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17TCS Walkability Audits

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Hannah Day-Kapell, Senior Associate, Alta Planning + Design; Don Kostelec, AICP, Senior Associate, Alta Planning + Design

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17TCS Walkability Audits

  1. 1. Hannah Day-Kapell Portland, OR Don Kostelec, AICP Boise, ID Instructors: 1
  2. 2. “But the beauty is in the walking -- we are betrayed by destinations.” ― Gwyn Thomas “[Walking] is the perfect way of moving if you want to see into the life of things. It is the one way of freedom. If you go to a place on anything but your own feet you are taken there too fast, and miss a thousand delicate joys that were waiting for you by the wayside.” ― Elizabeth von Arnim, The Adventures of Elizabeth in Rügen 2 Walkability…The Potter Stewart philosophy…
  3. 3. Whydowedowalkaudits? 3
  4. 4.  Bring partners together  Observe circulation  Promote SRTS activities  Identify community priorities WhydowedoSRTSwalkaudits? 4 X Inventory bike/ped facilities
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. Urban Landscapes of Illinois Collection
  8. 8. A pedestrian or bicyclist dies every 5 days in Oregon…. Source: Oregon DOT Crash Summary Report (2015)
  9. 9. 12 COED…adevastatingproblem
  10. 10. 13 SecondHandStreets
  11. 11. Second Hand Streets 14
  12. 12. 15
  13. 13. 16
  14. 14. The Human Design Vehicle: What we need, where we thrive & what we avoid. 1
  15. 15. HumanWalkingSpeed …TimetoMove 2
  16. 16. HumanWalkingSpeed Take your number of feet per 10 seconds… 1. Divide by 10 to get rate per second… 2. Multiply by 3600 (# Sec. in 1 hr.) to get distance per hour… 3. Divide by 5280 to get your average speed per MPH… Example: 1. I walk 50 feet in 10 seconds… 2. That’s 5 feet per second… 3. 18000 feet per hour… 4. And 3.4 miles per hour 3
  17. 17. Carl walks at 11 feet per 5 seconds…. How fast do they walk? (in MPH) Joan walks at 36 feet per 5 seconds… Linda and Brenda walk 18 feet per 5 seconds… 1.5MPH 4.9MPH 2.5MPH 4
  18. 18. HumanHeight 5
  19. 19. HumanHeight 6
  20. 20. HumanWidth Shy distance… Time to Hula… 7
  21. 21. HumanWidth 8
  22. 22. HumanWidth 9
  23. 23. The “Design Vehicle” Factors that influence design vehicle selection are: • Type & frequency of use by large vehicles • Consequences of encroachment into other lanes or roadside • Availability of right-of-way • Function of intersecting routes and location (urban versus rural) • Project-specific data, specifically the frequency of use by the various design vehicle classes in Traffic Engineering Parlance 10
  24. 24. The “Design User”? Factors that influence design user selection are: • Type & frequency of use by diverse bicyclists & pedestrians • Consequences of encroachment into bike lanes or sidewalks • Right-of-way for vulnerable users is just as important as motorway • Function of intersecting routes and location (urban versus rural) • Project-specific data, specifically the frequency of use by the various design users & abilities 11
  25. 25. The Design User: A Pedestrian 12 User Surface Width (feet) Clearance Required (feet) Pedestrian using a walker 3 4 Tourist with wheeled luggage 3 4 Wheelchair user 3 4 Jogger 3 5 Parent walking with child in hand 4 6 Romantic couple walking arm-in-arm 4 5 Business colleagues walking side-by-side 5 6 Wheelchair user with assistance dog or pet 5 7 Two parents side-by-side with strollers 6 7 Wheelchair user on a date with somebody using a walker 6 8
  26. 26. Back to that design user thing…. 13 What matters? Loves to go fast… Goes for hundreds of miles… Hates to sit still… Cannot see… Cannot hear… Doesn’t care where it is…
  27. 27. Back to that design user thing…. 14 What matters? Loves to go slow… Goes for hundreds of feet… Loves to interact… Sees, hears, feels, smells… Needs safety.… Always cares where it is…
  28. 28. 8’ Ft. 3’ Ft 2’ Ft 3’ Ft 15
  29. 29. 16
  30. 30. 17
  31. 31. 18
  32. 32. What does this indicate to you? 19
  33. 33. 20 What does this indicate to you?
  34. 34. 21
  35. 35. Wherewearedrawn… 22
  36. 36. Wherewearedrawnto… 23
  37. 37. Wherewearedrawn… 24
  38. 38. Wherewearenot… 25
  39. 39. 26
  40. 40. Wherewearenot… 27
  41. 41. 28 These two locations are less than a mile apart on the same street in Sylva, North Carolina
  42. 42. SRTS Walking Audit • A practical “on-the-ground” exercise to observe: – Drop-off or pick-up circulation around the school – Safety issues – Motor vehicle interaction – Barriers – Opportunities
  43. 43. School Audit Stakeholders – School administration – Crossing guards – Parents – City planners & public works staff – Police officers – Bicycle/pedestrian advocates – Neighbors
  44. 44. SRTS Audit Focus Areas: Routes How are students walking and biking to/from school?
  45. 45. Audit Focus Areas: Circulation How do families walking, biking, and driving interact on the school campus and in the neighborhood?
  46. 46. SRTS Audit Focus Areas: Sidewalk Obstructions Are sidewalks obstructed by vegetation, signs, poles, etc?
  47. 47. SRTS Audit Focus Areas: Sidewalk Conditions Are the sidewalks near the school even? Are they wide enough for peak use?
  48. 48. SRTS Audit Focus Areas: Crossings Do crosswalks have curb ramps? Are pavement markings fresh and visible?
  49. 49. Audit Focus Areas: Signs • Are signs clear and visible? Are traffic warnings appropriately marked?
  50. 50. Products: Barriers and Opportunities Maps
  51. 51. Products: Infrastructure Improvements
  52. 52. Products: Recommended Route Maps
  53. 53. Alphabet Soup: MUTCD, ADA,NACTO & SRTS Module 3 1
  54. 54. AmericanswithDisabilitiesAct • 1990 passage; Title 2 is most applicable to cities, towns, counties and highway agencies • It is Civil Rights Law! • United States Access Board tasked with developing“Public Right-of-Way Accessibility Guidelines”(PROWAG) • Applies to sidewalks, street crossings, multi-use trails • Different sections applicable to walk routes on private property 2
  55. 55. ADA&Walkability • Focus is on those with mobility-impairments • But it is more about universal design and walkability for all. 3
  56. 56. ADA&Walkability What it is: • Requires new facilities to comply with accessibility guidelines. • New sidewalks, curb ramps, pedestrian buttons, etc. • Technical specifications for new or altered facilities. 4
  57. 57. ADA&Walkability What it is NOT: • A requirement to build sidewalks. • A one-size fits all approach. • Actively enforced by US Dept. of Justice or US Dept. of Transportation. 5
  58. 58. ADA&Walkability Things to know:  2% cross slope  4 Foot continual passage  12:1 Rise/run  4x4 Flat landing  Contrasting colors, truncated domes  Push button height 7
  59. 59. ManualonUniformTrafficControl Devices(MUTCD) “The MUTCD (Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices) is the national guidebook published by the Federal Highway Administration that defines and regulates the use all traffic control devices, traffic signs, traffic signals, and pavement markings in the United States.” 8
  60. 60. MUTCD What it is: • Standardization for signage, pavement markings, traffic signals, etc. • Consistency in expectations for users • Dictates things such as: • Pedestrian signal warrants • Walk speed considerations • Temporary Traffic Controls 9
  61. 61. MUTCD What it is: • Reflects requirements of ADA related to traffic control devices. • Is adopted by all states (via statute) with state-by-state supplements. • A traffic engineer’s primary guidebook. 10
  62. 62. 11
  63. 63. 12
  64. 64. MUTCD What it is NOT: • A requirement to build sidewalks. • A document that is viewed as“flexible”in terms of what it requires. 13
  65. 65. NACTO:UrbanStreetDesignGuide • “Raising the state of the practice for street design that prioritizes people walking, biking, and taking transit.” • Combination of common design guidance (MUTCD, Green Book) with a new perspective on it. 14
  66. 66. NACTO:UrbanStreetDesignGuide 15
  67. 67. NACTO:UrbanStreetDesignGuide What it is NOT: • Widely accepted by state DOTs and many cities • A shield from liability concerns • Easy for smaller cities & towns to see within their context (getting there) 16
  68. 68. SRTS programs aim to create healthy, convenient, and fun opportunities for children to walk and roll for school trips. What is Safe Routes to School?
  69. 69. The 5 E’s of SRTS Combination of Solutions:  Infrastructure: Engineering  Non-infrastructure programs & policies: Education, Encouragement, Enforcement, Evaluation SRTS works to create life-long healthy habits and community connectivity
  70. 70. EQUITY is a consideration for all SRTS activities, ensuring that all residents have access to and can take advantage of the resources provided through the program. The 6th E: Equity
  71. 71. ToolsoftheTrade: SRTSEquityAnalysis - Equity analysis
  72. 72. Tools of the Trade: Metro School Equity Analysis
  73. 73. Tools of the Trade: School Area Maps
  74. 74. Tools of the Trade: ODOT School Action Plan
  75. 75. Tools of the Trade: Level of Traffic Stress
  76. 76. Walkways • Paint designs • At grade sidewalks • Extruded curb, asphalt • Curb/Sidewalks • Sidepaths • Multiuse Paths • Bridges • Tunnels & underpasses 25
  77. 77. PrincipalConsiderations • Land use context • Expected number of people or “users” • Separate from nearly all vehicles…some exceptions • Both sides matter • Buffer space is critical • Fewer conflicts the better • Aesthetics matter • Street connections critical 26
  78. 78. Walkways 27
  79. 79. Walkways 28
  80. 80. Walkways 29
  81. 81. Walkways  ConcretevsAsphalt  RolledcurbsvsFlatCurb  AtgradevsElevated  Tomeanderornot  Drainage…ugghhh 30
  82. 82. Walkways 31
  83. 83. Walkways 32
  84. 84. Walkways 33
  85. 85. Crossings Crossings include: • Unmarked crosswalks • Marked crosswalks • Crosswalk paint designs • Curb extensions • Crossing signals • Mid block crossings • Pedestrian refuge islands • Tunnels & underpasses 35
  86. 86. Crossings 36
  87. 87. Crossings • Elevate the pedestrian profile • Minimize the distance to cross • If necessary, give refuge • Minimize distance between crossings • Enforcement matters • Effectiveness of signals • All times of day • Consider your various users 37
  88. 88. Crossings 38
  89. 89. Crossings 39
  90. 90. Crossings 40
  91. 91. Crossings 41
  92. 92. Crossings What snow helps demonstrate... 42
  93. 93. Crossings 43
  94. 94. Crossings-Devices 44
  95. 95. Crossings 45
  96. 96. Crossings–AReal-LifeExample 46
  97. 97. 100 feet75 feet 34-second walk phase 2.95 feet per second allowed 26-second countdown phase 3.84 feet per second allowed 1.67 feet per second speed 60 seconds to walk 100 feet 47
  98. 98. Highways&MajorStreets • Things to know:  Pedestrians will be there no matter how much we try to discourage them.  Timing to cross the street and visibility at all hours is critical. 48
  99. 99. Distance between X-ings is 1.15 miles… 49
  100. 100. Instead of .22 miles or 4.5 minute walk… 50
  101. 101. …..it is now 21 minutes and 1.05 miles…twice! 51
  102. 102. Driving equivalent? U-turn at Discovery…YMCA area……4.8 miles away 52
  103. 103. 53
  104. 104. LightningRound…PopQuiz 54
  105. 105. The Possibilities (and Limitations) of Planning, Development & Regulation Module2 1
  106. 106. Planning  What gives us the authority to“plan”for growth and development?  What is Planning, in terms of walkability?  What is the potential of planning to positively effect change?  What are the limitations?  Where do transportation & other agencies fit in?
  107. 107. Planning Idaho Code, Title 67, Chapter 65: Local Land Use Planning • “The purpose of this act shall be to promote the health, safety and general welfare of the people of the state of Idaho as follows… o To protect property rights… o To ensure adequate public facilities… o To ensure the economy is protected… o To encourage protection of agriculture, forestry… o To encourage urban and urban-type development… o To avoid undue concentration of population… o To avoid undue water and air pollution… o And other statements.
  108. 108. Planning Idaho Code, Title 67, Chapter 65: Local Land Use Planning, 67-6508 Planning Duties… o It shall be the duty of the planning & zoning commission to conduct a comprehensive planning process… o Public Services: …showing general location of…health & welfare facilities, libraries, schools…location of civic centers & public buildings. o Transportation: …showing general location/width of system of traffic thoroughfares and other traffic ways, and of streets and the recommended treatment thereof. o Schools: …analysis of public school capacity and transportation considerations associated with development. o Community Design: …analysis of needs for governing… building design, tree planting, signs, and suggested patterns and standards for community design, development… o Implementation: …determine actions, programs, budget, ordinances… to provide for timely execution of components of the plan.
  109. 109. Planning Montpelier Comp Plan (2002): Blueprint Boise (2011) Ketchum Comp Plan (2014):
  110. 110. Planning
  111. 111. Zoning Ordinance 7
  112. 112. Zoning 8
  113. 113. ThenWhat?
  114. 114. ThenWhat?
  115. 115. ThenWhat?
  116. 116. ThenWhat?
  117. 117. ThenWhat? The Plan Policy Development Review Building It Final Product
  118. 118. Looking Glass Academy OtherInfluences • Regulatory agencies/ordinances – Stormwater/drainage – Floodplain/floodway • Special funding requirements • Exempt entities (e.g. schools, state/federal government) • Department of Transportation • Transit agency • Property acquisition
  119. 119. OtherInfluences • In some engineering standards, sidewalks are labeled as“incidentals”and lumped with: – Pipes and shoulders – Culverts – Frames, grates and hoods – Junction boxes – Curb and gutter – Berms – Concrete paved ditches – Guardrails – Woven wire fence
  120. 120. OtherInfluences “Incidentals”, according to some DOTs
  121. 121. 21 OtherInfluences
  122. 122. 22 OtherInfluences
  123. 123. Planning In the next few slides, tell us if you think the action taken by a City was legal or not legal. Think back to what we discussed with regard to zoning ordinances and local policies. If it’s legal, how can it be improved? If it’s not legal, how can it be resolved?
  124. 124. Legal or Not Legal? An undeveloped parcel of 325 acres is planned to be a mixed-use development. It includes a commercial zone, a park, a new elementary school and 450 new homes and condos. The City required the development to build sidewalks along all the new streets within the property and along existing streets bordering the property. 24
  125. 125. Legal or Not Legal? A property owner wants to tear down his or her house and build a new one. The property does not have sidewalks along the street. City council / Planning & Zoning required the property owner to build the sidewalk as a condition of issuing the building permit. 25
  126. 126. Legal or Not Legal? A new 400-unit housing development is planned 1/3-mile from a school. There are 4 parcels between the new development and the school along a street with no sidewalks.The City required the developer to fill the missing gap in the sidewalk and acquire property from the owners of the 4 parcels to build the walkway. 26 New Development School Sidewalk Gap
  127. 127. Legal or Not Legal? A fast food restaurant along a commercial strip recently closed. A new chain has acquired the property and wants to open it as a new brand. To grant a building permit to renovate the property, the City required construction of sidewalks along the street and a new pedestrian walkway from the street to the front door of the building. 27
  128. 128. Legal or Not Legal? The City approved a new retail development 6 months ago. A month ago the City adopted new design requirements in commercial zones stipulating wider sidewalks and different tree planting requirements. The City is requiring the retail development to conform to the new standards before it signs off on the final plat. 28
  129. 129. Legal or Not Legal? A new housing development was built in what used to be a cornfield. The nearest development is 2 miles away. The City required the developer to build sidewalks on internal streets but did not require the developer to follow the zoning ordinance which requires sidewalks along existing streets fronting the property. 29
  130. 130. Tools to Overcome Policy Limitations • Development agreements • Fees in lieu • Public-private partnerships • Impact fees • Adequate public facilities ordinances • Sidewalk utility fees • Business improvement districts • Local improvement districts • Tax increment financing 30
  131. 131. Module4 The Tools for Effective Mobility & Safety 1
  132. 132. Looking Glass Academy KnowingtheToolsin4D - Ability to demonstrate and explain basics of walkability - Applying facilitation techniques - Communicate the technical elements of the built environment
  133. 133. Looking Glass Academy

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