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HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT 
Clark County Bicycle & Pedestrian Master Plan 
October, 2010 
Brendon Haggerty, Clark County Pub...
Overview 
• Introduction to HIA 
• Bicycle & Pedestrian 
Master Plan HIA 
• Lessons learned
Health Impact Assessment 
Screening • Scoping • Assessment • Reporting • Evaluation
Why HIA? 
Contribution to Premature Death 
Genetic predisposition 
30% 
Social circumstances 
15% 
Environmental exposure ...
Why HIA? 
Recommended physical activity: 
30 min per day x 5 days per week = 150 min per week 
Source: City of New York (2...
Why HIA? 
“one would assume that people would be more 
likely to walk if walking trips became more pleasant, 
safer, or in...
Plan Background 
Projects 
Priority trails, bikeways, and sidewalks 
Programs 
1. Restructure bike/ped committee 
2. Impro...
Bike & Pedestrian Master Plan HIA 
Rapid HIA 
Limited baseline assessment 
Findings of impacts (direction) 
Recommendation...
Baseline Conditions Assessment 
Connectivity 
Density 
Urban Design 
Land use mix 
Bikeways 
Sidewalks 
Access 
Income 
Ed...
Findings: Health Outcomes 
Clark County Public Health 2010 
82.1 
79.7 
75.5 
Life Expectancy at Birth 
By Zip Code 
79.2 ...
Findings: Social Determinants 
Median Household Income 
By Census Block Group 2009 
Block Groups 
Median income in 2009 
$...
Findings: Built Environment
Measuring Walkability 
Land Use Mix Connectivity 
Retail FAR Density 
Images, clockwise from top right: Congress for New U...
Findings: Built Environment 
Walkability by Block Group 
Walkability Index 
(quintiles) 
Lowest 
Highest 
UGA 
Highways 
¯...
Findings: Built Environment 
1/2 mile buffer 
1 mile buffer 
Parks 
0 2.5 5 10 
Miles ¯ 
Clark County Park Access 
Clark C...
Findings: Built Environment 
Access to Grocery Stores 
& Supermarkets 
Clark County Public Health 2010 
0 2.5 5 10 
Miles ...
Recommended Geographic Focus
Recommended Geographic Focus 
Socioeconomic Status & Walkability 
by Block Group 
Note: "High" and "low" defined as two hi...
Prioritization Criteria 
25 15 10 15 5 10 20 
Implementation 
Criteria Points 
Socioeconomic 10 points 
status 
Walkabilit...
Proposed Projects 
Clark County Public Health 2010 
Priority Sidewalks 
Priority Trails 
Priority Bikeways 
City Boundarie...
Project Impact 
Unincorporated Population: 211,800 
Population served by Top Priority Projects: 94,969 
% of Priority 
Pro...
Project Impact 
Clark County Public Health 2010 
Existing Bikeway Network Density 
Block Groups 
Bikeway Mi/Sq Mi 
0.0 
0....
Program Impact 
Program Impact 
Improve communications between Supportive 
planning and public works 
Revise Bicycle & Ped...
Policy Impact 
• Include recommended policies from Rapid HIA 
• Implementation issues 
Policy Impact 
Developing a network...
Discussion 
Strengths early involvement, extensive baseline 
assessment, collaborative relationships 
Challenges data need...
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Applying Health Impact Assessment to Bicycle and Pedestrian Planning

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Brendon Haggerty, MURP, Program Coordinator, Planning Active Walkable Neighborhoods, Clark County Public Health

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Applying Health Impact Assessment to Bicycle and Pedestrian Planning

  1. 1. HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT Clark County Bicycle & Pedestrian Master Plan October, 2010 Brendon Haggerty, Clark County Public Health Brendon.haggerty@clark.wa.gov
  2. 2. Overview • Introduction to HIA • Bicycle & Pedestrian Master Plan HIA • Lessons learned
  3. 3. Health Impact Assessment Screening • Scoping • Assessment • Reporting • Evaluation
  4. 4. Why HIA? Contribution to Premature Death Genetic predisposition 30% Social circumstances 15% Environmental exposure 5% Behavioral patterns 40% Health care 10% Adapted from McGinnis JM, Williams-Russo P, Knickman JR. The case for more active policy attention to health promotion. Health affairs (Millwood) 2002; 21:78-93
  5. 5. Why HIA? Recommended physical activity: 30 min per day x 5 days per week = 150 min per week Source: City of New York (2010). Active design guidelines: promoting physical activity and health in design. New York
  6. 6. Why HIA? “one would assume that people would be more likely to walk if walking trips became more pleasant, safer, or in any sense easier, or if alternatives to walking became more costly or more difficult.” – TRB & IOM 2005
  7. 7. Plan Background Projects Priority trails, bikeways, and sidewalks Programs 1. Restructure bike/ped committee 2. Improve internal communications 3. Ciclovia 4. School programs 5. East county scenic tour Policies 1. Developing a network 2. Jurisdictional coordination 3. Traffic & demand management 4. Education & encouragement 5. Funding 6. Active transportation & supporting land uses
  8. 8. Bike & Pedestrian Master Plan HIA Rapid HIA Limited baseline assessment Findings of impacts (direction) Recommendations January 2010 Produce Rapid HIA Comprehensive HIA Literature review Full baseline assessment Findings of impacts (direction + magnitude) Recommendations Provide input on Plan Produce Comprehensive HIA Evaluate effects of HIA January 2011 Screening • Scoping • Assessment • Reporting • Evaluation
  9. 9. Baseline Conditions Assessment Connectivity Density Urban Design Land use mix Bikeways Sidewalks Access Income Education Race Gender Age Built Environment Determinants Social Determinants
  10. 10. Findings: Health Outcomes Clark County Public Health 2010 82.1 79.7 75.5 Life Expectancy at Birth By Zip Code 79.2 80.3 77 80.6 79.7 77.9 77.4 80.1 79 78.7 79.3 79.2 77.8 75.7 80.6 77.8 77.5 Zip codes Life Expectancy in 2007 75.5 - 77.4 77.5 - 77.9 78.0 - 79.2 79.3 - 80.1 80.2 - 82.1 0 2.5 5 10 Miles ¯ For further information contact Clark County Public Health Assessment and Evaluation: brendon.haggerty@clark.wa.gov or (360) 397-8000 ext. 7281 Overweight and Obesity by Zip Code 2009 60% 52% 66% 70% 55% 65% 68% 50% 71% 51% 74% Clark County Public Health 2010 Percent adults overweight or obese 0 2.5 5 10 Miles ¯ For further information contact Clark County Public Health Assessment and Evaluation: brendon.haggerty@clark.wa.gov or (360) 397-8000 ext. 7281 50% - 52% 53% - 55% 56% - 60% 61% - 68% 69% - 74% No data
  11. 11. Findings: Social Determinants Median Household Income By Census Block Group 2009 Block Groups Median income in 2009 $10,854.00 - $49,364.00 $49,364.01 - $60,741.00 $60,741.01 - $68,977.00 $68,977.01 - $77,712.00 $77,712.01 - $134,558.00 Highways Miles ¯ 0 2.5 5 10 Clark County Public Health 2010 Percent Non-hispanic White Population By Block Group 0 2.5 5 10 Miles For further information contact Clark County ¯ Public Health Assessment and Evaluation: brendon.haggerty@clark.wa.gov or (360) 397-8000 ext. 7281 Percent 59.2% - 82.3% 82.4% - 86.6% 86.7% - 90.4% 90.5% - 92.7% 92.8% - 97% Highways
  12. 12. Findings: Built Environment
  13. 13. Measuring Walkability Land Use Mix Connectivity Retail FAR Density Images, clockwise from top right: Congress for New Urbanism, http://www.cnu.org/connectedstreetnetworks; Microsoft, http://www.bing.com/maps/; Los Angeles Housing Authority, http://www.ci.la.ca.us/LAHD/curriculum/gettingfacts/planning/planconcepts.html
  14. 14. Findings: Built Environment Walkability by Block Group Walkability Index (quintiles) Lowest Highest UGA Highways ¯ 0 2.5 5 10 Miles Clark County Public Health 2010 The walkability index combines measures of density, street connectivity, land use mix, and retail floor-area ratio. For further information contact Clark County Public Health Evaluation and Assessment: brendon.haggerty@clark.wa.gov, (360) 397-8000 Ext. 7281
  15. 15. Findings: Built Environment 1/2 mile buffer 1 mile buffer Parks 0 2.5 5 10 Miles ¯ Clark County Park Access Clark County Public Health 2010 For further information contact Clark County Public Health Evaluation and Assessment: brendon.haggerty@clark.wa.gov, (360) 397-8000 Ext. 7281 Clark County Public Health 2010 Mean Distance to Elementary Schools By Elementary School Attendance Area Mean Distance (miles) 0.0 - 0.7 0.8 - 0.9 1.0 - 1.2 1.3 - 2.0 2.1 - 5.1 Highways Miles ¯ For further information contact Clark County Public Health Assessment and Evaluation brendon.haggerty@clark.wa.gov or (360) 397-8000 ext. 7281 0 2.5 5 10
  16. 16. Findings: Built Environment Access to Grocery Stores & Supermarkets Clark County Public Health 2010 0 2.5 5 10 Miles Grocery Stores Supermarkets 1/2 mile walking distance 1 mile walking distance Highways Major Roads For further information contact Clark County Public Health Assessment and Evaluation brendon.haggerty@clark.wa.gov or (360) 397-8000 ext. 7281 15% (10%) within ½ mile ¯ Access to Fast Food Clark County Public Health 2010 0 2.5 5 10 Miles 1/2 mile walking distance 1 mile walking distance Highways Major Roads ¯ For further information contact Clark County Public Health Assessment and Evaluation brendon.haggerty@clark.wa.gov or (360) 397-8000 ext. 7281 35% (26%) within ½ mile
  17. 17. Recommended Geographic Focus
  18. 18. Recommended Geographic Focus Socioeconomic Status & Walkability by Block Group Note: "High" and "low" defined as two highest or lowest quintiles. For obesity data, block groups were included based on whether they are contained by tracts with high obesity rates. Obesity data provided by Institute of Portland Metropolitan Studies. 0 2.5 5 10 Miles ¯ Block Groups Incorporated Areas Low SES, High Walkability LowSES, Low Walkability Highways Obesity & Walkability by Block Group Note: "High" and "low" defined as two highest or lowest quintiles. For obesity data, block groups were included based on whether they are contained by tracts with high obesity rates. Obesity data provided by Institute of Portland Metropolitan Studies. 0 2.5 5 10 Miles ¯ Block Groups Incorporated Areas High Obesity, High Walkability High Obesity, Low Walkability Highways
  19. 19. Prioritization Criteria 25 15 10 15 5 10 20 Implementation Criteria Points Socioeconomic 10 points status Walkability potential 4 points Connectivity 5 points Low-stress facilities 1 point Closing Gaps Safety & Comfort Access & Mobility Multi-modal Community Benefit Health Outcomes
  20. 20. Proposed Projects Clark County Public Health 2010 Priority Sidewalks Priority Trails Priority Bikeways City Boundaries Existing Bikeways & Trails Miles 0 2.5 5 10 ¯ For furhter information contact Clark County Public Health Assessment and Evaluation brendon.haggerty@clark.wa.gov or (360) 397-8000 ext. 7281 Clark County Public Health 2010 Proposed Project Service Area Priority Sidewalks Priority Trails Proposed Bikeways City Boundaries Service Area Miles 0 2.5 5 10 ¯ For furhter information contact Clark County Public Health Assessment and Evaluation brendon.haggerty@clark.wa.gov or (360) 397-8000 ext. 7281 Project Impact
  21. 21. Project Impact Unincorporated Population: 211,800 Population served by Top Priority Projects: 94,969 % of Priority Project Miles % of Project Population Top Priority Project Population Neighborhood Income Quintile Low 19,720 21% 26% Q2 15,928 17% 21% Q3 14,961 16% 16% Q4 21,480 23% 22% High 22,880 24% 15% Total 94,969 94,969 107 Miles
  22. 22. Project Impact Clark County Public Health 2010 Existing Bikeway Network Density Block Groups Bikeway Mi/Sq Mi 0.0 0.1 - 0.5 0.6 - 1.4 1.5 - 2.2 2.3 - 6.9 Incorporated block groups Miles 0 2.5 5 10 ¯ For furhter information contact Clark County Public Health Assessment and Evaluation brendon.haggerty@clark.wa.gov or (360) 397-8000 ext. 7281 Bikeway Network Density After Piority Improvements Clark County Public Health 2010 Block Groups Bikeway Mi/Sq Mi 0.0 0.1 - 0.5 0.6 - 1.4 1.5 - 2.2 2.3 - 9.7 Incorporated block groups Miles 0 2.5 5 10 ¯ For furhter information contact Clark County Public Health Assessment and Evaluation brendon.haggerty@clark.wa.gov or (360) 397-8000 ext. 7281
  23. 23. Program Impact Program Impact Improve communications between Supportive planning and public works Revise Bicycle & Pedestrian Advisory Supportive Committee Create school education & Positive encouragement programs Establish “Clarklovia” Positive Develop scenic tour Positive
  24. 24. Policy Impact • Include recommended policies from Rapid HIA • Implementation issues Policy Impact Developing a network Supportive Jurisdictional coordination Supportive Traffic & demand management Supportive Education & encouragement Supportive Funding Supportive Active transportation & supportive land uses Supportive
  25. 25. Discussion Strengths early involvement, extensive baseline assessment, collaborative relationships Challenges data needs, state of the science, economic terms, “pass through” criteria, residential focus, lack of trails network data Brendon Haggerty Clark County Public Health Brendon.haggerty@clark.wa.gov (360) 397-8000 Ext. 7281 Read related documents at: http://www.clark.wa.gov/planning/bikeandped/ Acknowledgements Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; ESRI, Inc.

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