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Avian Mycoplasmosis
Disease Overview
Plan of talk
 Introduction
 Etiology
 Species affected
 Geographical distribution
 Transmission
 Clinical signs
 Po...
Plan of talk
 Introduction
 Etiology
 Species affected
 Geographical distribution
 Transmission
 Clinical signs
 Po...
Introduction
 Avian mycoplasmosis is caused by
several pathogenic mycoplasmas,
the most common are;
1. Mycoplasma gallise...
Cont. …
 MG causes chronic respiratory disease CRD of domestic
poultry, especially in the presence of management stresses...
Importance
 Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most economically
significant mycoplasma pathogen of poultry.
 Mycoplasma ga...
Plan of talk
 Introduction
 Etiology
 Species affected
 Geographical distribution
 Transmission
 Clinical signs
 Po...
Etiology
Class mollicutes
Order mycoplasmatales
Family mycoplasmataceae including:
1. M. gallisepticum
2. M. Synoviae
3. M...
Cont. …
 M. gallisepticum infections are also known as:
1. Chronic respiratory disease (CRD) of chickens.
2. Infectious s...
Plan of talk
 Introduction
 Etiology
 Species affected
 Geographical distribution
 Transmission
 Clinical signs
 Po...
Species Affected
Plan of talk
 Introduction
 Etiology
 Species affected
 Geographical distribution
 Transmission
 Clinical signs
 Po...
Geographic Distribution
Geographic Distribution
In the United States, this organism has been eradicated from
most commercial chicken and turkey br...
Plan of talk
 Introduction
 Etiology
 Species affected
 Geographical distribution
 Transmission
 Clinical signs
 Po...
Transmission
Horizontal
 M. gallisepticum is transmitted
during close contact between birds.
 Aerosol spread occurs over...
Cont. …
Vertical
 M. gallisepticum is also transmitted
vertically in eggs.
 Egg transmission is more frequent in
birds i...
Incubation Period
 Experimentally infected poultry develop symptoms after 6 -21
days.
 In natural infections, the incuba...
Cont. …
Stressors such as:
1. Viral infections
2. Vaccination with live viruses
3. Cold weather
4. Crowding
Can trigger di...
Morbidity and Mortality
 In chickens with uncomplicated infections, the morbidity rate
is high and the mortality rate low...
Plan of talk
 Introduction
 Etiology
 Species affected
 Geographical distribution
 Transmission
 Clinical signs
 Po...
Clinical Signs
 M. gallisepticum infections vary from asymptomatic to severe,
depending on the infecting strain and other...
Cont. …
Infected chickens usually develop respiratory symptoms that
may include:
1. Depression
2. Rales
3. Coughing
4. Sne...
Depression
Conjunctivitis
Corneal opacity
Conjunctivitis, edema
(eyelid, periorbital)
Conjunctivitis
Sinusitis
Drop in egg production
Drop in Egg Production
Plan of talk
 Introduction
 Etiology
 Species affected
 Geographical distribution
 Transmission
 Clinical signs
 Po...
Post Mortem Lesions
In uncomplicated cases in chickens, the lesions typically
include:
1. Mild sinusitis
2. Tracheitis
3. ...
Eyelid,
Infraorbital sinus, nares
Trachea
Trachea
Bronchi
Trachea
Lungs
Air sac
Keel,
Pectoral muscles
Air sac
Air sac
Heart
Embryo
Plan of talk
 Introduction
 Etiology
 Species affected
 Geographical distribution
 Transmission
 Clinical signs
 Po...
Treatment – Live Bird
 The (semi) permanent use of antibiotics (Tylan ®,
Lincospectin®, Baytril®) can reduce the damage o...
Cont. …
Limitations of treatment:
1. Mycoplasma develops resistance against the antibiotics
2. Expensive
3. Medication can...
Treatment – Egg Transmission
If a flock proves to be positive for M.G. there are several
possibilities to prevent vertical...
Cont. …
1. The P.S. Flock can be killed.
– This is the only completely safe procedure to prevent further spread of
the dis...
Plan of talk
 Introduction
 Etiology
 Species affected
 Geographical distribution
 Transmission
 Clinical signs
 Po...
Biosecurity
Very strict hygienic system is essential to keep a flock free:
1. Limit visitors and movement of vehicles betw...
Cont. …
 On multi-age farms, it is difficult to control M.G..
 On a single-age farm, M.G. control mainly means control o...
Vaccination
Various vaccines are used:
1. Live vaccines
2. Killed vaccines
Vaccination - Live vaccines
F-strain (Avipro MGF, LAH)
 Can produce immunity.
 Profits in such flocks are less than in u...
Vaccination - Killed Vaccines
 Killed vaccines are safe to use and give generally a reasonable
protection.
 They should ...
Avian Mycoplasmosis_Disease Overview
Avian Mycoplasmosis_Disease Overview
Avian Mycoplasmosis_Disease Overview
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Avian Mycoplasmosis_Disease Overview

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"عسى أن يكون علما ينتفع به"

CRD
Mycoplasma in poultry
Myvoplasma Gallisepticum
Mycoplasma Synovi

Published in: Education
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Avian Mycoplasmosis_Disease Overview

  1. 1. Avian Mycoplasmosis Disease Overview
  2. 2. Plan of talk  Introduction  Etiology  Species affected  Geographical distribution  Transmission  Clinical signs  Post mortem lesions  Treatment  Prevention
  3. 3. Plan of talk  Introduction  Etiology  Species affected  Geographical distribution  Transmission  Clinical signs  Post mortem lesions  Treatment  Prevention
  4. 4. Introduction  Avian mycoplasmosis is caused by several pathogenic mycoplasmas, the most common are; 1. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) 2. M. synoviae (MS)  They are the only strains listed by the OIE.
  5. 5. Cont. …  MG causes chronic respiratory disease CRD of domestic poultry, especially in the presence of management stresses and/or other respiratory pathogens.  MS may cause respiratory disease, synovitis, or may result in a silent infection.
  6. 6. Importance  Mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most economically significant mycoplasma pathogen of poultry.  Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections causes significant economic losses on poultry farms from: 1. Chronic respiratory disease (CRD). 2. Reduced feed efficiency. 3. Decreased growth rate. 4. Decreased egg production. 5. Carcasses downgrades.
  7. 7. Plan of talk  Introduction  Etiology  Species affected  Geographical distribution  Transmission  Clinical signs  Post mortem lesions  Treatment  Prevention
  8. 8. Etiology Class mollicutes Order mycoplasmatales Family mycoplasmataceae including: 1. M. gallisepticum 2. M. Synoviae 3. M. meleagridis 4. M. iowae.
  9. 9. Cont. …  M. gallisepticum infections are also known as: 1. Chronic respiratory disease (CRD) of chickens. 2. Infectious sinusitis of turkeys.  Several strains of M. gallisepticum have been reported, including the R strain in poultry.
  10. 10. Plan of talk  Introduction  Etiology  Species affected  Geographical distribution  Transmission  Clinical signs  Post mortem lesions  Treatment  Prevention
  11. 11. Species Affected
  12. 12. Plan of talk  Introduction  Etiology  Species affected  Geographical distribution  Transmission  Clinical signs  Post mortem lesions  Treatment  Prevention
  13. 13. Geographic Distribution
  14. 14. Geographic Distribution In the United States, this organism has been eradicated from most commercial chicken and turkey breeding flocks, but remains present in other poultry operations.
  15. 15. Plan of talk  Introduction  Etiology  Species affected  Geographical distribution  Transmission  Clinical signs  Post mortem lesions  Treatment  Prevention
  16. 16. Transmission Horizontal  M. gallisepticum is transmitted during close contact between birds.  Aerosol spread occurs over short distances and can be responsible for transmission within a flock.
  17. 17. Cont. … Vertical  M. gallisepticum is also transmitted vertically in eggs.  Egg transmission is more frequent in birds infected during laying than in birds infected before they mature.  Infected birds carry M. gallisepticum for life, and can remain asymptomatic until they are stressed.
  18. 18. Incubation Period  Experimentally infected poultry develop symptoms after 6 -21 days.  In natural infections, the incubation period is variable; infected birds may be asymptomatic for days or months until stressed.
  19. 19. Cont. … Stressors such as: 1. Viral infections 2. Vaccination with live viruses 3. Cold weather 4. Crowding Can trigger disease outbreaks in infected flocks.
  20. 20. Morbidity and Mortality  In chickens with uncomplicated infections, the morbidity rate is high and the mortality rate low.  More severe disease occurs if the birds are concurrently infected with other viruses or bacteria.
  21. 21. Plan of talk  Introduction  Etiology  Species affected  Geographical distribution  Transmission  Clinical signs  Post mortem lesions  Treatment  Prevention
  22. 22. Clinical Signs  M. gallisepticum infections vary from asymptomatic to severe, depending on the infecting strain and other factors, such as the infection with other respiratory pathogen; 1. NDV 2. IBV 3. E. coli
  23. 23. Cont. … Infected chickens usually develop respiratory symptoms that may include: 1. Depression 2. Rales 3. Coughing 4. Sneezing 5. Nasal discharges 6. Dyspnea 7. Decreased weight gain, feed efficiency and egg production
  24. 24. Depression
  25. 25. Conjunctivitis Corneal opacity
  26. 26. Conjunctivitis, edema (eyelid, periorbital)
  27. 27. Conjunctivitis Sinusitis
  28. 28. Drop in egg production
  29. 29. Drop in Egg Production
  30. 30. Plan of talk  Introduction  Etiology  Species affected  Geographical distribution  Transmission  Clinical signs  Post mortem lesions  Treatment  Prevention
  31. 31. Post Mortem Lesions In uncomplicated cases in chickens, the lesions typically include: 1. Mild sinusitis 2. Tracheitis 3. Airsacculitis If chicken is infected concurrently with E. coli: 1. Thickening and turbidity of the air sacs 2. Exudative accumulations 3. Fibrinopurulent pericarditis 4. Perihepatitis
  32. 32. Eyelid, Infraorbital sinus, nares
  33. 33. Trachea
  34. 34. Trachea
  35. 35. Bronchi Trachea
  36. 36. Lungs
  37. 37. Air sac
  38. 38. Keel, Pectoral muscles
  39. 39. Air sac
  40. 40. Air sac
  41. 41. Heart
  42. 42. Embryo
  43. 43. Plan of talk  Introduction  Etiology  Species affected  Geographical distribution  Transmission  Clinical signs  Post mortem lesions  Treatment  Prevention
  44. 44. Treatment – Live Bird  The (semi) permanent use of antibiotics (Tylan ®, Lincospectin®, Baytril®) can reduce the damage of a M.G. infection, but it will never really solve the problem, because the flocks are still infected.  In broilers, at the first 4 days of life, then at 19th day for 2 successive days.  In breeders, following any respiratory vaccination, especially ND for 2 successive days.  As soon as one stops the medication the disease increases again
  45. 45. Cont. … Limitations of treatment: 1. Mycoplasma develops resistance against the antibiotics 2. Expensive 3. Medication can not fully prevent an infection. 4. It is useful for a relatively short period of time, but in the meantime other control systems have to be developed.
  46. 46. Treatment – Egg Transmission If a flock proves to be positive for M.G. there are several possibilities to prevent vertical transmission to the broiler flocks:
  47. 47. Cont. … 1. The P.S. Flock can be killed. – This is the only completely safe procedure to prevent further spread of the disease, but of course it is not always practical. 2. Treatment of the hatching egg with tylan® (or baytril®): – Injection into the hatching eggs with 0.2 mg tylosine by hand or automatic. 3. Egg dipping in a 2500 ppm containing tylan solution, using the temperature-difference method or the pressure difference method. 4. Egg-heating method (yoder) eggs are heated, before setting, at 46 C during 12-14 hours. This system is not very reliable.
  48. 48. Plan of talk  Introduction  Etiology  Species affected  Geographical distribution  Transmission  Clinical signs  Post mortem lesions  Treatment  Prevention
  49. 49. Biosecurity Very strict hygienic system is essential to keep a flock free: 1. Limit visitors and movement of vehicles between farms to the absolute minimum. 2. Make sure that all visitors change clothes and footwear on the entrance of the farm and disinfect their hands. 3. Showering is even better, and certainly recommended for Grand Parent Farms. 4. As most Mycoplasma’s are killed within two days, we keep two days as a minimum safety period between visiting possibly infected farm and visiting a M.G. clean farm. 5. Staff should not be allowed to have any contact with poultry outside their work. Otherwise, the same period of two days counts.
  50. 50. Cont. …  On multi-age farms, it is difficult to control M.G..  On a single-age farm, M.G. control mainly means control of movement of staff and material.
  51. 51. Vaccination Various vaccines are used: 1. Live vaccines 2. Killed vaccines
  52. 52. Vaccination - Live vaccines F-strain (Avipro MGF, LAH)  Can produce immunity.  Profits in such flocks are less than in unvaccinated flocks that maintained their freedom from M.G.  The vaccine can spread up to 8 weeks after vaccination. 6/85 strain (Mycovac-L, Intervet)  Is not spreading and safe.  It can be differentiated from field strains by plate agglutination test.
  53. 53. Vaccination - Killed Vaccines  Killed vaccines are safe to use and give generally a reasonable protection.  They should be given by injection and are rather expensive.

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