Bike Share and Rail Transit Integration in the United States

  1. 1. BIKESHARE AND RAIL TRANSIT INTEGRATION IN THE UNITED STATES Friday Transportation Seminar Portland State University June 1, 2018 David Soto Padín
  2. 2. AGENDA ➤ Introduction ➤ research Question ➤ Literature review ➤ Methodology ➤ Model results ➤ Potential Applications ➤ Conclusion
  3. 3. KEY TERMINOLOGY & ACRONYMS ➤ Station ➤ Docks ➤ Bikeshare ➤ rapid rail transit ➤ NACTO
  4. 4. ABOUT THE PRESENTER ➤ BSCE from University of Puerto rico Mayagüez ➤ MSCE Candidate at Portland State University ➤ Interest in sustainable and shared mobility ➤ Experience in complete streets planning and design ➤ Experienced bikeshare for the first time on a trip to the Transportation research Board Annual Meeting in 2012 ➤ Last summer experienced the OV Fiets public bicycle system in the Netherlands as part of IBPI-PSU Study Abroad
  6. 6. WHAT IS BIKE + RIDE? ➤ A journey that integrates bicycle and rail-based means of transportation Types of Bicycle + Rail Transit Integration Bicycle Parking Bicycle paths Bikes on Trains Bike-share
  7. 7. EXAMPLES OF BIKE+RAIL TRANSIT INTEGRATION Case region Bike Mode Share Bike first mile to commuter rail from home Utrecht, Netherlands 51.0% Bike last mile to workplace from rail station Minneapolis 5.0% Bike in one direction and take bike on train due to inclement weather Portland, Oregon 7.0% Use bikeshare in the event of rail service disruption Washington, DC 4.1% WORK Destination station Origin station HOME First mile Last mile
  8. 8. RESEARCH QUESTION AND JUSTIFICATION ➤ Does bike-share influence entries at heavy and light rail transit stations?
  9. 9. JUSTIFICATION • Develop a robust model of bikeshare and transit integration outcomes. • Give practitioners and transit agencies the tools to quantify bikeshare impacts. • Making the case for bikeshare at transit stations. FOCUS • Dock-based bikeshare systems • Only rapid rail heavy and light rail systems • Excluding commuter rail and streetcar systems
  10. 10. LITERATURE REVIEW Author Type Findings Villwock-Witte and van Grol (2015) Case Study • Upwards of 10% of program participants shifted vehicle trips to train-bicycle combined trips; meanwhile, transit-bicycle users increased from 30% of riders to 50% of riders Ma and Liu (2015) Paper • The highest bike share ridership occurred at locations close to Metro stations • estimated that a 10% increase in bike share trips would have a direct impact on transit ridership Martin and Shaheen (2014) Paper • In areas of lower density, often outside city cores, bike share users are inclined to use the service to access transit, and in high-density cores, bike share may serve as an alternative to transit Singleton and Clifton (2013) Paper • Bicycle and transit modes are short-term substitutes • Transit ridership leads growth in cycling NACTO Bike Share Station Siting Guide Guide • Stations should be placed in locations that are clearly visible from multiple approaches, in full consideration of the necessary space requirements and circulation to and around the station. FTA Report 0111 Synthesis • The ability to access transit by using bike share can expand the reach of transit, and the ability to substitute transit trips with bike share (and vice versa) gives users options and redundancy that can be particularly useful in times of service outages, between scheduled service, and in varying weather conditions.
  13. 13. CITIES CONSIDERED IN THE STUDY CITY POPULATION RIDERSHIP STATIONS SYSTEM LENGTH BIKESHARE TRIPS BIKESHARE STATIONS TYPE Boston 4,836,531 167,167,900 62 78 1,313,174 200 Chicago 9,533,040 230,204,200 144 102.8 3,829,014 585 Washington, DC 6,131,977 229,595,700 91 117 3,757,777 487 Denver 2,888,227 24,871,200 58 58.5 419,612 96 Los Angeles 13,353,907 112,782,300 95 105 229,255 126 Minneapolis 3,600,618 23,811,200 37 23 266,674 202 New York City 20,320,876 2,669,536,300 431 245 16,364,657 799 Portland 2,453,168 49,173,700 97 60 311,206 141 Philadelphia 6,096,120 102,611,100 63 50.9 788,907 107 San Francisco 4,727,357 129,268,100 45 109 519,700 272
  14. 14. DATA COLLECTION: MODEL 1 TYPE CATEGORY DESCRIPTION SOURCE Dependent Boardings Average Weekday Boardings Transit Agencies 0.33-mile buffer Socioeconomics Income American Community Survey 5-year estimates (2012-16) Built Environment Accessibility Accessibility Observatory (2016) Built Environment Density Smart Location Database (2012) 0.1-mile buffer Bikeshare System Average Weekday Trips, Supply of Facilities Bikeshare Operators (2016) Bicycle Facilities Supply of bike lanes (in miles) City, County, and Metro Area GIS Departments Transit System Station-level Characteristics Number of rail rapid transit lines, transfer points Transit Agencies, Apple Maps City System-level Charasteristics MSA Population, Annual ridership US Census, Transit Agencies (2016)
  20. 20. MODEL RESULTS VARIABLE FULL MODEL PARSIMONIOUS MODEL Constant -6.659 -7,892 Heavy Rail flag 20.13*** 1,467 Percent Working Age Pop. 33.02*** - Household Density -271.6 - Activity Density 271.6 4.528*** Intersection Density -3.003E-03* - Count of Bikeshare Docks 0.37*** 63.16*** Presence of Bikeshare Flag -8.182*** - Commuter rail transfer flag 18.57*** 5,485*** Number of rapid rail lines 16.60 5,350*** Median Household Income 5.208E-05*** - MSA Population 2.075E-07*** - Rapid Rail System Ridership 2.642E-01*** 1.255E-06*** Percent Non-white Pop. 1.458E-01*** 4,070***
  21. 21. CONCLUSION
  22. 22. CONCLUSION ➤ Bikeshare systems have demostrated to have an effect on transit ridership, even after controlling for socioeconomic, built environment, and other transit-related variables ➤ Public policy to support technical activities related to bikeshare system planning for transit agencies POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS ➤ Estimating the impact of expanding bikeshare to satellite urban centers along rapid rail transit systems ➤ Estimating the number of docks needed at transit stations
  23. 23. THANK YOU