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Assessing Travel Plans for Residential Developments

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Geoff Rose, Professor, Monash University

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Assessing Travel Plans for Residential Developments

  1. 1. Engineering Assessing Travel Plans and their effectiveness Presenter: Professor Geoff Rose Based on PhD research by Chris De Gruyter Co-supervisor: Professor Graham Currie Institute of Transport Studies Monash University, Australia January 2016
  2. 2. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management 1 1 Definition of a travel plan 2 Research gaps & aims 3 Research methods 4 Key results 5 Conclusions PRESENTATION OUTLINE
  3. 3. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management What is a travel plan? §  Strategy containing measures to manage car use & encourage use of more sustainable forms of transport §  Also known as TDM plans or mobility management plans §  Typically developed for individual sites, e.g. schools & workplaces §  Can be required for new developments as part of planning approval §  Focus of this research is on residential developments 2
  4. 4. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management 3 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Cardriver Carpassenger Public transport Cycle Walk Reduced travel Trips Before travel plan After travel plan
  5. 5. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Research gaps and aims 5 §  Little consideration given to evaluating travel plan quality §  Improving travel plan quality can increase the likelihood they will achieve their objectives and be implemented successfully §  First research aim §  Assess the quality of travel plans for new residential developments
  6. 6. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management 7 Research gaps & aims (Cont.) §  Limited evidence of effectiveness of travel plans for new developments, particularly residential sites §  Generally no baseline/before data available at new developments, so evaluations often based on comparisons to secondary data, e.g. census, regional travel survey data, trip generation rates §  BUT, secondary data is: §  Not usually collected during same time period (often many years before) §  Not always based on same location (sometimes different countries) §  Not always based on same dwelling type (leading to differences in parking) §  Second research aim §  Measure the effectiveness of travel plans for new residential developments
  7. 7. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Research method: Assessing travel plan quality 6 1.  Development of assessment framework – 6 key headings, 55 criteria 2.  Sourcing of travel plans – 31 in total from Victoria 3.  Review of travel plan content 4.  Application of assessment framework – scoring each travel plan against set criteria
  8. 8. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Background info 19 points (15%) Existing conditions 17 points (15%) Objectives & targets 14 points (12%)Travel plan measures 21 points (18%) Travel plan management 32 points (27%) Monitoring & review 14 points (12%) Assessment framework 7 Reflects best practice elements & their relative importance, as informed by the research literature
  9. 9. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Assessment framework 8
  10. 10. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Traffic engineers prepared most of the travel plans, followed by town planners 9
  11. 11. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Residential developments were the most common land use for travel plans 10 Residential 29% Mixed use (predominantly residential) 29% Education 3% Mixed use 39%
  12. 12. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Bicycle parking was the most common travel plan measure 11
  13. 13. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management How did the travel plans perform? 12
  14. 14. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Travel plan mgt needs to consider… 13 §  Commitment from the developer and future property manager §  Clarity of roles and responsibilities, incl. travel plan coordinator §  Budget for implementing measures §  Plans for ongoing communication with users of the site
  15. 15. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management 8 Research method: Assessing travel plan effectiveness using case control method §  Case sites (apartment buildings with Travel Plans) §  four new residential developments, built and occupied, with travel plans that had been implemented §  Control sites (apartment buildings with no Travel Plan) §  matching control sites involved a considerable number of site visits and discussions with property managers §  limited to what was available §  aimed to ensure sites were matched on their location, average dwelling size, on-site car parking provision, proportion of owner- occupiers, and the year that occupation commenced
  16. 16. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management 9 Case sites – located in Melbourne, Australia Control sites – within 200 metres of corresponding case sites
  17. 17. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management 28th February 2011 Presentation title 17
  18. 18. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management 8 Data collection and analysis at case and control sites §  Count of people (by transport mode) entering & leaving: §  4 case sites: residential developments with travel plans §  4 matching control sites: residential developments without travel plans §  Count of car & bike parking utilisation at each case and control site ü Comparisons to published vehicle trip generation rates ü Comparisons made between case and control sites
  19. 19. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management 10 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 United States (ITE 2008) Sydney (RTA 2002) Sydney (RMS 2013) Controlsites (2014) Case sites (2014) Number of vehicle trips per dwelling - weekdayAM peak 143% higher 36% higher 71% higher 43% higher
  20. 20. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management 10 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Cardriver Carpassenger Public transport& walk Cycle Other Transport mode shares - weekdayAM peak Controlsites (no travel plan) Case sites (travelplan) 14 percentage points lower 11 percentage points higher 3 percentage points higher
  21. 21. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management 12 Car & bicycle parking utilisation Avg cars parked/dwelling Avg bikes parked/dwelling Control sites 0.55 0.43 Case sites 0.42 0.73 §  Less cars & more bikes per dwelling at case sites % car parking spaces used % bike parking spaces used Control sites 52% 98% Case sites 68% 102% §  More efficient utilisation of parking facilities at case sites §  Over supply of car parking and under supply of bike parking
  22. 22. Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Conclusions 14 §  1st aim: Assess quality of travel plans for new residential developments §  Diverse quality in travel plans which were assessed & travel plan management is a key area for improvement §  Assessment framework could be used by local government to assess quality of submitted travel plans §  Addressing areas identified for improvement could enhance the delivery and subsequent outcomes of travel plans §  2nd Aim: Evaluate their effectiveness §  Lower car use at developments with travel plans compared to similar developments without travel plans §  Control sites can provide a more accurate indication of travel plan effectiveness over secondary data sources §  Future research needed to establish larger evidence base and investigate extent of residential-self selection
  23. 23. Engineering Assessing Travel Plans and their effectiveness Thank you. Questions?

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