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Cycling by choice or necessity?
Exploring the gender gap
in bicycling in Oregon
Patrick Singleton &Tara Goddard
Portland S...
Gender gap in bicycling
2Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion
Pucher,J.,andR.Buehler.Makingcycli...
Gender gap in bicycling
3Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion
Garrard,J.,S.Handy,andJ.Dill.Women...
Gender gap in bicycling
• Goal: to understand bicycling’s gender gap
• Importance of closing gender gap
– Health
– Well-be...
Gender gap in bicycling
• Explanations
– Bicycle facility preferences & safety perceptions
– Household responsibilities & ...
Gender gap in bicycling
• Our hypotheses
– Household maintenance responsibilities:
• Women with children  ↓ bicycling
• W...
Method & data
• Method
– Travel behavior: cross-sectional, one-day
– Bicycle use by gender across demographic and
househol...
Method & data
• Data
– One-day,
household-based,
travel diary survey
– Weighted
– 30,090 adults
(age 18+)
Gender gap in bi...
Method & data
• Bivariate analysis
– Pearson’s chi-squared tests of independence,
two-way contingency tables
Gender gap in...
Results
Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion 10
1.5%
4.1%
3.3%
2.9%
6.2%
2.1%
3.0%
3.8%
7.9%
7.3...
Results
Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion 11
Percentage of bicyclists by gender for socioecon...
Results
Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion 12
Percentage of bicyclists by gender for mobility ...
Results
Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion 13
Percentage of bicyclists by gender for trip and ...
Discussion
• Women, household roles, and bicycling
– Household maintenance trip-making;
time spent on maintenance activiti...
Discussion
• Bicycling as a choice
– Women with more economic means and
mobility options were more likely to bicycle:
• ↑ ...
Discussion
• Potential policy implications
– Target low-bicycling women:
• Living alone or in single adult HH, < HS educat...
Discussion
• Future work
– Multivariate model of bicycling
(gender × other variables)
– Multi-day travel survey, longitudi...
Questions?
Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion 18
Patrick Singleton patrick.singleton@pdx.edu
T...
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Cycling by choice or necessity? Exploring the gender gap in bicycling in Oregon

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Patrick Singleton and Tara Goddard, Portland State University

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Cycling by choice or necessity? Exploring the gender gap in bicycling in Oregon

  1. 1. Cycling by choice or necessity? Exploring the gender gap in bicycling in Oregon Patrick Singleton &Tara Goddard Portland State University FridayTransportation Seminar Series 29 January 2016 | Portland, OR
  2. 2. Gender gap in bicycling 2Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion Pucher,J.,andR.Buehler.Makingcyclingirresistible:Lessonsfromthe Netherlands,DenmarkandGermany.TransportReviews,Vol.28,No. 4,2008,pp.495–528.
  3. 3. Gender gap in bicycling 3Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion Garrard,J.,S.Handy,andJ.Dill.Womenandcycling.InJ.PucherandR. Buehler(Eds.),CityCycling(pp.211–234).TheMITPress,Cambridge, MA,2012.
  4. 4. Gender gap in bicycling • Goal: to understand bicycling’s gender gap • Importance of closing gender gap – Health – Well-being – Access to jobs, services, and community 4Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion
  5. 5. Gender gap in bicycling • Explanations – Bicycle facility preferences & safety perceptions – Household responsibilities & time constraints – Social normative gender roles Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion 5 https://www.flickr.com/photos/krawcowicz/4279213591/ https://www.flickr.com/photos/bike/196792901
  6. 6. Gender gap in bicycling • Our hypotheses – Household maintenance responsibilities: • Women with children  ↓ bicycling • Women with maintenance activities  ↓ bicycling • Single women  ↑ bicycling – Limited means and mobility options: • Low-income women  ↑ bicycling • Women with ↓ vehicles  ↑ bicycling Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion 6
  7. 7. Method & data • Method – Travel behavior: cross-sectional, one-day – Bicycle use by gender across demographic and household variables – For any characteristic, looked for reduced or increased gender gap in bicycling – Suggest possible interventions; or identify target populations for interventions Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion 7
  8. 8. Method & data • Data – One-day, household-based, travel diary survey – Weighted – 30,090 adults (age 18+) Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion 8 Oregon Household Activity Survey (OHAS) 2009–2011
  9. 9. Method & data • Bivariate analysis – Pearson’s chi-squared tests of independence, two-way contingency tables Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion 9 Made a bicycle trip Normally commuted by bicycle BICYCLISTS NON-BICYCLISTS Bicycle use Women Men Made a bicycle trip 2.8% (453) 5.5% (768) Normally commuted by bicycle 2.2% (356) 4.8% (665) Bicyclists 3.6% (590) 7.4% (1,023)
  10. 10. Results Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion 10 1.5% 4.1% 3.3% 2.9% 6.2% 2.1% 3.0% 3.8% 7.9% 7.3% 6.8% 8.2% 8.1% 9.2% 9.2% 7.0% 0% 5% 10% 15% 1 2+ 0 1 2 3+ Yes No Number of people in household Number of children in household Presence of children aged 6-11 in household Women Men 7.4% 3.6% Percentage of bicyclists by gender for demographics
  11. 11. Results Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion 11 Percentage of bicyclists by gender for socioeconomics 5.1% 0.9% 0.4% 2.4% 6.0% 3.0% 3.8% 3.8% 8.2% 5.3% 4.8% 4.4% 11.1% 8.5% 6.8% 6.6% 0% 5% 10% 15% Yes No Not a HS grad HS grad, some college College grad $0–35k $35–75k $75k+ Worker status Education level Household income Women Men 7.4% 3.6%
  12. 12. Results Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion 12 Percentage of bicyclists by gender for mobility characteristics 3.9% 1.5% 1.9% 11.7% 2.3% 4.6% 7.4% 16.3% 7.2% 8.6% 16.6% 15.6% 5.1% 9.4% 14.2% 23.0% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% Yes No 0 0.01–0.99 1+ 0.01–0.99 1 1.01+ Driver license holding Number of vehicles per licensed driver in household Number of bicycles per person in household Women Men 7.4% 3.6%
  13. 13. Results Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion 13 Percentage of bicyclists by gender for trip and activity characteristics 1.1% 5.0% 2.5% 5.6% 4.5% 2.7% 3.7% 2.2% 3.6% 2.0% 5.4% 6.8% 8.2% 6.6% 5.4% 6.9% 5.8% 7.7% 6.3% 6.3% 0% 5% 10% 15% 0 1+ 1–240 241+ 0 1+ 1–30 31+ 0 1+ Number of trips for work and/or school Time spent at work and/or school Number of trips for maintenance activities Time spent in maintenance activities Number of trips for escorting Women Men 6.3% 3.2%
  14. 14. Discussion • Women, household roles, and bicycling – Household maintenance trip-making; time spent on maintenance activities: • Women less likely to bicycle; men more likely. • Women made more maintenance trips, and spent more time on maintenance activities. – Presence of children: • Women with 2+ children more likely to bicycle. • Women with children aged 6–11 slightly less likely to bicycle; men more likely. Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion 14
  15. 15. Discussion • Bicycling as a choice – Women with more economic means and mobility options were more likely to bicycle: • ↑ income, employed, Friday, driver license, motor vehicle access, ↑ bicycles. • Bicycling (or not) by necessity – Women with less economic means and limited mobility options were less likely to bicycle: • < HS degree, not working, low-income HH, no work/school trips, no driver license, zero-vehicle HH. Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion 15
  16. 16. Discussion • Potential policy implications – Target low-bicycling women: • Living alone or in single adult HH, < HS education, not working, no driver license, and/or living in low- income or zero-vehicle HH. – Interventions: • Infrastructure installations, awareness-raising, training, skills-building, and social events. Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion 16
  17. 17. Discussion • Future work – Multivariate model of bicycling (gender × other variables) – Multi-day travel survey, longitudinal data – Data on built environment, bicycle facilities, safety, attitudes and preferences – External validation of findings (beyond Oregon) – Supplementary qualitative interviews, case studies, …, to ask: Why? Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion 17
  18. 18. Questions? Gender gap in bicycling – Method & data – Results – Discussion 18 Patrick Singleton patrick.singleton@pdx.edu Tara Goddard goddard@pdx.edu

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