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Newcastle Disease
Photo Session
GENERALIZED DEPRESSION
Clinical Description
• The bird is exhibiting mild depression with a reluctance to stand or move, typical early
signs of t...
Clinical Description
• This bird is showing signs of mild depression.
• The feathers on the dorsal neck are ruffled, consi...
Clinical Description
• Depression and reduced feed and water consumption are some of the most consistent
early indicators ...
Clinical Description
• The bird is standing on its hock joints, a sign of generalized depression.
• There are ruffled feat...
ABNORMAL FECAL APPEARANCE
5 day P.I with Viscertropic
Velogenic NDV
Clinical Description
• A large amount of watery diarrhea is a common finding in ...
5 day P.I with Viscertropic
Velogenic NDV
Clinical Description
• A close-up view of the feces shows both the green bile pi...
CONJUNCTIVITIS
Pathologic Description
• The eyelids are swollen preventing them from fully opening.
• The eyelids are crusted with a smal...
Pathologic Description
• The periocular region and eyelids are swollen and dried exudate is present on the lower
eyelid.
•...
Pathologic Description
• The conjunctiva is diffusely red and swollen.
Morphologic Diagnosis
• Conjunctiva: Severe acute c...
DIARRHEA
Clinical Description
• Watery diarrhea is a common finding in the viscerotropic form of ND infection.
• Soiling around the...
Clinical Description
• A close-up view of the feces shows both the green bile pigment as well as the white
urates.
• This ...
EYELID
Clinical Description
• Edema of the eyelids typically produces an
“almond-shaped” appearance to the eyes.
3 days P.I with ...
5 days P.I with Viscertropic
Velogenic NDV
Pathologic Description
• The eyelids are swollen preventing them from fully ope...
5 days P.I with Viscertropic
Velogenic NDV
Pathologic Description
• There is bilateral swelling of the face, giving the he...
THIN EGG SHELL
Clinical Description
• Low-quality, soft-shelled, roughened, or deformed eggs may also be observed in layers
infected with...
P.I with Viscertropic
Velogenic NDV
Pathologic Description
• These eggs have thin shells that are sometimes misshapen and ...
TORTICOLLIS
P.I with Viscertropic
Velogenic NDV
Clinical Description
• Chickens infected with viscerotropic neurogenic Newcastle can e...
P.I with Viscertropic
Velogenic NDV
Clinical Description
• Chickens infected with viscerotropic neurogenic NDV can exhibit...
P.I with Viscertropic
Velogenic NDV
Clinical Description
• Chickens infected with neurogenic strains of Newcastle disease,...
PERCHING REFLEX
3 days P.I with Viscertropic
Velogenic NDV
Clinical Description
• The bird is unable to fully grasp the examiner’s finger....
5 days P.I with Viscertropic
Velogenic NDV
Clinical Description
• Evaluation of the perching reflex shows a suboptimal res...
PER ACUTE DEATH
Clinical Description
• In Newcastle disease, large numbers of the flock may die suddenly, sometimes without
any prior sign...
LEG PARALYSIS
Clinical Description
• This chick, infected with the neurotropic strain of Newcastle disease virus, is exhibiting
paralysi...
BURSA
Clinical Description
• In young birds, such as this one whose bursa is still prominent, edema and hemorrhages
of the bursa...
Clinical Description
• There is edema and hemorrhage within the mucosa of the bursa.
5 days P.I with Viscertropic
Velogeni...
Clinical Description
• The mucosa of the bursa has been opened to reveal edema and hemorrhages on its
surface.
5 days P.I ...
CECAL TONSIL
Pathologic Description
• The cecal tonsils are swollen, prominent and the superficial parenchyma contains
numerous ill-def...
Clinical Description
• Necrosis of lymphoid tissue at the cecal tonsils, as seen here, and throughout the
intestinal walls...
Clinical Description
• As seen through the serosa, there are severe hemorrhages on the cecal tonsils and the
mucosa of the...
Clinical Description
• There are hemorrhagic lesions of the mucosa of the cecal tonsils, visible through the
serosal surfa...
Clinical Description
• The cecal tonsils have been opened, revealing extensive hemorrhages and ulcers in the
mucosa.
4 day...
Clinical Description
• At the level of the ileocecal valve, there is an ulceration and hemorrhages within the
mucosa of th...
Clinical Description
• There are hemorrhages, necrosis, and ulcerations of the cecal tonsil.
5 days P.I with Viscertropic
...
Clinical Description
• The cecal tonsils have been opened to reveal severe hemorrhagic ulcerations with
overlying fibrin d...
Clinical Description
• In viscerotropic velogenic NDV, hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions in the intestines tend
to be conce...
CLOACA
Pathologic Description
• The cloaca and the descending colon have been opened to reveal the mucosal surfaces.
The mucosal ...
Clinical Description
• Hemorrhages, erosions and ulcers, due to tissue necrosis, can occur anywhere along
the gastrointest...
CONJUNCTIVA
Pathologic Description
• The conjunctival mucosa is swollen, wet, and gelatinous and there is one large, poorly
defined, i...
Pathologic Description
• The conjunctiva has been reflected back to show that the mucosa is swollen, dark red
and wet.
• S...
Clinical Description
• Externally, this infected chicken had periocular edema.
• Here, the conjunctiva has been exposed th...
Clinical Description
• There are severe hemorrhagic lesions in the conjunctiva.
5 days P.I with Viscertropic
Velogenic NDV
Clinical Description
• The conjunctiva and infraorbital sinus have been incised to show the edema and
hemorrhages present ...
DUODENUM
Pathologic Description
• Within this segment of the duodenum there is a discrete, purple, slightly swollen focus
within th...
EMBRYO
Pathologic Description
• The embryo at the top of the image is
normal.
• The embryo at the bottom is diffusely
dark red an...
EYE
Clinical Description
• Periorbital edema and ocular discharge, as seen here, may be associated with vvNCD.
5 days P.I with...
FOLLICLE
Pathologic Description
• The surfaces of these well developed ovarian follicles are covered by extensive dark red
areas an...
Pathologic Description
• The ovarian follicles are covered by prominent blood vessels and areas of red
discoloration.
Morp...
Pathologic Description
• This ovary contains several large follicles that have become flaccid and shrunken.
• The blood ve...
ILUEM
Clinical Description
• There is a small ulcer with mild hemorrhages in the mucosa of the ileum.
• In Newcastle disease, su...
INFRA ORBITAL SINUS
Clinical Description
• The conjunctiva and infraorbital sinus have been incised to show the edema and
hemorrhages present ...
INTESTINE
Clinical Description
• There is necrosis and hemorrhages of the lymphoid tissue in the intestines, as seen
through the out...
Clinical Description
• The small intestine has an area of focal ulceration and hemorrhage.
5 days P.I with Viscertropic
Ve...
Clinical Description
• The small intestine has hemorrhages and ulcerations.
5 days P.I with Viscertropic
Velogenic NDV
INTESTINE
Clinical Description
• Here, extensive hemorrhages were
found on the liver.
3 days P.I with Viscertropic
Velogenic NDV
LUNG
Clinical Description
• Pulmonary congestion and edema, as seen here, is sometimes observed on post-
mortem examination.
3 ...
Clinical Description
• Some viscerotropic strains can produce severe lesions in the lungs.
• In this bird, there is pulmon...
PROVENTRICULUS
Clinical Description
• The glands are edematous and there are some areas of hemorrhages, consistent with
this strain of ND...
Clinical Description
• This image was taken 5 days post experimental inoculation with viscerotropic velogenic
Newcastle di...
Pathologic Description
• The mucosal glands of the proventriculus are swollen and prominent.
• There are pinpoint red foci...
Clinical Description
• There is hemorrhagic proventriculitis. Often, these hemorrhagic lesions cluster around
the esophage...
Clinical Description
• There is hemorrhagic proventriculitis, with hemorrhages concentrated at the esophageal-
proventricu...
Clinical Description
• There is hemorrhagic proventriculitis.
5 days P.I with Viscertropic
Velogenic NDV
Pathologic Description
• The proventricular mucosa is diffusely red and swollen.
• The reddening is particularly prominent...
RECTUM
Clinical Description
• As seen through the serosa, there are severe hemorrhages on the cecal tonsils and the
mucosa of the...
Clinical Description
• There are severe hemorrhages in the mucosa of the rectum.
5 days P.I with Viscertropic
Velogenic NDV
SPLEEN
Clinical Description
• The spleen is enlarged due to severe splenic congestion and the spleen is mottled with
some white p...
Clinical Description
• In viscerotropic strains of the virus, it is common to find lesions of the spleen on post-
mortem e...
TRACHEA
Pathologic Description
• Pinpoint red foci are scattered along the mucosal surfaces.
• These foci are particularly dense i...
Clinical Description
• In viscerotropic velogenic NDV, congestion and hemorrhages may be observed in the
pharynx and proxi...
Clinical Description
• Highly virulent Newcastle disease virus results in hemorrhagic lesions in the trachea.
• The trache...
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Newcastle Disease - Photo Session

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Newcastle Disease - Photo Session

  1. 1. Newcastle Disease Photo Session
  2. 2. GENERALIZED DEPRESSION
  3. 3. Clinical Description • The bird is exhibiting mild depression with a reluctance to stand or move, typical early signs of this infection. • There are ruffled feathers on the dorsal neck, consistent with fever. 2 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  4. 4. Clinical Description • This bird is showing signs of mild depression. • The feathers on the dorsal neck are ruffled, consistent with fever. 3 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  5. 5. Clinical Description • Depression and reduced feed and water consumption are some of the most consistent early indicators of infection with Newcastle disease. • Early depression typically is manifested as a reluctance to rise from sternal recumbency, as seen here. 3 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  6. 6. Clinical Description • The bird is standing on its hock joints, a sign of generalized depression. • There are ruffled feathers on the dorsal neck, consistent with fever. 2 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  7. 7. ABNORMAL FECAL APPEARANCE
  8. 8. 5 day P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV Clinical Description • A large amount of watery diarrhea is a common finding in Newcastle. • This diarrhea often has a greenish color, as seen here, due to the presence of bile. • Additionally, diuresis results in an excessive amount of white urates seen in these feces.
  9. 9. 5 day P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV Clinical Description • A close-up view of the feces shows both the green bile pigment as well as the white urates. • This diarrhea is somewhat characteristic of Newcastle disease.
  10. 10. CONJUNCTIVITIS
  11. 11. Pathologic Description • The eyelids are swollen preventing them from fully opening. • The eyelids are crusted with a small amount of yellow material. • The ocular conjunctiva, visible along the lateral canthus of the eye, is injected and a congested blood vessel is evident. Morphologic Diagnosis • Eyelids: Moderate acute diffuse catarrhal blepheritis and conjunctivitis. Clinical Description • Ocular signs commonly include edema of the eyelids, conjunctivitis, and ocular discharge, all of which are visible in this photo. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  12. 12. Pathologic Description • The periocular region and eyelids are swollen and dried exudate is present on the lower eyelid. • The cornea is opaque, cloudy and slightly blue. • This bird is also exhibiting respiratory distress, exemplified by the open-mouthed breathing. Morphologic Diagnosis • Head: Severe acute edema. • Eye: Severe acute conjunctivitis with corneal edema. Clinical Description • One of the first signs of disease is often reddening of the periocular region and corneal edema 2- 3 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  13. 13. Pathologic Description • The conjunctiva is diffusely red and swollen. Morphologic Diagnosis • Conjunctiva: Severe acute conjunctivitis with hemorrhage Clinical Description • Newcastle disease virus can occasionally infect humans, causing transient conjunctivitis of the eyes. • Clinical signs typically consist of conjunctivitis (redness and excessive lacrimation), eyelid edema, and subconjunctival hemorrhage. • The infection is self-limiting and there are no reports of human-to-human spread. 2- 3 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  14. 14. DIARRHEA
  15. 15. Clinical Description • Watery diarrhea is a common finding in the viscerotropic form of ND infection. • Soiling around the vent, as seen here, can be an important indicator of the presence of diarrhea. 3 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  16. 16. Clinical Description • A close-up view of the feces shows both the green bile pigment as well as the white urates. • This diarrhea is somewhat characteristic of Newcastle disease 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  17. 17. EYELID
  18. 18. Clinical Description • Edema of the eyelids typically produces an “almond-shaped” appearance to the eyes. 3 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  19. 19. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV Pathologic Description • The eyelids are swollen preventing them from fully opening. • The eyelids are crusted with a small amount of yellow material. • The ocular conjunctiva, visible along the lateral canthus of the eye, is injected and a congested blood vessel is evident. Morphologic Diagnosis • Eyelids: Moderate acute diffuse catarrhal blepheritis and conjunctivitis Clinical Description • Ocular signs commonly include edema of the eyelids, conjunctivitis, and ocular discharge.
  20. 20. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV Pathologic Description • There is bilateral swelling of the face, giving the head a “square” contour. • The eyelids and the ocular feathers are covered by small amounts of yellow crust and the eyelids are swollen. Morphologic Diagnosis • Subcutaneous tissue: Moderate acute diffuse edema. • Eyelids: Mild acute catarrhal blepharitis Clinical Description • Bilateral facial edema has produced a square-shaped face, best appreciated from this vantage point.
  21. 21. THIN EGG SHELL
  22. 22. Clinical Description • Low-quality, soft-shelled, roughened, or deformed eggs may also be observed in layers infected with Newcastle disease. • These deformities are especially evident in the egg pictured in the top center of this photo.
  23. 23. P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV Pathologic Description • These eggs have thin shells that are sometimes misshapen and easily broken. Morphologic Diagnosis • Egg shell: Malformation and hypomineralization. Clinical Description • Many of the eggs shown here are rough, misshapen, and thin-shelled. • These findings are often present in viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle and infectious bronchitis infections, where fever stalls the normal movement of the egg through the oviduct, causing deformed and defective shells.
  24. 24. TORTICOLLIS
  25. 25. P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV Clinical Description • Chickens infected with viscerotropic neurogenic Newcastle can exhibit a variety of neurologic signs. • Here, a bird displays torticollis, a lateral twisting of the head and neck.
  26. 26. P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV Clinical Description • Chickens infected with viscerotropic neurogenic NDV can exhibit a variety of neurologic signs. • Here, the bird displays torticollis, a lateral twisting of the head and neck.
  27. 27. P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV Clinical Description • Chickens infected with neurogenic strains of Newcastle disease, can exhibit a variety of neurologic signs. • Here, the bird displays torticollis, a lateral twisting of the head and neck.
  28. 28. PERCHING REFLEX
  29. 29. 3 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV Clinical Description • The bird is unable to fully grasp the examiner’s finger. • This suboptimal response to the perching reflex is an early indication of neurologic problems.
  30. 30. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV Clinical Description • Evaluation of the perching reflex shows a suboptimal response, an early indicator of neurological disease.
  31. 31. PER ACUTE DEATH
  32. 32. Clinical Description • In Newcastle disease, large numbers of the flock may die suddenly, sometimes without any prior signs of illness. • The incubation time and severity of clinical signs depends on many factors including host species, age, level of immunity (e.g. vaccinated vs. unvaccinated population), the presence of concurrent infection, virus pathotype, and virus dose.
  33. 33. LEG PARALYSIS
  34. 34. Clinical Description • This chick, infected with the neurotropic strain of Newcastle disease virus, is exhibiting paralysis of the legs.
  35. 35. BURSA
  36. 36. Clinical Description • In young birds, such as this one whose bursa is still prominent, edema and hemorrhages of the bursal mucosa may be found on post-mortem examination. 4 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  37. 37. Clinical Description • There is edema and hemorrhage within the mucosa of the bursa. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  38. 38. Clinical Description • The mucosa of the bursa has been opened to reveal edema and hemorrhages on its surface. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  39. 39. CECAL TONSIL
  40. 40. Pathologic Description • The cecal tonsils are swollen, prominent and the superficial parenchyma contains numerous ill-defined red foci. Morphologic Diagnosis • Cecal tonsils: Marked acute hemorrhage and edema. Clinical Description • Velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease. Necrosis of the cecal tonsils produces marked hemorrhagic lesions, as shown here. • In the early stages of the disease, other gastrointestinal lymphoid tissues (GALT) are often hemorrhagic as well. • Intestinal lesions tend to be most severe in areas that have high concentrations of lymphoid tissue, such as the cecal tonsils. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  41. 41. Clinical Description • Necrosis of lymphoid tissue at the cecal tonsils, as seen here, and throughout the intestinal walls is used to help distinguish viscerotropic from neurotropic strains of Newcastle disease in the field. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  42. 42. Clinical Description • As seen through the serosa, there are severe hemorrhages on the cecal tonsils and the mucosa of the rectum. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  43. 43. Clinical Description • There are hemorrhagic lesions of the mucosa of the cecal tonsils, visible through the serosal surface of the intestine. • Although Newcastle disease can take a wide range of forms, in the viscerotropic strains, lesions in the cecal tonsils are one of the most characteristic findings on post-mortem examination. 4 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  44. 44. Clinical Description • The cecal tonsils have been opened, revealing extensive hemorrhages and ulcers in the mucosa. 4 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  45. 45. Clinical Description • At the level of the ileocecal valve, there is an ulceration and hemorrhages within the mucosa of the cecal tonsils. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  46. 46. Clinical Description • There are hemorrhages, necrosis, and ulcerations of the cecal tonsil. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  47. 47. Clinical Description • The cecal tonsils have been opened to reveal severe hemorrhagic ulcerations with overlying fibrin deposition. • There are also several hemorrhages in the mucosa of the rectum. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  48. 48. Clinical Description • In viscerotropic velogenic NDV, hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions in the intestines tend to be concentrated in areas with lymphoid tissue, such as the cecal tonsils. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  49. 49. CLOACA
  50. 50. Pathologic Description • The cloaca and the descending colon have been opened to reveal the mucosal surfaces. The mucosal surfaces are covered by multiple, randomly distributed, well demarcated defects that are covered by hemorrhage and slightly granular, pale yellow tags of deposits of tissue. Morphologic Diagnosis • Colon and cloaca: Severe multifocal acute ulcers with fibrinous colitis and cloacitis Clinical Description • Birds that survive the first several days of the infection typically have more severe post- mortem hemorrhagic lesions, as seen here. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  51. 51. Clinical Description • Hemorrhages, erosions and ulcers, due to tissue necrosis, can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. Here, an ulcer is present in the mucosa of the cloaca, with overlying fibrin accumulation. • To differentiate ingesta from fibrin, recall that ingesta should wash away easily while fibrin will remain adhered to the mucosa. 3 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  52. 52. CONJUNCTIVA
  53. 53. Pathologic Description • The conjunctival mucosa is swollen, wet, and gelatinous and there is one large, poorly defined, irregularly shaped dark red area as well as several smaller red foci that extend onto the nictitating membrane. Morphologic Diagnosis • Conjunctiva: Severe acute diffuse edema and hemorrhage Clinical Description • Externally, this chicken had periocular edema. • Here, the conjunctiva has been exposed through an incision to reveal the severe subconjunctival hemorrhages associated with the external lesions. • There are aggregates of lymphoid tissue present in the conjunctiva of the bird, making this region a target for NCD virus replication. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  54. 54. Pathologic Description • The conjunctiva has been reflected back to show that the mucosa is swollen, dark red and wet. • Small red foci extend onto the nictitating membrane and the cornea is slightly cloudy. Morphologic Diagnosis • Conjunctiva: Severe acute diffuse edema and hemorrhage. • Cornea: Mild edema. Clinical Description • This image shows a variety of ocular and periocular lesions associated with the viscerotropic strain of NCD virus. 4 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  55. 55. Clinical Description • Externally, this infected chicken had periocular edema. • Here, the conjunctiva has been exposed through an incision to demonstrate the severe subconjunctival hemorrhages associated with the external lesions. • There are aggregates of lymphoid tissue present in the conjunctiva of the bird, making this region a target for NDV replication. 4 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  56. 56. Clinical Description • There are severe hemorrhagic lesions in the conjunctiva. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  57. 57. Clinical Description • The conjunctiva and infraorbital sinus have been incised to show the edema and hemorrhages present on these mucous membranes. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  58. 58. DUODENUM
  59. 59. Pathologic Description • Within this segment of the duodenum there is a discrete, purple, slightly swollen focus within the wall. • The lesion is being viewed through the intact serosa. • The discrete nature of the lesion suggests that it is affecting one of the lymphoid aggregates present in the intestinal submucosa. Morphologic Diagnosis • Duodenum: Acute, focal lymphoid necrosis 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  60. 60. EMBRYO
  61. 61. Pathologic Description • The embryo at the top of the image is normal. • The embryo at the bottom is diffusely dark red and the skin is swollen and wet. • The subcutaneous tissue of the head is filled with blood and the blood vessels over the body are prominent. Morphologic Diagnosis • Body as a whole: Severe acute hemorrhage and congestion Clinical Description • The hemorrhagic nature of viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease virus is evident in this photograph. • Here, a chicken embryo (bottom) was inoculated with the virus, causing whole body congestion and hemorrhage. P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  62. 62. EYE
  63. 63. Clinical Description • Periorbital edema and ocular discharge, as seen here, may be associated with vvNCD. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  64. 64. FOLLICLE
  65. 65. Pathologic Description • The surfaces of these well developed ovarian follicles are covered by extensive dark red areas and prominent blood vessels. Morphologic Diagnosis • Ovarian follicles: Severe acute hemorrhage and congestion Clinical Description • Velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease. • The ovaries in this infected bird show marked hemorrhages. • The egg production in such birds often drops dramatically. • Even in birds that survive the acute infection, the reproductive system may be permanently damaged and egg production may not return to normal. P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  66. 66. Pathologic Description • The ovarian follicles are covered by prominent blood vessels and areas of red discoloration. Morphologic Diagnosis • Ovarian follicles: Marked acute hemorrhage and congestion Clinical Description • Velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease. • Hemorrhagic follicles on the ovaries are commonly found in infected birds and are accompanied by a drop in egg production. P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  67. 67. Pathologic Description • This ovary contains several large follicles that have become flaccid and shrunken. • The blood vessels over many follicles are prominent and the ventral-most follicle is dark red. Morphologic Diagnosis • Ovarian follicles: Atresia with hemorrhage and congestion Clinical Description • In chickens infected with velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease, ovaries frequently have gross lesions. • These may include hemorrhage and necrosis (causing discoloration) and follicles may be flaccid and degenerative. P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  68. 68. ILUEM
  69. 69. Clinical Description • There is a small ulcer with mild hemorrhages in the mucosa of the ileum. • In Newcastle disease, such hemorrhages and accompanying necrosis can occur anywhere throughout the intestines. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  70. 70. INFRA ORBITAL SINUS
  71. 71. Clinical Description • The conjunctiva and infraorbital sinus have been incised to show the edema and hemorrhages present on these mucous membranes. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  72. 72. INTESTINE
  73. 73. Clinical Description • There is necrosis and hemorrhages of the lymphoid tissue in the intestines, as seen through the outer serosa. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  74. 74. Clinical Description • The small intestine has an area of focal ulceration and hemorrhage. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  75. 75. Clinical Description • The small intestine has hemorrhages and ulcerations. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  76. 76. INTESTINE
  77. 77. Clinical Description • Here, extensive hemorrhages were found on the liver. 3 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  78. 78. LUNG
  79. 79. Clinical Description • Pulmonary congestion and edema, as seen here, is sometimes observed on post- mortem examination. 3 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  80. 80. Clinical Description • Some viscerotropic strains can produce severe lesions in the lungs. • In this bird, there is pulmonary edema and extensive hemorrhages. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  81. 81. PROVENTRICULUS
  82. 82. Clinical Description • The glands are edematous and there are some areas of hemorrhages, consistent with this strain of NDV. 4 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  83. 83. Clinical Description • This image was taken 5 days post experimental inoculation with viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  84. 84. Pathologic Description • The mucosal glands of the proventriculus are swollen and prominent. • There are pinpoint red foci scattered along the tips of several glands. Morphologic Diagnosis • Proventricular glands: Acute diffuse edema and multifocal hemorrhage Clinical Description • Velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease. • In later stages of NDV infection, more severe hemorrhagic lesions beginning to develop. • Here, the glands on the mucosal surface of the proventriculus are beginning to form hemorrhagic lesions. P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  85. 85. Clinical Description • There is hemorrhagic proventriculitis. Often, these hemorrhagic lesions cluster around the esophageal-proventricular junction, as shown here. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  86. 86. Clinical Description • There is hemorrhagic proventriculitis, with hemorrhages concentrated at the esophageal- proventricular junction. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  87. 87. Clinical Description • There is hemorrhagic proventriculitis. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  88. 88. Pathologic Description • The proventricular mucosa is diffusely red and swollen. • The reddening is particularly prominent at the esophogeal/proventricular junction (right side of image). • Blood tinged fluid is present in the ventriculus (gizzard). Morphologic Diagnosis • Proventriculus: Severe acute mucosal hemorrhage and congestion Clinical Description • NDV can produce hemorrhagic lesions throughout the gastrointestinal tract. • In this chicken, there are severe lesions in the proventriculus and gizzard. P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  89. 89. RECTUM
  90. 90. Clinical Description • As seen through the serosa, there are severe hemorrhages on the cecal tonsils and the mucosa of the rectum. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  91. 91. Clinical Description • There are severe hemorrhages in the mucosa of the rectum. 5 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  92. 92. SPLEEN
  93. 93. Clinical Description • The spleen is enlarged due to severe splenic congestion and the spleen is mottled with some white pinpoint lesions, caused by necrosis. • Although Newcastle disease can take a wide range of forms, in the viscerotropic strains, lesions in the spleen are one of the most characteristic findings on post-mortem examination. P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  94. 94. Clinical Description • In viscerotropic strains of the virus, it is common to find lesions of the spleen on post- mortem examination. • Here, the spleen is enlarged and there are many multifocal white lesions caused by tissue necrosis. 3 days P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  95. 95. TRACHEA
  96. 96. Pathologic Description • Pinpoint red foci are scattered along the mucosal surfaces. • These foci are particularly dense in areas running parallel to the cartilaginous rings. Morphologic Diagnosis • Trachea: Mild multifocal petechia Clinical Description • This image is from an acute outbreak, where many birds were suddenly found dead. • On post-mortem exam, no severe lesions were found due to the rapid onset of the infection. • Only mild hemorrhagic lesions in the mucosa of the trachea were observed (as seen here). • In flocks unvaccinated for NDV, massive deaths within the flock may occur quickly, without any prior signs of illness and few post-mortem lesions. P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  97. 97. Clinical Description • In viscerotropic velogenic NDV, congestion and hemorrhages may be observed in the pharynx and proximal trachea, as seen here. • These hemorrhages in the tracheal wall are typically not associated with free-blood in the lumen. P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV
  98. 98. Clinical Description • Highly virulent Newcastle disease virus results in hemorrhagic lesions in the trachea. • The tracheal lesions normally do not include free blood in the lumen. P.I with Viscertropic Velogenic NDV

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