Dream Society? Ubiquitous Society?               No Society?Futures for Finland and the world as seen      from a small Pa...
I would like to start by paying my respects             to Pentti Malaska          and Mika Mannermaa.
They were both wonderful friends,                inspiring colleagues,                      and frequent pranksters and po...
I remember them well                     here in Finland,                      in Dubrovnik,          at various venues ar...
It always seemed to be overcast, cool, and rainy           when they visited Hawaii,instead of our normal clear and warm w...
Well, I am complaining--          they abandoned us too soon,      with too much work remaining to do,and so the rest of u...
I have been involved in futures studies         for a very long time.
I became interested in futures studieswhile I was teaching for six years                        in the College of Law and ...
I taught the first officially-recognized futures course    while I was at Virginia Tech in the late 1960s.
I went to the University of Hawaii in 1970,just as something called "Hawaii 2000"was being formed by the governor, legisla...
One of the many outcomes of that process was the creation, by the Hawaii State Legislature,of the Hawaii Research Center f...
In the mid 1970s, the Department of Political Science,          of which I am a member, created a  two-year academic and i...
and since then has produced a stream of people      who have earned very good livings             as consulting futurists
Many also stayed on for a PhD in political science     with a focus on alternative futures.
During the 1980s and 90s, I was first         Secretary General        and then President ofthe World Futures Studies Fede...
As such I got to see what "the future" looks like      in over forty countries of the world.
During the 1970s and 80s,I also taught futures courses every spring       in the InterUniversity Center          for Postg...
Most importantly, during the 1980s and early 90s     I went to almost every       Communist nationand talked with people w...
I can assure you that the future is very different                when seen from         different cultures and places.
So it is out of forty years of work around the world          that I bring you this summary of                what futures...
Futures Studies, Planning & Policy-Making,            and Administration        Futures Studies is related to             ...
Just as day-to-day administration is to be guided            by planning and policies, so also should planning and policie...
Futures Studies:Some fundamental principles
Futurists can not    predict THE Future (No one can)
A prediction      is intended to be      a true statement    an accurate statement      about the futures.Once we lived in...
But futurists can and do       forecastAlternative FuturesS  (and so should you)
A forecast is intended to bea logical statementa useful statementabout the futures.
Futures are      plural,   alternative,     diverse,    possible:    futuribles      Not   THE Future      butAlternative ...
Most importantlyfutures studies helps you         invent  Preferred Futures
But to be effectivethe process of forecasting and envisioning              must be done              continuously         ...
Do not Predict “THE Future”Forecast “Alternative FutureS”  Invent “Preferred Futures”        Continuously
Futures studies as an academic and as a consulting activityis based on the identification and analysis of           images...
TheoryTrends   Images    Events         Methods
Stages of social evolution and changes in       communication technologies200,000   Pre-speech    Homo Sapiens35, 000   Sp...
WHAT’S NEXT??                ?
The answer to the question:               whats next?                is always:There are four generic alternative futures.
Four Generic Alternative Futures    Continued Growth          Collapse   Disciplined SocietyTransformational Society
WHAT’S NEXT??                ?
WHAT’S NEXT?CONTINUED GROWTH?
WHAT’S NEXT? COLLAPSE?
WHAT’S NEXT?A DISCIPLINED SOCIETY?
WHAT’S NEXT?A TRANSFORMATIONAL SOCIETY?
Four Generic Alternative Futures    Continued Growth          Collapse   Disciplined SocietyTransformational Society
Grow(The official view of the future everywhere)
Collapse(The future of our nightmares and growing concerns
Discipline(Sustaining fundamental values and avoiding collapse)
Transform(Evolving towards posthumans, new life, and NotEarth)
Please note that         we did not         "make up" these four generic futures.       They are notproducts of our imagin...
They are products ofyears of empirical research  on the huge number of   images of the futures         that exist       in...
All of the billions of      images of the futures     that exist in the world  are variations of one of thefour generic al...
It is clear that Continued Economic Growth              is the official future             for most of the world.
I am very eager to learn if it is different here,
there is only            One Futurebeing discussed in the United States and in most of the part of the world      I am mos...
Obama and Romney both argue over    who can get the economy         growing again.
Neither expresses the slightest doubt that   the economy can, should, and will              grow again.
There is nothing inthe words of any American politician,          or business leader,       or university president,      ...
who is quoted in      The New York Timesor any other American newspaper    or on any television station
to make anyone doubt that the recession will be overand that growth will start again,        if we just follow       the r...
Absolutely nothing      came out of        Rio+20     in June 2012to indicate otherwise.
Few leaders from any of the       major countries attended,and there was nothing in the final report   pointing to any ser...
If we will just   let the market place        do its magic    without hindrancefrom some monster called      "government",...
What do you think?
I was asked  by the people who invited me here      to say something about the          Ubiquitous Society,something you a...
And of course there are  Four Futures for    a U-Society:
One U-Society       will emerge from      the continuation ofthe dominant economic trends         from the past.
It will be a marvelous electronic world            --led by Nokia       it goes without saying--
with friendly, alert, helpful, benign                chips        in the environment          in our clothing            i...
guiding us, helping us, keeping us well,           making us lawful,      and making lots of money,      while providing l...
Well,maybe so.
In fact, it must be so       since it appears   everyone believes that.Or at least everyone says that.
Well, to be truthful  not everyone    says that.
There is a version ofContinued Growth of a U-Society        which looks atthe dark side of the technology.
One can make a very, very       strong case    for the dark side.
Especially in the United States,   where the inhabitants of     the land of the free  and the home of the brave           ...
to welcome eagerlyevery possible technology     of surveillance,         control,           and      "protection."
Our new national anthem is the old song by Police:
Every breath you takeAnd every move you makeEvery bond you break, every step you takeIll be watching youEvery single dayAn...
But thats OK.     This version of     the U-Society  still makes money forelectronic manufacturers,   so whats the worry?
Privacy is a very new--and now obsolete--   notion anyway.
Almost everything that I have          read or heard  about the Ubiquitous Society      is a variation of thosetwo version...
But there are other futures     for a U-Society.
Collapse.
The collapse of    the kind of societywith the kinds of resources      and institutions        that enable        any kind...
I have spent a lot of time thinking about collapse.
Trying to determine how                to make collapse                a good thing!           a wonderful opportunity!  s...
How about you?
Are you concerned about what I call  The Unholy Trinity, Plus One       that may be leading tosocial and environmental col...
I call it the Unholy Trinity because,   like the Christian Holy Trinity,            it is three entities          that are...
But they are all related.   One can not be understoodwithout understanding the others.
The Unholy Trinity metaphor illustrates            our tragedy:     three looming, interrelated,    but ignored (as a unit...
1) the end of abundant and cheap oil         with no replacement in sight,in spite of current declarations to the contrary;
2) the necessity of dealing withneglected environmental issues, such as global climate change,          sea-level rise,  w...
3) the collapse in 2007       of the global economic system          based on advertising and         complex debt instrum...
"Plus One"      refers to the fundamental   inability of most governmentsto deal effectively with these issues,      becau...
In light of the Unholy Trinty          Plus One, It is very hard to see how         a U-Society           based onContinue...
We all need to learn howto fish, farm and shoot.
No!   others say.There is still time.
We need to abandonContinued Economic Growth     and build instead
a Sustainable Societya Conserver Societya Disciplined Society
We need Green Growth!
or no growth at allof the conventional kind.
These words are often heard.
But, it may be  too late.
Many people argued for a Conserver Society    40 years ago,
But it seems too late now. We are in now living in        the futurewe were warned about then,
even though there will bemany more changes ahead.
Some of you may remember  when I was here before     many years ago.  I was speaking then ofa Transformational Society
a High Tech Transformation         driven byrobots, artificial intelligence,    autonomous beings,  posthumans, transhumans
I have not abandoned the Transformational Society           That is my preferred future.
Consider my name:     Dator.
Yes!       I AM    a computer.I am not a human being
I am a human becoming    a post human.
I yearn for    a Dream Society   a world of dreams,         icons,and aesthetic experience.
That is the kind ofUbiquitous Society I want:    A Dream Society!
as the American poet Richard Brautigan   wrote years ago
I like to think (andthe sooner the better!)of a cybernetic meadowwhere mammals and computerslive together in mutuallyprogr...
I like to think              (right now, please!)            of a cybernetic forestfilled with pines and electronics     w...
I like to think         (it has to be!)    of a cybernetic ecologywhere we are free of our labors  and joined back to natu...
I am still hopeful            that such aTransformational Future is possible.
That we will havethe energy, imagination, and will             to create      a Ubiquitous Society  that merges life with ...
Pentti Malaska wrote:
Time flows to the presentfrom two directions
from the past--asaccomplished deedsand material manifestations,as can be perceived, and
from the future--asour aims, intentions andideas as conceived.
At the present they moldtogether andform our reality.
Mika Mannermaa wrote:
In the not-so-distant futureI can sit on the shoreof a remote mountain riverin Laplandwith the whole world in my pocket.
I dont have to wait for anything,because I live in a world of Instantism.
Maybe Ill spend this dayreading throughDostojevskis whole production,or maybe, all ofHarry Potter instead.
I can visit the Louvreor watch all the episodes of the TV seriesFriends,or at least the earlier better ones.
I will spend some timewith my alter egos invarious virtual versums.
In the eveningI want to meet my childrenin our virtual cottage.
But today?
I will catch the big one!
Mika was correct:
Surfs up!
It is time for all of us    to prepare to surfsome very big tsunami.
Dream Society? Ubiquitous Society?               No Society?Futures for Finland and the world as seen      from a small Pa...
Professor Jim Dator, Hawaii Research Center for Futures Studies
Professor Jim Dator, Hawaii Research Center for Futures Studies
Professor Jim Dator, Hawaii Research Center for Futures Studies
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Professor Jim Dator, Hawaii Research Center for Futures Studies

  1. 1. Dream Society? Ubiquitous Society? No Society?Futures for Finland and the world as seen from a small Pacific Island. August 2012 Jim DatorHawaii Research Center for Futures Studies Department of Political Science University of Hawaii at Manoa
  2. 2. I would like to start by paying my respects to Pentti Malaska and Mika Mannermaa.
  3. 3. They were both wonderful friends, inspiring colleagues, and frequent pranksters and poetswho had an enormous influence on my life and thoughts.
  4. 4. I remember them well here in Finland, in Dubrovnik, at various venues around the world,and in Hawaii where they somehow usually managed to bring a "Finnish summer" with them.
  5. 5. It always seemed to be overcast, cool, and rainy when they visited Hawaii,instead of our normal clear and warm weather. But they never complained.
  6. 6. Well, I am complaining-- they abandoned us too soon, with too much work remaining to do,and so the rest of us will just have to work harder on their behalf.
  7. 7. I have been involved in futures studies for a very long time.
  8. 8. I became interested in futures studieswhile I was teaching for six years in the College of Law and Politics of Rikkyo University in Tokyo, Japan in the early 1960s.
  9. 9. I taught the first officially-recognized futures course while I was at Virginia Tech in the late 1960s.
  10. 10. I went to the University of Hawaii in 1970,just as something called "Hawaii 2000"was being formed by the governor, legislature,business community and university--
  11. 11. One of the many outcomes of that process was the creation, by the Hawaii State Legislature,of the Hawaii Research Center for Futures Studies, placed at the University of Hawaii, in 1972. I have been Director of that Center since then.
  12. 12. In the mid 1970s, the Department of Political Science, of which I am a member, created a two-year academic and internship MA program in Alternative Futures,
  13. 13. and since then has produced a stream of people who have earned very good livings as consulting futurists
  14. 14. Many also stayed on for a PhD in political science with a focus on alternative futures.
  15. 15. During the 1980s and 90s, I was first Secretary General and then President ofthe World Futures Studies Federation.
  16. 16. As such I got to see what "the future" looks like in over forty countries of the world.
  17. 17. During the 1970s and 80s,I also taught futures courses every spring in the InterUniversity Center for Postgraduate Studies in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia.
  18. 18. Most importantly, during the 1980s and early 90s I went to almost every Communist nationand talked with people who were interested in a different futurefrom the one then ahead of them.
  19. 19. I can assure you that the future is very different when seen from different cultures and places.
  20. 20. So it is out of forty years of work around the world that I bring you this summary of what futures studies is and is not:
  21. 21. Futures Studies, Planning & Policy-Making, and Administration Futures Studies is related to but different from Planning and Policy-Making Just as Planning and Policy-making are related to but different from day-to-day Administration.
  22. 22. Just as day-to-day administration is to be guided by planning and policies, so also should planning and policies be guided by prior futures foresight activities. Policy-making and planning without prior futures foresight is at best worthless and most likely harmful.
  23. 23. Futures Studies:Some fundamental principles
  24. 24. Futurists can not predict THE Future (No one can)
  25. 25. A prediction is intended to be a true statement an accurate statement about the futures.Once we lived in communitieswhere prediction was possible. Not now!
  26. 26. But futurists can and do forecastAlternative FuturesS (and so should you)
  27. 27. A forecast is intended to bea logical statementa useful statementabout the futures.
  28. 28. Futures are plural, alternative, diverse, possible: futuribles Not THE Future butAlternative FutureS
  29. 29. Most importantlyfutures studies helps you invent Preferred Futures
  30. 30. But to be effectivethe process of forecasting and envisioning must be done continuously and not be a one-shot activity
  31. 31. Do not Predict “THE Future”Forecast “Alternative FutureS” Invent “Preferred Futures” Continuously
  32. 32. Futures studies as an academic and as a consulting activityis based on the identification and analysis of images of the futures; theories of social stability and change; methods of social forecasting and design; continuing trends; and emerging issues:
  33. 33. TheoryTrends Images Events Methods
  34. 34. Stages of social evolution and changes in communication technologies200,000 Pre-speech Homo Sapiens35, 000 Speech Hunting & Gathering5,000 Writing Agricultural400 Printing Industrial100 Electronics InformationNow ???? ????
  35. 35. WHAT’S NEXT?? ?
  36. 36. The answer to the question: whats next? is always:There are four generic alternative futures.
  37. 37. Four Generic Alternative Futures Continued Growth Collapse Disciplined SocietyTransformational Society
  38. 38. WHAT’S NEXT?? ?
  39. 39. WHAT’S NEXT?CONTINUED GROWTH?
  40. 40. WHAT’S NEXT? COLLAPSE?
  41. 41. WHAT’S NEXT?A DISCIPLINED SOCIETY?
  42. 42. WHAT’S NEXT?A TRANSFORMATIONAL SOCIETY?
  43. 43. Four Generic Alternative Futures Continued Growth Collapse Disciplined SocietyTransformational Society
  44. 44. Grow(The official view of the future everywhere)
  45. 45. Collapse(The future of our nightmares and growing concerns
  46. 46. Discipline(Sustaining fundamental values and avoiding collapse)
  47. 47. Transform(Evolving towards posthumans, new life, and NotEarth)
  48. 48. Please note that we did not "make up" these four generic futures. They are notproducts of our imagination.
  49. 49. They are products ofyears of empirical research on the huge number of images of the futures that exist in our minds, our stories, our movies, our strategic plans, our daily actions.
  50. 50. All of the billions of images of the futures that exist in the world are variations of one of thefour generic alternative futuresor some combination of the four.
  51. 51. It is clear that Continued Economic Growth is the official future for most of the world.
  52. 52. I am very eager to learn if it is different here,
  53. 53. there is only One Futurebeing discussed in the United States and in most of the part of the world I am most familiar with--Japan, Korea, China, Southeast Asia.
  54. 54. Obama and Romney both argue over who can get the economy growing again.
  55. 55. Neither expresses the slightest doubt that the economy can, should, and will grow again.
  56. 56. There is nothing inthe words of any American politician, or business leader, or university president, or economist
  57. 57. who is quoted in The New York Timesor any other American newspaper or on any television station
  58. 58. to make anyone doubt that the recession will be overand that growth will start again, if we just follow the right policies.
  59. 59. Absolutely nothing came out of Rio+20 in June 2012to indicate otherwise.
  60. 60. Few leaders from any of the major countries attended,and there was nothing in the final report pointing to any serious concerns for the futures.
  61. 61. If we will just let the market place do its magic without hindrancefrom some monster called "government", then all will be well.
  62. 62. What do you think?
  63. 63. I was asked by the people who invited me here to say something about the Ubiquitous Society,something you already know a lot about.
  64. 64. And of course there are Four Futures for a U-Society:
  65. 65. One U-Society will emerge from the continuation ofthe dominant economic trends from the past.
  66. 66. It will be a marvelous electronic world --led by Nokia it goes without saying--
  67. 67. with friendly, alert, helpful, benign chips in the environment in our clothing in our bodies all around us,
  68. 68. guiding us, helping us, keeping us well, making us lawful, and making lots of money, while providing lots of jobs for everyone forever.
  69. 69. Well,maybe so.
  70. 70. In fact, it must be so since it appears everyone believes that.Or at least everyone says that.
  71. 71. Well, to be truthful not everyone says that.
  72. 72. There is a version ofContinued Growth of a U-Society which looks atthe dark side of the technology.
  73. 73. One can make a very, very strong case for the dark side.
  74. 74. Especially in the United States, where the inhabitants of the land of the free and the home of the brave seem, since September 2001,
  75. 75. to welcome eagerlyevery possible technology of surveillance, control, and "protection."
  76. 76. Our new national anthem is the old song by Police:
  77. 77. Every breath you takeAnd every move you makeEvery bond you break, every step you takeIll be watching youEvery single dayAnd every word you sayEvery game you play, every night you stayIll be watching you
  78. 78. But thats OK. This version of the U-Society still makes money forelectronic manufacturers, so whats the worry?
  79. 79. Privacy is a very new--and now obsolete-- notion anyway.
  80. 80. Almost everything that I have read or heard about the Ubiquitous Society is a variation of thosetwo versions of Continued Growth.
  81. 81. But there are other futures for a U-Society.
  82. 82. Collapse.
  83. 83. The collapse of the kind of societywith the kinds of resources and institutions that enable any kind of a Ubiquitous Society.
  84. 84. I have spent a lot of time thinking about collapse.
  85. 85. Trying to determine how to make collapse a good thing! a wonderful opportunity! something we should welcome and embrace!Since it may be coming, whether we like it or not.
  86. 86. How about you?
  87. 87. Are you concerned about what I call The Unholy Trinity, Plus One that may be leading tosocial and environmental collapse?
  88. 88. I call it the Unholy Trinity because, like the Christian Holy Trinity, it is three entities that are actually one.
  89. 89. But they are all related. One can not be understoodwithout understanding the others.
  90. 90. The Unholy Trinity metaphor illustrates our tragedy: three looming, interrelated, but ignored (as a unity) issues.
  91. 91. 1) the end of abundant and cheap oil with no replacement in sight,in spite of current declarations to the contrary;
  92. 92. 2) the necessity of dealing withneglected environmental issues, such as global climate change, sea-level rise, water scarcity, soil depletion, and much more; and
  93. 93. 3) the collapse in 2007 of the global economic system based on advertising and complex debt instrumentsthat enabled a few people to amass enormous fictitious "wealth" unrelated to market factors of actual demand and supply.
  94. 94. "Plus One" refers to the fundamental inability of most governmentsto deal effectively with these issues, because of decades of insults, tax-starving, indebtedness, and down-sizing.
  95. 95. In light of the Unholy Trinty Plus One, It is very hard to see how a U-Society based onContinued Economic Growth is possible.
  96. 96. We all need to learn howto fish, farm and shoot.
  97. 97. No! others say.There is still time.
  98. 98. We need to abandonContinued Economic Growth and build instead
  99. 99. a Sustainable Societya Conserver Societya Disciplined Society
  100. 100. We need Green Growth!
  101. 101. or no growth at allof the conventional kind.
  102. 102. These words are often heard.
  103. 103. But, it may be too late.
  104. 104. Many people argued for a Conserver Society 40 years ago,
  105. 105. But it seems too late now. We are in now living in the futurewe were warned about then,
  106. 106. even though there will bemany more changes ahead.
  107. 107. Some of you may remember when I was here before many years ago. I was speaking then ofa Transformational Society
  108. 108. a High Tech Transformation driven byrobots, artificial intelligence, autonomous beings, posthumans, transhumans
  109. 109. I have not abandoned the Transformational Society That is my preferred future.
  110. 110. Consider my name: Dator.
  111. 111. Yes! I AM a computer.I am not a human being
  112. 112. I am a human becoming a post human.
  113. 113. I yearn for a Dream Society a world of dreams, icons,and aesthetic experience.
  114. 114. That is the kind ofUbiquitous Society I want: A Dream Society!
  115. 115. as the American poet Richard Brautigan wrote years ago
  116. 116. I like to think (andthe sooner the better!)of a cybernetic meadowwhere mammals and computerslive together in mutuallyprogramming harmonylike pure watertouching clear sky.
  117. 117. I like to think (right now, please!) of a cybernetic forestfilled with pines and electronics where deer stroll peacefully past computers as if they were flowers with spinning blossoms.
  118. 118. I like to think (it has to be!) of a cybernetic ecologywhere we are free of our labors and joined back to nature, returned to our mammal brothers and sisters, and all watched over by machines of loving grace.
  119. 119. I am still hopeful that such aTransformational Future is possible.
  120. 120. That we will havethe energy, imagination, and will to create a Ubiquitous Society that merges life with nonlife and transcends both in peaceful harmony.
  121. 121. Pentti Malaska wrote:
  122. 122. Time flows to the presentfrom two directions
  123. 123. from the past--asaccomplished deedsand material manifestations,as can be perceived, and
  124. 124. from the future--asour aims, intentions andideas as conceived.
  125. 125. At the present they moldtogether andform our reality.
  126. 126. Mika Mannermaa wrote:
  127. 127. In the not-so-distant futureI can sit on the shoreof a remote mountain riverin Laplandwith the whole world in my pocket.
  128. 128. I dont have to wait for anything,because I live in a world of Instantism.
  129. 129. Maybe Ill spend this dayreading throughDostojevskis whole production,or maybe, all ofHarry Potter instead.
  130. 130. I can visit the Louvreor watch all the episodes of the TV seriesFriends,or at least the earlier better ones.
  131. 131. I will spend some timewith my alter egos invarious virtual versums.
  132. 132. In the eveningI want to meet my childrenin our virtual cottage.
  133. 133. But today?
  134. 134. I will catch the big one!
  135. 135. Mika was correct:
  136. 136. Surfs up!
  137. 137. It is time for all of us to prepare to surfsome very big tsunami.
  138. 138. Dream Society? Ubiquitous Society? No Society?Futures for Finland and the world as seen from a small Pacific Island. August 2012 Jim DatorHawaii Research Center for Futures Studies Department of Political Science University of Hawaii at Manoa

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