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Heap leach op and water footprint

HeapLeach y Huella Hídrica presentado en Congreso Heap Leaching, Lima 2016

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Heap Leaching
and Water Footprint
Augusto Chung Ching, Rio Alto Mining
Oswaldo Tovar, Ingeniería de Recursos SRL
Overview
• Understand importance of water
• Definition of Water footprint
• Types of water
• Water balance
• Benchmark
• Challenges
• Proposal
• Conclusions
Heap Leach & Water Footprint
• Understand your water in the mining industry:
• Communicating water use is fundamental to maintaining
social license to operate
• Water accounting is to focus on reducing your own
consumption
• Water storage in heaps (iceberg)
• Solution inventory (water and dissolved metals)
• Permanent vs On-off pad
• Water problems with communities and regulators
• We license, take water, use, storage, recirculate as much
as possible, evaporate, treat, return to body water
Water Footprint
• Water footprint is the volume of fresh water
used to produce a product summed over the
various steps of the supply chain
• Water footprint goes on to:
– Quantity of the volume
– Consider the type of water used
– Consider when and where the water is used
Examples of Water Footprint for…
• 1 cup of coffee, 150 liters of water
• 1 kg refined sugar, 1500 liters
• 1 kg of tomatoes, 180 liters
• 1 sheet of A4 paper, 10 liters
• 1 kg of meat, 15,500 liters
• 1 kg of cotton, 11,000 liters
• Treatment of 1 ton of Cu ore, 1050 liters
• Treatment of 1 ton of Au ore, 1250 liters
Type of Water used
• Green water = rain water
• Blue water = surface water, river, lakes,
underground water
• Gray water = retreated water, polluted water

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Heap leach op and water footprint

  • 1. Heap Leaching and Water Footprint Augusto Chung Ching, Rio Alto Mining Oswaldo Tovar, Ingeniería de Recursos SRL
  • 2. Overview • Understand importance of water • Definition of Water footprint • Types of water • Water balance • Benchmark • Challenges • Proposal • Conclusions
  • 3. Heap Leach & Water Footprint • Understand your water in the mining industry: • Communicating water use is fundamental to maintaining social license to operate • Water accounting is to focus on reducing your own consumption • Water storage in heaps (iceberg) • Solution inventory (water and dissolved metals) • Permanent vs On-off pad • Water problems with communities and regulators • We license, take water, use, storage, recirculate as much as possible, evaporate, treat, return to body water
  • 4. Water Footprint • Water footprint is the volume of fresh water used to produce a product summed over the various steps of the supply chain • Water footprint goes on to: – Quantity of the volume – Consider the type of water used – Consider when and where the water is used
  • 5. Examples of Water Footprint for… • 1 cup of coffee, 150 liters of water • 1 kg refined sugar, 1500 liters • 1 kg of tomatoes, 180 liters • 1 sheet of A4 paper, 10 liters • 1 kg of meat, 15,500 liters • 1 kg of cotton, 11,000 liters • Treatment of 1 ton of Cu ore, 1050 liters • Treatment of 1 ton of Au ore, 1250 liters
  • 6. Type of Water used • Green water = rain water • Blue water = surface water, river, lakes, underground water • Gray water = retreated water, polluted water
  • 8. Blue Water Blue Water (river, lake, Underground) Evaporated volume Returned to another catchment area or the sea Incorporated to heap or process
  • 9. Gray Water Gray Water (volume of polluted water) Bypassed Treated and/or released into the water body Consumed (incorporated to heap or process)
  • 11. Water Footprint • Measures fresh water appropriation • Actual, locally specific values • Always referring to full supply-chain • Focus on reducing own water footprint
  • 12. Ground and surface water rain Runoff at field level Non-production related evapotranspiration Soil and vegetation HEAP process Rivers, lakes abstraction Return flow farms Production-related evapotranspiration Water-contained In products GREEN WF evaporation Water contained in products Water to other catchment BLUE WF GRAY WF Catchment area
  • 13. Evapotranspiration • Evaporation is the process where liquid water is converted into vapor water – Evaporation is predominant when crop is small and water loss is primarily by soil evaporation, or under high frequency wetting when soil evaporation and evaporation of free water from plant surfaces can be high • Evapotranspiration is vaporization of liquid water and plants / vapor removal from the atmosphere – ET is an energy controlled process requiring the conversion of available radiation energy (sunshine) and sensible energy (heat contained in the air) into latent energy (energy stored in water vapor)
  • 14. Some Global water footprint • China, 2900 liters / person / day • India, 3000 liters / person / day • Indonesia, 3100 liters / person / day • Germany, 3900 liters / person / day • Saudi Arabia, 5100 liters / person / day • Australia, 6300 liters / person / day • USA, 7800 liters / person / day • Mongolia, 1000 liters / person / day
  • 15. Water Footprint • ISO 14046:2012 “amount of all water flows –controlled and uncontrolled-consumed, used, evaporated, or contaminated to produce an output unit in” m3/lb.Cu: for Cu leaching m3/oz.Au: for Au leaching m3/ton.Concentrate: for crush-mill-flotation Perú included this KPI in production statistics since 2005
  • 16. Benchmark • We have to get agree for a common reference: – m3/input (m3/tpd) – m3/output – m3/area – m3/workforce • Rates of consumption in: USA (copper mines in Arizona) Source: Department of Mines and Mineral Resources of Arizona m3/ton Cu fino 198 544 223 54 200 393 47
  • 17. Benchmark • Chile’ consumption Source: Ministerio de Obras Públicas, Dirección General de Aguas, División de Estudios y Planificación
  • 18. Benchmark • Perú’ consumption Source: Ministerio de Energía y Minas. Datos de Agosto 2010
  • 19. Challenges • Maximize recovery/revenues • Minimize water usage in the whole process by zero discharge. • Which means: – Eliminate unnecessary inputs – Ability to predict ionic concentrations en all flows to avoid incrustations – Ability to recycle 100% – Identify sources of contamination in the process
  • 20. Proposal Commitment to optimization Philosophy of Water Management (“In Source Reduction”) Comprehensive Survey (ionic) Alternatives Analysis and Comparison Decision Making Output: 1. Block diagram and mass balance 2. Table of metallurgical parameters and simulation criteria for each case 3. Alternatives studied and simulated in Matlab-Simulink 4. PFDs 5. OPEX & CAPEX for decision making 6. Risks and Opportunities for decision making 7. Execution plan and schedule for next stages
  • 21. Conclusions • Standardization is pending task • Operations in desert (Chile, Nevada) are benchmark. Let’s support them and then rely on their experience • Space for improvement in data management. • We need to internalize that water is a common economic resource. • This is not an only water/hydraulic problem. We have to understand about metallurgic, kinetics, catalyst, cycles and optimize not only recovery but also water usage.
  • 22. Q & A

Editor's Notes

  1. Play Steppenwolf; ‘Magic Carpet Ride´
  2. Desde el año 2002 se desarrolla el concepto, y a lo largo de los años se desarrolló un estandar (ISO) para medirlo En Perú se incorpora dicha información dentro de la declaración estadística mensual desde el año 2005~2006
  3. Primero definamos un lenguaje común, y tenemos alternativas: m3/input: es la forma clásica, casi todos hacemos este cálculo y tenemos cifras en mente por tipo de proceso. La ventaja es que es independiente de la calidad del yacimiento (ley) por lo que no se ve impactado por el ratio de concentración m3/output: en este caso si impacta el ratio de concentración por la ley de cabeza. Más aún si tenemos una operación con más de un producto (polimetálica). Caso especial una operación que tiene en simultáneo dos procesos independientes: chancado-molienda, y lixiviación m3/area: muy usado para estimaciones de budget de agua necesaria pero no util para reducción de huella hidrica m3/workforce: nos puede dar un indicador de cuán mecanizada/automatizada es la operación y se puede distorsionar por intensidad de capital
  4. Primero definamos un lenguaje común, y tenemos alternativas: m3/input: es la forma clásica, casi todos hacemos este cálculo y tenemos cifras en mente por tipo de proceso. La ventaja es que es independiente de la calidad del yacimiento (ley) por lo que no se ve impactado por el ratio de concentración m3/output: en este caso si impacta el ratio de concentración por la ley de cabeza. Más aún si tenemos una operación con más de un producto (polimetálica). Caso especial una operación que tiene en simultáneo dos procesos independientes: chancado-molienda, y lixiviación m3/area: muy usado para estimaciones de budget de agua necesaria pero no util para reducción de huella hidrica m3/workforce: nos puede dar un indicador de cuán mecanizada/automatizada es la operación y se puede distorsionar por intensidad de capital
  5. Siempre primer objetivo es el negocio (ingresos) por lo que debemos estar atentos a no afectar la metalurgia Cero descarga implica recircular todo (tampoco hay purgas), lo que requiere contención hidráulica, pero también seguimiento iónico para evitar incrustaciones La estrategia general es: reducir ingresos fugitivos al sistema Identificar cuantitativamente participación de cada contaminante eliminar perdidas (evaporación) Definir la mejor estrategia de riego asociada al delta de la cinética de recuperación (más riego en los primeros días y menos frecuencia de riego cuando el delta de recuperación es menor) Diseño hidráulico para independizar áreas y evitar regar zonas sin recuperación (minimizar retención de agua)
  6. Compromiso de optimización: esta etapa inicial va a determinar el éxito o fracaso del proyecto en término de facilidades y recursos comprometidos para apoyo Folosofía de Manejo de Agua: “Reducción en la fuente”, aplicado tanto a reducción de caudal y de carga iónica. Para ello identificamos el sistema completo y analizamos la génesis de cada uno de los flujos Levantamiento de información completo: que incluye caudales (data histórica) pero también muestreo de calidades totales, disueltas tanto por ICP-masa como por Cromatografia Análisis de Alternativas y comparación: en este punto se empiezan a modelar alternativas de manejo en el modelo computacional, se prueban cambios de líneas de flujo, incrementos de recirculciaciones, eliminación de reactivos, ‘saneamiento de flujos’ Toma de decisiones: y no sólo por aspecto económico, sino eventualmente por seguridad. Caso ejemplo reactivo ácido con sustituto PAC