Was 2009 krill oil presentation

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Was 2009 krill oil presentation

  1. 1. SUPPLEMENTATION OFKRILL OIL IN THEFEEDING OFLitopenaeus vannameiCAN COUTERACT THEDETRIMENTALEFFECTS OF HIGHSALINITYAlberto J.P. Nunes1, SigveNordrum, Otávio Serino Castro,Marcelo V.C. SáLABOMAR*. Brazil1E-mail: albertojpn@uol.com.br WAS 2009 Meeting*Part of Universidade Federal do Ceará Veracruz, Mexico Shrimp Nutrition Special Session September 26th, 2009 03:10 pm
  2. 2. Rationale In shrimp farms water salinity can vary from less than 1‰ to more than 50‰ Salinity fluctuates mainly as a response to season, pond depth, water exchange rates, pumping site Influence of pumping site to riverine water affects Ideal salinities for the rearing water sality of L. vannamei is around 20‰ Species can tolerate wide range of salinities, but above 40‰, osmoregulatory ability can be depreciated High water salinity leads to increased feed intake, poor FCR and slow growth Grow-out pond in an hypersaline area with salt accumulated on the bottom
  3. 3. Review Outside fatty acid cell Liu et al. (2007) supplementing vitamin E (dietary tocopheryl acetate) at 600 and 1,000 mg/kg of diet for L. vannamei experienced an increase in shrimp resistance to acute salinity changes Hurtado et al. (2006) were able to demonstrate that growth of L. vannamei at high salinities was enhanced when fed on HUFA- Inside cell enriched diets Hurtado et al. (2007) observed The cell membrane is formed by lipid bi-layer. that a higher proportion of HUFA Phospholipids are the major lipid group within in gill membrane in shrimp fed the membrane and contain a range of fatty the high-HUFA diet counteracted acids including eicosapentanoic acid (EPA). the influence of salinity on water Source: AkerBiomarine ASA, Norway content in gills during a long-term salinity exposure
  4. 4. Objectives1. To evaluate if supplementation of Krill oil improves the growth performance of juveniles of L. vannamei when reared under hypersaline water conditions2. To determine optimum Krill oil (Qrill™, AkerBiomarine ASA, inclusion levels of Krill oil Norway) produced from the Antarctic Krill in diets for the Pacific (Euphausia superba) white shrimp when exposed to high salinity rearing conditions
  5. 5. LABOMAR/UFC Pacoti River EstuaryEusébio. BRAZIL Indoor tanks Outdoor tanks 19/jan/2009
  6. 6. Rearing SystemINDOOR50 tanksClear water500-L volume0.57 m2 areaXXXX shrimp/m2
  7. 7. Formulas and experimental design Experimental Design DIETS Salinity EPA+DHA Req. Experimental diets: FISH Both Satisfied* • One diet containing a combination of fish and KRILL Both Satisfied* soybean oil (diet FISH) SOY Both Deficient • One diet with Krill and soybean KRILL- HIGH 50% deficient oil (diet KRILL) KRILL+ HIGH 25% above* • One diet with soybean oil alone *based on 80% of that required by Penaeus monodon (diet SOY) (Glencross et al., 2002) • Two diets containing low and high inclusion levels of Krill oil in combination with soybean oil FISH KRILL SOY FISH (diets KRILL- and KRILL+, respectively) Salinity conditions • IDEAL (21 – 26‰) and HIGH KRILL SOY KRILL- KRILL+ (40 – 47‰) salinity conditions • KRILL- and KRILL+ tested under high water salinity alone
  8. 8. Tank Distribution FA01 FB06 FC11 FD16 FE21 FF26 FG31 FH36 FI41 FJ46 FA02 FB07 FC12 FD17 FE22 FF27 FG32 FH37 FI42 FJ47 FA03 FB08 FC13 FD18 FE23 FF28 FG33 FH38 FI43 FJ48 FA04 FB09 FC14 FD19 FE24 FF29 FG34 FH39 FI44 FJ49 FA05 FB10 FC15 FD20 FE25 FF30 FG35 FH40 FI45 FJ50 IDEAL water salinity (20 - 26‰) HIGH water salinity (40 - 47‰) FISH SOY KRILL KRILL- KRILL+Six replicate tanks were assigned for each diet, except FISH and KRILL whichused a total of seven replicate tanks under IDEAL salinity conditions.Allotment of feeds in rearing tanks followed a random block design
  9. 9. Formulas (g/kg) INGREDIENT FISH KRILL SOY KRILL- KRILL+ Soybean meal, 46% CP 350.00 350.00 350.00 350.00 350.00Protein Ingredients Wheat flour 298.71 299.80 300.00 300.00 291.46 Poultry by-product meal 100.00 100.00 105.00 100.00 67.50 Fishmeal, Anchovy 60.17 71.58 70.55 75.62 68.90 Soybean protein concentrate 32.48 19.10 16.65 16.65 20.00 Corn gluten meal, 65% CP 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 40.00 DL-methionine crystalline, 99% 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 4.61 Fish oil 26.65 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Lipid sources Krill oil (QRILL™) 0.00 48.28 0.00 14.53 55.00 Soybean oil 10.00 4.45 34.49 21.21 3.82 Lecithin, soybean 15.00 0.00 15.00 15.00 0.00 Cholesterol (Solvay) 0.00 0.00 1.31 0.00 0.38 Rice, broken 40.00 40.00 40.00 40.00 40.00 Phosphate monodicalcium 13.00 13.00 13.00 13.00 13.00Fixed portion Potassium chloride (KCl) 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 Squid meal, whole 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 Salt common 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 Mineral-Vitamin Premix (DSM) 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 Synthetic binder (Bentoli) 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 Ascorbic acid polyphosphate (DSM) 2.00 1.80 2.00 2.00 1.34
  10. 10. Chemical Composition FISH SOY KRILL KRILL+ KRILL-Nutritional Levels Crude protein¹ 351.8 354.4 353.5 353.1 351.8 Crude fiber¹ 12.0 9.0 13.3 12.0 13.3 Ash¹ 93.7 89.5 91.0 82.3 91.0 Gross Energy (kcal/kg) 4,184 4,273 4,209 4,212 4,306Inclusion of Lipid Sources Fish oil1 26.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Krill oil1,2 0.0 0.0 48.3 55 14.5 Soybean oil1 10.0 34.5 4.5 3.8 21.2 Cholesterol1,3 0.0 1.3 0.0 0.4 0.0 Soybean lecithin1 15.0 15.0 0.0 0.0 15.0 Ratio Marine:Plant Oil 2.7 0.0 11.0 14.4 0.4Nutrient Levels Total lipid content1 88.80 94.00 80.80 91.30 80.50 DHA (C22:6n-3)4 2.54 0.28 1.60 1.37 0.59 EPA (C20:5n-3)4 5.10 0.65 5.35 5.07 0.00 Ʃ HUFA4,5 7.64 0.93 6.94 6.44 0.59 LOA (C18:2n-6)4 28.32 44.71 16.21 17.97 33.66 LNA (C18:3n-3)4 3.40 4.91 1.52 2.03 3.94 Ʃ EFA4,6 39.36 50.54 24.68 26.44 38.19 Astaxanthin (ug/100 ul) 13.80 14.70 21.40 17.30 ---1in g/kg of diet as wet basis.2QRILL™ oil, Aker Biomarine ASA (Oslo, Norway).3Cholesterol XG, Solvay Pharmaceuticals BV (Weesp, Netherlands).4in % of total lipid content in the diet.5sum of highly unsaturated fatty acids (DHA+EPA).6sum of essential fatty acids (DHA+EPA+LOA+LNA).
  11. 11. Study Set-up NURSERY  PL12 reared in nursery tanks of 3,000PL Stocking Header tank L at 2.4 PL/L for 48 20,000 L days when they reached 0.65 ± 0.28 g (n = 152)Rearing in 3,000 L tanks CONDITIONING PERIOD Salt dilution  140 shrimp/m2 (80 shrimp/tank) and raised for 22 days for a conditioning period to water salinity  IDEAL: from 25 ± 0.9‰ (3.4% CV) to 24 ± 0.4‰ (2.0% CV)  HIGH: from 36 ± 0.8‰ (2.2%Harvest CV) to 40 ± 0.4‰ (1.0% CV) Stocking and acclimation
  12. 12. Data Collection1. After 22 days of acclimation started on experimental diets at 2.79 ± 0.60 g2. Density reduced to 70 shrimp/m2 or 40 shrimp/tank3. Fed twice daily in feeding trays at 0730 and 1600 h on a consumption basis4. Daily water analysis • pH, temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen5. 22-24 day interval – 10 shrimp/tank were weighed6. After 64 days shrimp were counted and individually weighed 1. weekly growth rate (g/week) 2. Final body weight (g) Feeding protocol used to adjust the amount of feed 3. final survival (%) delivered based estimated consumption from trays 4. yield (g/m 2) % Amount of Feed Ration Adjustment Feed Left in Trays 5. food conversion ratio (FCR) < 10% No change in feed ration > 10% Deliver 75% of original feed ration No feed remains Increase 10% of original feed ration
  13. 13. 50 8.6 IDEAL water salinity tanks Water Quality 8.4 Salinity (ppt) - Temperature (oC) 45 Salinity (‰) Temperature (ƒC) 8.2 pH 8.0 Trend towards increasing 40 7.8 salinity, from 22‰ to 25‰ pH 35 7.6 under IDEAL salinity tanks 7.4 30 7.2 and from 41‰ to 45‰ under 7.0 HIGH salinity tanks 25 6.8 No differences between 20 6.6 treatments for pH, salinity Days of Rearing and temperature 50 HIGH water salinity tanks 8.6 8.4 Significant differences 45 Salinity (ppt) - Temperature (oC) 8.2 between HIGH and IDEAL 8.0 40 for water salinity Salinity (‰) Temperature (ƒC) 7.8 pH 35 pH 7.6 7.4 30 7.2Par. IDEAL HIGH 7.0 25pH 7.27 ± 0.33 7.35 ± 0.21 6.8 20 6.6Salin. 23 ± 1.2* 44 ± 2.0* 1 3 6 8 11 14 16 18 21 23 27 29 31 34 36 39 42 44 46 50 52 55 57 60 63 Days of RearingTemp. 27.3 ± 0.46 27.5 ± 0.46
  14. 14. Final Shrimp Survival (%) P = 0.896100.0% P = 0.720 96.3% 95.0% 95.0% 93.8% 94.2% 91.8% 92.5% 90.0%90.0%80.0%70.0%60.0% FISH SOY KRILL FISH SOY KRILL KRILL - KRILL+ IDEALwater salinity HIGH water salinity 1. Chronic exposure to high salinity did not deteriorate shrimp survival 2. Increasing n-3 HUFA provided no additional benefit to shrimp survival
  15. 15. Shrimp Yield (g/m2) Yield for KRILL 12-13% higher compared to FISH, SOY and KRILL- 650 P = 0.550 P = 0.370 598 600 579 569 555 550 536 533 531 529 500 450 400 FISH SOY KRILL FISH SOY KRILL KRILL- KRILL+ IDEALwater salinity HIGH water salinity1. Final shrimp yield did not vary significantly among different diets regardless of the salinity concentration
  16. 16. Shrimp Final Body Weight (g) at 1.45% KRILL- could not counterbalance the effects of KRILL able to promote a significantly higher shrimp high salinity growth compared to FISH and SOY, regardless of salinity No growth 12.50 improvements by further increase in 12.03 KRILL+ at 5.50% P < 0.0001 11.91 12.00 11.79 11.52 c B B 11.50 11.12 b 10.96 10.86 10.88 11.00 a A A A 10.50 P < 0.0001 10.00 FISH SOY KRILL FISH SOY KRILL KRILL- KRILL+ IDEAL water salinity HIGH water salinityFactorial analyses:both water salinity and diet type had a significant effect on shrimp body weight
  17. 17. Weekly Growth Rate (%) 10.0 8.33% WEIGHT GAIN DEPRESSION AFTER SALINITY STRESS (%) 8.0 Y = 1.451X2 - 24.84X + 109.0 R² = 1.000 6.0 4.0 3.22% 2.94% 2.0 0.0 SOY FISH KRILL As water salinity increased from IDEAL to HIGH there was a growth depression, less significant with animals fed the KRILL diet
  18. 18. Conclusions SALINITY 1. The higher the salinity, the more important was n-3 HUFA (DHA + EPA) to boost shrimp growth 2. Under 21 – 26‰ shrimp did not appear to require diets with high n-3 HUFA (DHA + EPA) levels as they performed well when fed a diet containing only a vegetable oil source (i.e., soybean oil) SOURCES 3. KRILL oil delivered an increased shrimp growth under both regular (21 – 26‰) and hypersaline (40 – 47‰) rearing conditions compared to the other lipid sources tested LEVELS 4. Under persistent hypersaline conditions, daily exposure to KRILL oil appeared to be more important than an increased inclusion level 5. Under hypersaline water, n-3 HUFA, particularly DHA had the greatest impact on shrimp growth. Best final body weight was achieved when projected DHA achieved 1.6% of total lipid content 6. No further enhancement in growth was observed when DHA levels exceeded this threshold for a salinity of 44 ± 2.0‰.

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