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17TCS The interconnectedness of transportation and affordable housing

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Moderator: Elissa Gertler, Metro Speakers: Arlie Adkins, University of Arizona; Ryan Curren, Portland Bureau of Planning and Sustainability; Pedro Galvao, Non-Profit Housing

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17TCS The interconnectedness of transportation and affordable housing

  1. 1. Transportation Planning and Housing Affordability Transportation and Communities Summit Portland, Oregon - Sept. 11, 2017 Arlie Adkins, PhD University of Arizona arlieadkins@email.arizona.edu @ArlieAdkins
  2. 2. Four Cities
  3. 3. Amsterdam Portland Copenhagen Vancouver What is different about these cities’ transportation systems?
  4. 4. 50% 50% of all housing units are Public Housing of all housing units are Public or Non-profit Housing 7%of all housing units are Public or Other Subsidized Housing 24%of all housing units are Public or Other Subsidized Housing Amsterdam Portland Copenhagen Vancouver
  5. 5. It is dangerous to selectively borrow from the lessons of Amsterdam’s and Copenhagen’s paths to urbanist paradises without realizing how their transportation-driven urban success stories are rooted in vastly different housing realities.
  6. 6. Transportation is Place Based. Place is Housing Based.
  7. 7. Affordable housing is a prerequisite for a successful urban transportation system.
  8. 8. Movers’ ability to realize their preference for a walkable, accessible housing location (by income): An example…
  9. 9. Location efficiency and federal affordable housing programs
  10. 10. “Location efficiency describes how accessible everyday destinations like jobs, shopping, entertainment, parks and other amenities are to a neighborhood or community. Location-efficient neighborhoods are often characterized by compact, mixed-use development, easy access to public transit, good walking and biking conditions, and nearby commercial and retail hubs.” -HUD
  11. 11. Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) Research
  12. 12. LE of all LIHTC built from 2007-2011ShareofunitsmeetingLEcriteria 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Density Transit Connectivity Retail jobs/hh Jobs access Rail transit station Transportation affordable Average All housing LE LIHTC LE LIHTC LE Differential
  13. 13. State by state LIHTC LE -0.15 -0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 UT CT OR MA MO NY SC MT GA CO MD KY NV PA CA WA DE VA WI OH AZ MI NE AK OK NH KS IL NJ NC TN MN FL MS RI ME NM IN IA VT AR ID AL LA TX WY WV ND SD HI LIHTC LE differential
  14. 14. After controlling for underlying built environment and market characteristics, state qualified allocation plans’ LE criteria and share of LIHTC developed by non-profit sector were positively associated with LIHTC LE. What explains state differences?
  15. 15. Unpublished Metro Area Analysis
  16. 16. -0.10 -0.05 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 Austin-Round Rock-San Marcos, TX Oklahoma City, OK Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, TX Birmingham-Hoover, AL Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX Jacksonville, FL Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC Sacramento--Arden-Arcade--Roseville, CA Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Las Vegas-Paradise, NV Memphis, TN-MS-AR Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Raleigh-Cary, NC San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI Chicago-Joliet-Naperville, IL-IN-WI Indianapolis-Carmel, IN Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY Louisville/Jefferson County, KY-IN Columbus, OH Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA-NH Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC Richmond, VA Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Franklin, TN Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA Detroit-Warren-Livonia, MI Denver-Aurora-Broomfield, CO New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD Baltimore-Towson, MD Providence-New Bedford-Fall River, RI-MA San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, CA Cincinnati-Middletown, OH-KY-IN Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale, AZ Rochester, NY Kansas City, MO-KS Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor, OH Pittsburgh, PA St. Louis, MO-IL Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA Salt Lake City, UT LIHTC LE Differential (for metro areas greater > 1 million)
  17. 17. 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.13 0.13 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.19 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.27 0.29 0.32 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA Detroit-Warren-Livonia, MI Denver-Aurora-Broomfield, CO New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD Baltimore-Towson, MD Providence-New Bedford-Fall River, RI-MA San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, CA Cincinnati-Middletown, OH-KY-IN Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale, AZ Rochester, NY Kansas City, MO-KS Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor, OH Pittsburgh, PA St. Louis, MO-IL Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA Salt Lake City, UT LIHTC LE Differential
  18. 18. -0.10 -0.08 -0.06 -0.04 -0.02 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 Austin-Round Rock-San Marcos, TX Oklahoma City, OK Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, TX Birmingham-Hoover, AL Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX Jacksonville, FL Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC Sacramento--Arden-Arcade--Roseville, CA Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Las Vegas-Paradise, NV Memphis, TN-MS-AR Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Raleigh-Cary, NC San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI Chicago-Joliet-Naperville, IL-IN-WI Indianapolis-Carmel, IN LIHTC LE Differential
  19. 19. What’s a transportation professional to do? • Don’t stop making transportation improvements
  20. 20. What’s a transportation professional to do? • Don’t stop making transportation improvements • Include the goal of preserving and creating affordable housing from the beginning of transportation projects; and have the right people at the table from day one
  21. 21. What’s a transportation professional to do? • Don’t stop making transportation improvements • Include the goal of preserving and creating affordable housing from the beginning of large transportation projects; and have the right people at the table from day one • Aggressively leverage transportation funding
  22. 22. What’s a transportation professional to do? • Don’t stop making transportation improvements • Include the goal of preserving and creating affordable housing from the beginning of large transportation projects; and have the right people at the table from day one • Aggressively leverage transportation funding • Make affordable, transit-served, walkable housing central to the mission of transportation agencies
  23. 23. What’s a transportation professional to do? • Don’t stop making transportation improvements • Include the goal of preserving and creating affordable housing from the beginning of large transportation projects; and have the right people at the table from day one • Aggressively leverage transportation funding • Make affordable, transit-served, walkable housing central to the mission of transportation agencies • Remember that people do not accrue the benefits of transportation systems equally
  24. 24. Current issue of the Journal of the American Planning Association • Relationships between neighborhood built environment and walking/physical activity were twice as strong for socioeconomically advantaged groups
  25. 25. Current issue of the Journal of the American Planning Association • Relationships between neighborhood built environment and walking/physical activity were twice as strong for socioeconomically advantaged groups • Most of the difference seems to be from disadvantaged groups walking less and receiving less benefit from living in a walkable built environments due to other barriers
  26. 26. Current issue of the Journal of the American Planning Association • Relationships between neighborhood built environment and walking/physical activity were twice as strong for socioeconomically advantaged groups • Most of the difference seems to be from disadvantaged groups walking less and receiving less benefit from living in a walkable built environments due to other barriers • Without addressing these other barriers, physical walkability improvements may increase price pressures with little benefit for existing residents
  27. 27. Thank you! Arlie Adkins, PhD University of Arizona arlieadkins@email.arizona.edu @ArlieAdkins (Please contact me for links to any of the papers mentioned)
  28. 28. Equitable Growth in the Southwest Corridor Transportation and Communities Summit September 11, 2017
  29. 29. View>Header and Footer | 2 Establish Policies for Equitable Growth
  30. 30. Plan for Great Places  Barbur Concept Plan  7 focus areas for place-making  Recommendations on built environment
  31. 31. Downtown Portland OHSU Hillsdale / Burlingame Barbur Transit Center PCC Sylvania Tigard Triangle + Downtown Bridgeport Village Plan for Moving People
  32. 32. Plan for Everyone to Benefit
  33. 33. Major Issues • Community leadership • Place making • Displacement • Geographic equity • Transportation and housing funding
  34. 34. Community Leadership Resource groups accountable to low- income communities to:  Engage tenants  Educate the public  Conduct community based research View>Header and Footer | 7
  35. 35. View>Header and Footer | 8 Placemaking
  36. 36. Displacement View>Header and Footer | 10
  37. 37. Source: HUD CHAS 2010-2014. Analysis by Bureau of Planning and Sustainability.
  38. 38. View>Header and Footer | 12 Regulated Affordable Housing
  39. 39. Geographic Equity View>Header and Footer | 13
  40. 40. Sales of lower quality buildings 2010-2016 74% are 2 star buildings (43% of units)
  41. 41. Funding View>Header and Footer | 15
  42. 42. What’s the magic formula? View>Header and Footer | 16 Oakland Puget Sound
  43. 43. Long-term Questions  How does housing and transit support each other to achieve equitable outcomes?  What role does local government have in addressing race and social disparities related to growth?  What are effective models of community community-led development? View>Header and Footer | 17
  44. 44. ON TRACK TOGETHER: Building the Bay Area’s Vibrant, Sustainable, and Affordable Future PEDRO GALVAO,REGIONAL POLICY& PLANNINGMANAGER TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNITIES SUMMITCONFERENCE2017 SEPTEMBER11, 2017 Photo credit: Clark Mishler courtersy of BRIDGE Housing
  45. 45. NPH’SMISSION NPH sees a future where everyone has a place to call home and where low-income communitiesand communitiesof color have the opportunity to stay and prosper in the Bay Area. We envision a day where everyone has access to an affordable home; and we can improve our health, our children’seducational outcomes, our environment, our transit system, our regional competitivenessand the Bay Area’s diversity and equity.Ms.Barbara Williams Credit:EBHO 2013
  46. 46. Bay Area Housing and Transportation Context
  47. 47. The Bay Area at a glance 9 countiesand 101cities 7.6 million people Bifurcated regional planning: Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC), Association of Bay Area Governments(ABAG)
  48. 48. The Bay Area leadsthe nation in affordability Photo credit: Kourtlyn Lott www.flickr.com
  49. 49. The Bay Area leadsthe nation in lack of affordability Photo credit: Kourtlyn Lott www.flickr.com
  50. 50. The Bay Area is the 4th most congested region in the WORLD
  51. 51. Affordable Housing asa Transportation Solution
  52. 52. Affordable Housing in transit-oriented locationsgetscarsoff the road “Cap and Trade” investmentsin TOD affordable housing =8,0 0 0 carsremoved from the road in CA Low income familiesthat live within ¼mile from high quality transit drive at HALFthe rate of higher income families
  53. 53. Affordable Housing funding hasbeen cut in CA by over 2/3 • Major cutsto Federal HUD budget through sequestration • CA fully spent $5 billion in housing bonds • Elimination of Tax Increment Financing funding for AH (~$1 billion/year)
  54. 54. Promoting Inclusive Growth: the “3 Ps” Framework
  55. 55. 1. Production: Build new affordable homes
  56. 56. Encourage citiesto develop transit-oriented sitesasaffordable housing CARROT - The Transit Oriented Affordable Housing Fund (TOAH): the TOAH wascreated to secure sitesfor TOD affordable housing. Funded by swapping federal transportation fundswith unrestricted local $. STICK - The One Bay Area Grant program (OBAG): the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) links some discretionary federal local streetsand roads money to compliance with variousstate housing laws
  57. 57. Impose Affordable Housing Requirements on Land Owned by Transportation Agencies BARTand VTA adopted forward looking TOD policies: • Minimum requirement of 20% affordable unitsfor new homeson agency-owned land • Systemwide goalsof 35% total affordability
  58. 58. 2. Preservation: Preserve existing affordability
  59. 59. Use additional transportation funding to encourage preservation of affordability 80Kby 2020 challenge: Used to reward preservation of existing affordable units. The Housing Preservation Fund: MTCdedicated $10 million to acquiring, rehabbing, and protecting older apartment buildings
  60. 60. 3. Protection: Protect tenantsfrom displacement Photo credit:Images Money www.flickr.com
  61. 61. The One Bay Area Grant program (OBAG): Prioritizes transportation investments to jurisdictions that have adopted anti-displacement policies. BART TOD Policy: Considers impacts of new transportation investments on low-income tenants near stations and works with local governments to protect tenants before they are displaced Incentivize local governmentsto adopt tenant protections
  62. 62. Production, Preservation, Protection: Stop funding bad actors The One Bay Area Grant program (OBAG): Citiesand countiesineligible for certain $$ if not compliant with state laws BARTand VTA TOD Policies: Require minimum densitiesand lower parking ratiosfor eligibility for new transportation investments
  63. 63. These initiativeshave already had impacts on the ground... Increased compliance with state law and more affordable housing proposed and built 1,000 new TOD affordable unitsin pipeline
  64. 64. There are still significant challengesahead for the Bay Area... • Fragmented regional governance (no directly elected board with a mandate) • Annual $1.45 billion funding need for affordable housing production and preservation • Tax reform and additional cutsto HUD Budget
  65. 65. BUT there’sreason to be optimistic... We’ve secured significant commitmentsfrom regional agencies through a new regional plan (Plan Bay Area 2040): ✓ Revenue plan for affordable housing production and preservation ✓ Evaluate the creation of financing tools such asa Regional Infill Infrastructure Bank ✓ Evaluate expanding policiesconnecting transportation funding to housing production and performance for both existing and future funding sources
  66. 66. Looking Ahead ● Ensuring that there is follow through on commitments ● Improving performance of existing commitments ● Advocating for ambitious actions from the outset for regional plans Photo credit: Louis Raphael www.flickr.com
  67. 67. THANK YOU! Pedro Galvao Regional Planning and Policy Manager, NPH pedro@nonprofithousing.org Check out our report: www.nonprofithousing.org/ontracktogether

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