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Measuring equity initiatives in
transportation planning
2017 Transportation & Communities Summit
Breakout Session 2
Monday...
Plan
Brief introduction – Aaron Golub
Grace Cho, AICP - Transportation planner, Metro
Metro’s RTP and their equity perform...
Fundamental equity analysis question
• Who deserves what?
• Does a transportation plan, investment, construction impact, e...
Many dimensions of equity
• Who?
• Users of the system vs tax payers?
• Bus riders vs. drivers?
• Traditionally marginaliz...
Many dimensions of Social equity
• Who?
• Users of the system vs tax payers?
• Bus riders vs. drivers?
• Traditionally mar...
Our session today:
Grace Cho, AICP - Transportation planner, Metro
Metro’s RTP and their equity performance
measures
Maria...
Measures of Equity
in
Public Transit
2017 Transportation & Communities Summit
Aaron Golub
Toulan School of Urban Studies a...
What is transit distributing?
• Capital investments
• Costs and number of projects
• Service
• “Coverage” (locations of st...
Equity evaluations for public transit
Who What When
Long-range planning (RTP) Neighborhood or
population
Service, investme...
Equity evaluations for public transit
Who What When
Long-range planning
(RTP)
Neighborhood or
population
Service, investme...
Equity Measures for Planning
Various access measures
EPA Smart Location Database
Appropriate analyses
• Analysis should reflect community needs
• More complex (data, analysis)
• Analyze accessibility to ...
Source:U.S.CensusBureau–LongitudinalHousehold-EmploymentDynamics–“Onthe
Map”tool–onthemap.ces.census.gov
Middle-High Wage ...
Access to Manufacturing jobs by transit and
auto, Project Scenario
San Francisco
Oakland
San Jose
San Francisco
Oakland
Sa...
Access to Service jobs by transit and auto,
Project Scenario
San Francisco
Oakland
San Jose
San Francisco
Oakland
San Jose...
Average Access to jobs by Scenario
Manufacturing Jobs Service Jobs
Equity Measures for
Service / Operations
Numerous measures
• Impacts of changes in service
• Disparate impacts (Title VI) and burdens (EJ)
• Frequency, service spa...
Example: Analysis of
disparities in on-time
performance
with Alex Karner, UT Austin and Celeste Chavis, Morgan State Unive...
Typical “gap analysis”: higher transit
supply found in census tracts with
higher demand
Adjusted for on-time performance, ...
Other equity considerations for transit
planning
• Housing
• Smart cities and transit
Using transit access to jobs for housing planning
with Qing Zhong, University of Arizona, Alex Karner, UT Austin, and Mike...
Equity issues in smart cities / transit
• NITC-supported research on equity issues in “smart city” transit technologies
• ...
Discussion and questions…
1
Evaluating Transportation
Equity in Long Range
Transportation Plans
Grace Cho, Associate Transportation Planner, Metro
T...
2
Transportation Equity Framework
3
Why Equity Matters
• Pedestrian fatality rates for African Americans are 60% higher than for non-
Hispanic whites, and 4...
4
Regional Policies
Metro’s Six
Desired
Outcomes
5
Outcomes-Based RTP
Source: 2014 Regional Transportation Plan
6
Transportation Equity - Guiding Principles
• Measure what historically marginalized communities
care about
• Support lea...
7
Historically Marginalized Communities
• People of Color
• People in Poverty
• People
Uncomfortable
Speaking English
• El...
8
Listening and Directing
Transportation
Equity Work
Group
Other Work
Groups
9
Outcomes for the 2018 RTP
• Refine regional policies pertaining to equity
• Refine long-range transportation investment ...
10
Evaluate What Is Meaningful
11
Transportation Equity Evaluation Approach
System Evaluation
• Investment scenarios
• Future-oriented
• Performance dire...
12
Cycle of Outcomes-Based Planning & Evaluation
Policy and plan
development
Collected and
forecasted data
Plan monitoring...
13
Priorities Translates to…
Six transportation equity system evaluation measures:
• Access to Jobs (by wage profile)
• Ac...
14
Assessment Tools and Data
Tools Used:
• Travel Demand Model
• Metroscope
• GIS
Data Used:
• Census (population)
• Burea...
15
System Evaluation – Access to Jobs
16
Share of Transportation Safety Investment
17
Project Evaluation – Equity & Access to
Opportunity
• Consistent w/
identified
priorities
• Complementary
to system
eva...
18
Testing and Lessons Learned
1919
Testing and Early Findings
• System-wide access and
transportation safety perform
in desired direction
• Overall chan...
2020
Lessons Learned
The big ones…
• Value in system and project-based evaluation
• Limitations to both methods
• Both pro...
21
What Next?
2222
Next Steps
• Refine investment package based on results
• Build “short list of actions”
• Refine RTP performance mana...
2323
Thank You
Grace Cho, Transportation Planner
Oregon Metro
Grace.cho@oregonmetro.gov
http://www.oregonmetro.gov/
Search...
Equitable Transportation
Investments
Maria Hernandez Segoviano
Advocacy Coordinator
OPAL Environmental Justice Oregon
OPAL -Organizing People/Activating Leaders
● Environmental justice
acknowledges that the
quality of our environment
affect...
Equity in Transportation
Investments
The goal of transportation decisions should not be to move
people faster and farther,...
Equity Measures
● Transportation Accessibility - Transit tends to be an important mode of
transportation for low-income po...
Transportation Package Overview
Proposed:
● Progressive, reliable
and permanent
funding source for
transit operations.
● D...
Low Income Fare Equity Program
Congestion Pricing- Next Steps
Toll roads impact environmental justice communities in the alignment and impacts from the
a...
Thank you!
17 TCS Measuring equity initiatives in transportation planning
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17 TCS Measuring equity initiatives in transportation planning

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Moderator: Aaron Golub, Portland State University Speakers: Grace Cho, Metro; Maria Hernandez, OPAL

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17 TCS Measuring equity initiatives in transportation planning

  1. 1. Measuring equity initiatives in transportation planning 2017 Transportation & Communities Summit Breakout Session 2 Monday, September 11th, 10:45-12:15 pm
  2. 2. Plan Brief introduction – Aaron Golub Grace Cho, AICP - Transportation planner, Metro Metro’s RTP and their equity performance measures Maria Hernandez - Advocacy Coordinator, OPAL Environmental Justice OPAL’s equity review of the statewide transportation funding bill Aaron Golub - Associate professor, Toulan School of Urban Studies and Planning at Portland State University Transit equity performance measures
  3. 3. Fundamental equity analysis question • Who deserves what? • Does a transportation plan, investment, construction impact, etc. affect everyone fairly? • Who is everyone? • Who are we comparing?
  4. 4. Many dimensions of equity • Who? • Users of the system vs tax payers? • Bus riders vs. drivers? • Traditionally marginalized populations vs. all others? • What? • Funding? • Service? • Access? • Meaningful access? • When? • Now? • Future year? • Where? • “where” connects with “who” • Statewide: Urban / suburban / rural?
  5. 5. Many dimensions of Social equity • Who? • Users of the system vs tax payers? • Bus riders vs. drivers? • Traditionally marginalized populations vs. all others? (Federally required analysis) • What? • Funding? • Service? (Federally required analysis) • Access? • Meaningful access? • When? • Now? • Future year? (Federally required analysis) • Where? • Few precedents for social equity analysis of statewide plans / spending bills
  6. 6. Our session today: Grace Cho, AICP - Transportation planner, Metro Metro’s RTP and their equity performance measures Maria Hernandez - Advocacy Coordinator, OPAL Environmental Justice OPAL’s equity review of the statewide transportation funding bill Aaron Golub - Associate professor, Toulan School of Urban Studies and Planning at Portland State University Transit equity performance measures
  7. 7. Measures of Equity in Public Transit 2017 Transportation & Communities Summit Aaron Golub Toulan School of Urban Studies and Planning Portland State University
  8. 8. What is transit distributing? • Capital investments • Costs and number of projects • Service • “Coverage” (locations of stops, routes) • Quantity (frequency, span of the day, days of week) • Quality (speed, rail vs. bus) • Burdens • Vehicle maintenance and storage • Right-of-way • Construction • Participation in decision-making • Workforce opportunities Create “access”
  9. 9. Equity evaluations for public transit Who What When Long-range planning (RTP) Neighborhood or population Service, investments, participation Medium and long-term Programming (TIP) Neighborhood or population Service, Investments Short term Project development (NEPA) Neighborhood Burdens, service Construction phase and long-term Design / ROW Neighborhood Burdens, participation Short term Construction Neighborhood Burdens, workforce Short term Service/operations planning Ridership or Neighborhood Service , fare, participation Short term
  10. 10. Equity evaluations for public transit Who What When Long-range planning (RTP) Neighborhood or population Service, investments, participation Medium, long-term Programming (TIP) Neighborhood or population Service, Investments Short term Project development (NEPA) Neighborhood Burdens, service Construction phase, long- term Design / ROW Neighborhood Burdens, participation Short term Construction Neighborhood Burdens, workforce Short term Service/operations planning Ridership or Neighborhood Service , fare, participation Short term
  11. 11. Equity Measures for Planning
  12. 12. Various access measures EPA Smart Location Database
  13. 13. Appropriate analyses • Analysis should reflect community needs • More complex (data, analysis) • Analyze accessibility to certain types of jobs – not just all jobs • Ask communities what are key issues for them • North-south service was important to East Portland community during Powell-Division BRT planning • Since longer term forecasting is more uncertain, focus on short- term known gaps • Metro 2018 RTP process is recognizing this reality • Cumulative impacts • Planners need to look beyond impacts from current projects and recognize history of burdens in a community
  14. 14. Source:U.S.CensusBureau–LongitudinalHousehold-EmploymentDynamics–“Onthe Map”tool–onthemap.ces.census.gov Middle-High Wage Jobs Low Wage Jobs with Lisa K. Bates, PSU. NITC Grant RR-912
  15. 15. Access to Manufacturing jobs by transit and auto, Project Scenario San Francisco Oakland San Jose San Francisco Oakland San Jose Automobile Transit with Karel Martens, Technion
  16. 16. Access to Service jobs by transit and auto, Project Scenario San Francisco Oakland San Jose San Francisco Oakland San Jose Automobile Transit
  17. 17. Average Access to jobs by Scenario Manufacturing Jobs Service Jobs
  18. 18. Equity Measures for Service / Operations
  19. 19. Numerous measures • Impacts of changes in service • Disparate impacts (Title VI) and burdens (EJ) • Frequency, service span, stop amenities, fare • Equity of crowding, lateness, etc. Advances • AVL and smart cards and other technologies will add new data sources for equity analysis • Real time vehicle location, delay, crowding, wheelchair capacity, etc. • Title VI analysis of service changes, route demographics • Uncertain how to tie travel to traveler demographics (opt-in?)
  20. 20. Example: Analysis of disparities in on-time performance with Alex Karner, UT Austin and Celeste Chavis, Morgan State University National Transportation Center at U of Maryland #NTC2015-MU-R-1 Mean arrival delay by transit stop
  21. 21. Typical “gap analysis”: higher transit supply found in census tracts with higher demand Adjusted for on-time performance, no significant relationship
  22. 22. Other equity considerations for transit planning • Housing • Smart cities and transit
  23. 23. Using transit access to jobs for housing planning with Qing Zhong, University of Arizona, Alex Karner, UT Austin, and Mike Kuby, Arizona State University
  24. 24. Equity issues in smart cities / transit • NITC-supported research on equity issues in “smart city” transit technologies • Series of focus groups with low-income and transit-dependent East Portland residents • Education & Training: • How to use technology - especially smartphone and apps • Generation divide creates digital divide • Language issues in many apps • Need in-person trainings at trusted institutions • Privacy & Security • Most had some form of access to the internet • Concerns about privacy and security • Few link accounts to phone • Financial Services​ • Many lack access to formal banking services or credit • Concerns with crowding • Ability to store strollers, wheelchairs on-board • Want real-time crowding info
  25. 25. Discussion and questions…
  26. 26. 1 Evaluating Transportation Equity in Long Range Transportation Plans Grace Cho, Associate Transportation Planner, Metro Transportation and Communities Summit Portland State University September 11, 2017 1 Getting there equitably
  27. 27. 2 Transportation Equity Framework
  28. 28. 3 Why Equity Matters • Pedestrian fatality rates for African Americans are 60% higher than for non- Hispanic whites, and 43% higher for Hispanics than whites. • Nearly 1 in 5 Americans rely on accessible transportation infrastructure (i.e. curb ramps, wheelchair-accessible transit, etc.) for daily travel. • Nearly 20% of African-American households, 14% of Latino households, and 13% of Asian households live without a car. • Racial minorities are 4 times more likely than Whites to rely on transit for their work commute. • Households in the bottom 90% income bracket spend twice the amount on transportation that households in the top 10% income bracket spend each year. Source: Transportation Equity Caucus, Policy Link and The Leadership Conference
  29. 29. 4 Regional Policies Metro’s Six Desired Outcomes
  30. 30. 5 Outcomes-Based RTP Source: 2014 Regional Transportation Plan
  31. 31. 6 Transportation Equity - Guiding Principles • Measure what historically marginalized communities care about • Support leaderships desire to understand the regional transportation investment package effects on equity Photo Courtesy of the Street Trust, 2016.
  32. 32. 7 Historically Marginalized Communities • People of Color • People in Poverty • People Uncomfortable Speaking English • Elders • Young’uns
  33. 33. 8 Listening and Directing Transportation Equity Work Group Other Work Groups
  34. 34. 9 Outcomes for the 2018 RTP • Refine regional policies pertaining to equity • Refine long-range transportation investment program • Reinforce equity in the performance management program • Set performance targets • Currently three RTP targets aimed at equity – affordability, access, and transportation safety • Long-term system evaluation • Monitoring program
  35. 35. 10 Evaluate What Is Meaningful
  36. 36. 11 Transportation Equity Evaluation Approach System Evaluation • Investment scenarios • Future-oriented • Performance directionality • Quantitative • Modeled (travel demand and land use) & GIS Project Evaluation • Individual projects • Present-oriented • Benefits and impacts • Qualitative • Self Assessment
  37. 37. 12 Cycle of Outcomes-Based Planning & Evaluation Policy and plan development Collected and forecasted data Plan monitoring Collected data Plan evaluation Collected and forecasted data Current year collected data Future year forecasted data
  38. 38. 13 Priorities Translates to… Six transportation equity system evaluation measures: • Access to Jobs (by wage profile) • Access to Community Places • Completeness and Connectivity of the Active Transportation Network • Share of Transportation Safety Projects and Investments • Exposure to Non-Freeway Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) • Housing + Transportation Expenditure and Cost Burden • High Value Habitat Impacts
  39. 39. 14 Assessment Tools and Data Tools Used: • Travel Demand Model • Metroscope • GIS Data Used: • Census (population) • Bureau of Labor Statistics (jobs and wages) • North American Industry Classification System Codes (places) • Transportation Project Details (scope) • High Value Habitat
  40. 40. 15 System Evaluation – Access to Jobs
  41. 41. 16 Share of Transportation Safety Investment
  42. 42. 17 Project Evaluation – Equity & Access to Opportunity • Consistent w/ identified priorities • Complementary to system evaluation
  43. 43. 18 Testing and Lessons Learned
  44. 44. 1919 Testing and Early Findings • System-wide access and transportation safety perform in desired direction • Overall change minor, but effects (benefits or impacts) are relative • East Portland/Multnomah County see greater gains
  45. 45. 2020 Lessons Learned The big ones… • Value in system and project-based evaluation • Limitations to both methods • Both provide important information • System evaluation analysis disaggregation – what is the right balance of geographic scale? • Region – good, but not enough detail • Project geography is too intensive and possible redundant • Don’t let perfection be the enemy of the good!
  46. 46. 21 What Next?
  47. 47. 2222 Next Steps • Refine investment package based on results • Build “short list of actions” • Refine RTP performance management program • Updated performance targets • Monitoring 2017 2018 June 1 to July 21 2017CALL FOR PROJECTS /DRAFT STRATEGY EVALUATE STRATEGY Round 1 EVALUATE REFINED STRATEGY Round 2 July to Dec. 2017 May to June 30, 2018 Building the RTP Investment Strategy REFINE MEASURES if needed Jan. to April 2018 REFINE STRATEGY
  48. 48. 2323 Thank You Grace Cho, Transportation Planner Oregon Metro Grace.cho@oregonmetro.gov http://www.oregonmetro.gov/ Search for 2018 RTP
  49. 49. Equitable Transportation Investments Maria Hernandez Segoviano Advocacy Coordinator OPAL Environmental Justice Oregon
  50. 50. OPAL -Organizing People/Activating Leaders ● Environmental justice acknowledges that the quality of our environment affects our lives and negative environmental effects should not disproportionately burden low-income or other impacted communities.
  51. 51. Equity in Transportation Investments The goal of transportation decisions should not be to move people faster and farther, but to OFFER MORE OPTIONS, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and increase access to all the opportunities and amenities necessary for a healthy life: jobs, housing, education, family, community, health, and recreation.
  52. 52. Equity Measures ● Transportation Accessibility - Transit tends to be an important mode of transportation for low-income populations, who are less likely to have access to a car. ● Affordability- The actual out-of-pocket travel costs in monetary terms rather than as time spent or distance traveled, ● Health and safety- It is not sufficient to measure accessibility or affordability in an equity framework if a transportation system poses considerable health and safety risks to its users. ● Procedural Equity- refers the processes through which transportation infrastructure and services are delivered and regulated.
  53. 53. Transportation Package Overview Proposed: ● Progressive, reliable and permanent funding source for transit operations. ● Dedicated state road funding to maintenance, repair and upgrades, not new road capacity. Obtained: ● Regressive, permanent funding source for transit operations. ● New road expansion
  54. 54. Low Income Fare Equity Program
  55. 55. Congestion Pricing- Next Steps Toll roads impact environmental justice communities in the alignment and impacts from the ability to take advantage of better service thus affecting low income and communities of color the most. 1. Income equity: Are low-income groups negatively affected? Is a system that places the burden of travel-behavior change disproportionately on low income individuals fair? 2. Geographic equity: Are some parts of the region made worse off than other parts? Will traffic diversion from tolled routes negatively impact neighborhoods or reduce performance on alternative toll-free routes? 3. Modal equity: Are public perceptions with regard to encouragement of multi-modal transportation addressed? For example, some believe that it is not fair to offer the same travel-time savings to those who pay a toll as to those who “do the right thing” by carpooling or taking transit
  56. 56. Thank you!

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