Para-Partitioning

           Brett Warden, Albert Martinez, Saurabh Dadu,
                                  Santosh Balak...
Topics

     Motivation
     What it is
     Advantages
     Limitations
     Para-partitioning vs. Virtualization
  ...
Motivation

     Many existing embedded apps are single-
      threaded
     – Cannot scale on new multi-core processors
...
What it is

     Multiple logical systems on single physical
      system
     Physical resources mapped to logical
    ...
What it is

               N
                                      PCI slot 1
    Socket 0                VGA
            ...
What it is

               N
                                      PCI slot 1
    Socket 0                VGA
            ...
What it is

               N
                                      PCI slot 1
    Socket 0                VGA
            ...
What it isn’t

     Replacement for Virtualization
     Full security solution
     Dynamically configurable
     Comp...
Advantages

     Better multi-core scaling of independent
      data flows
     Consolidation of control and data plane
...
Limitations

      OSes must be well behaved
      Logical systems require some OS
       modifications
      – One lega...
Limitations

      Each logical system needs its own
      – Processor core
      – Memory region
      – Any other devic...
Para-partitioning vs. Virtualization
      Direct hardware access    Hypervisor-emulated
                               ...
Para-partitioning vs. Virtualization
      Hardware-limited              Performance-limited
       numbers of logical  ...
Para-partitioning vs. Virtualization
      Real SMP available to    Emulated SMP available
       logical systems       ...
Para-partitioning vs. Virtualization

      Not mutually exclusive!
      Complementary
      Demo system uses both




15
Applications for Para-partitioning

      Replacing multiple embedded systems
      Leverage multi-core processors via m...
Applications for Virtualization

      Consolidate multiple servers
      Hosting services on different OSes
      Virt...
How Para-partitioning works

      EFI allocates resources among partitions
      EFI spawns additional copies of itself...
How Para-partitioning works



     Power
      On
                         Boot non-      Disable
              EFI
     ...
Demo
                                      Serial Adapter
                N
                                        PCI sl...
Summary

      Multiple logical systems on single hardware
       system
      Direct hardware access (no hypervisor)
  ...
22
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Os Wardenupdated

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Os Wardenupdated

  1. 1. Para-Partitioning Brett Warden, Albert Martinez, Saurabh Dadu, Santosh Balakrishnan July 25, 2007 Intel, Intel Logo, Intel. Leap ahead., and Intel. Leap ahead. Logo are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and other countries. *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others. 1 Copyright © 2007, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Topics  Motivation  What it is  Advantages  Limitations  Para-partitioning vs. Virtualization  Applications  How it works  Demo 2
  3. 3. Motivation  Many existing embedded apps are single- threaded – Cannot scale on new multi-core processors  Control and data-plane historically separate – Expensive duplication of physical resources  Applications have different resource needs – Multiple system designs in a given environment 3
  4. 4. What it is  Multiple logical systems on single physical system  Physical resources mapped to logical systems  Resource allocation customized to needs of logical systems 4
  5. 5. What it is N PCI slot 1 Socket 0 VGA PCIe slot 2 Front 0 1 USB PCIe slot 3 2 3 Memory Rear PCI-X slot 4 USB PCIe slot 5 Dual Socket 1 NIC PCIe slot 6 0 4 5 KB/ SATA Mouse 6 7 PATA Serial 5
  6. 6. What it is N PCI slot 1 Socket 0 VGA Memory PCIe slot 2 Front 0 1 USB PCIe slot 3 2 3 Rear PCI-X slot 4 USB Memory PCIe slot 5 Dual Socket 1 NIC PCIe slot 6 0 4 5 KB/ SATA Mouse Partition 0 6 7 Partition 1 PATA Serial 6
  7. 7. What it is N PCI slot 1 Socket 0 VGA Memory PCIe slot 2 Front 0 1 USB PCIe slot 3 2 3 Rear PCI-X slot 4 USB Memory PCIe slot 5 Dual Socket 1 NIC PCIe slot 6 0 4 5 KB/ SATA Mouse Partition 0 6 7 Partition 1 PATA Serial 7
  8. 8. What it isn’t  Replacement for Virtualization  Full security solution  Dynamically configurable  Completely transparent 8
  9. 9. Advantages  Better multi-core scaling of independent data flows  Consolidation of control and data plane elements  Without additional latency or VMM overhead 9
  10. 10. Limitations  OSes must be well behaved  Logical systems require some OS modifications – One legacy, unmodified OS can be supported  Requires cooperative PCI scanning 10
  11. 11. Limitations  Each logical system needs its own – Processor core – Memory region – Any other devices  No sharing!  Global system resources must be controlled by one partition – Ex. SMM, RTC 11
  12. 12. Para-partitioning vs. Virtualization  Direct hardware access  Hypervisor-emulated devices  1:1 resource mapping  Resource Sharing – Granularity varies among types of resources 12
  13. 13. Para-partitioning vs. Virtualization  Hardware-limited  Performance-limited numbers of logical numbers of guests systems  Static resource allocation  Dynamic resource at boot allocation by hypervisor 13
  14. 14. Para-partitioning vs. Virtualization  Real SMP available to  Emulated SMP available logical systems to guests  OS must support  Guests run unmodified relocation (with hardware virtualization support) 14
  15. 15. Para-partitioning vs. Virtualization  Not mutually exclusive!  Complementary  Demo system uses both 15
  16. 16. Applications for Para-partitioning  Replacing multiple embedded systems  Leverage multi-core processors via multiple instances of single-threaded RTOS  Enforce resource limits on shared systems  Consolidate different workloads while still providing some isolation 16
  17. 17. Applications for Virtualization  Consolidate multiple servers  Hosting services on different OSes  Virtual hosting for different customers  Multi-OS development environment 17
  18. 18. How Para-partitioning works  EFI allocates resources among partitions  EFI spawns additional copies of itself  Each copy hides other partitions’ devices by generating a filtered ACPI table 18
  19. 19. How Para-partitioning works Power On Boot non- Disable EFI legacy OS config Shell (Partition 0) writes Boot legacy Spawn EFI Shell OS (Partition Copy 1) 19
  20. 20. Demo Serial Adapter N PCI slot 1 Socket 0 VGA Memory PCIe slot 2 Front 0 1 Dual-Port NIC USB PCIe slot 3 2 3 Rear PCI-X slot 4 USB Memory PCIe slot 5 Dual Socket 1 NIC PCIe slot 6 0 4 5 KB/ SATA Mouse Partition 0 6 7 Partition 1 PATA Serial 20
  21. 21. Summary  Multiple logical systems on single hardware system  Direct hardware access (no hypervisor)  Works best for well-defined, fixed applications 21
  22. 22. 22

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