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Fotografía y Semiótica

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Una breve introducción a los aspectos semióticos de la fotografía.

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Fotografía y Semiótica

  1. 1. Fotografía ysemióticaOscar ColoradoCatedrático de fotografía avanzadaen la Universidad Panamericana(Ciudad de Méxicohttp://www.oscarenfotos.com
  2. 2. Comunicación fotográfica: hacia la semióticaReto•  Comprender con más profundidad al fenómeno conocido como “fotografía”.•  Entender a la fotografía como medio de comunicación.•  ¿Qué es eso de semiótica?
  3. 3. La semiología•  La semiótica o semiología es la ciencia que trata de los sistemas de comunicación dentro de las sociedades humanas. •  Ferdinand de Saussure fue el primero que habló de la semiología y la define como: "Una ciencia que estudia la vida de los signos en el seno de la vida social” –  Ferdinand de Saussure(EE. UU. 1851-1913)
  4. 4. Charles Sanders Peirce•  Pierce concibe una teoría general de los signos.•  Tomaremos el modelo semiótico de Peirce para analizar –  Charles Sanders a la fotografía en el Peirce (EE. UU. marco de la 1839-1914) semiología.
  5. 5. Triconomía semiótica" de Pierce ÍNDEX SIGNOS ICONO SÍMBOLO
  6. 6. ÍNDEX SIGNOS ICONO SÍMBOLOICONO
  7. 7. Icono•  Signo que mantiene una relación de semejanza con el objeto representado.•  La existencia física del referente no está necesariamente implicada por el signo icónico.•  El icono puede ser una ilustración.•  La fotografía debe ser de algo que existe. Representación visual de algo inexistente
  8. 8. Una fotografía icónica•  Es una fotografía donde prevalece lo visual, el ícono por encima del signo, el símbolo o el índex.
  9. 9. Escala de la Iconicidad" de Julio Villafañe (Corregida, aumentada yarruinada por Óscar Colorado)
  10. 10. Escala de la iconocidad 14 La realidad Imposible llegar al grado 11 mediante la representaciónMeta-fotografía Escultura. Más allá de las 13 Modelo tridimensional a escalaposibilidades"fotográficas Imagen de registro 12 estereoscópico
  11. 11. Escala de la iconocidad Fotografía11 En color 8 Fotografía En color poetizada o dramatizada Pintura 10 Híper Realista 7 Fotografía Monocromática poetizada " Fotografía en o dramatizada 9 Blanco y negro
  12. 12. Escala de la iconocidad Pintura realista6 5 Representación figurativa no realista 4 Pictograma. Representación" abstracta
  13. 13. Esquemas motivados3 2 Esquemas arbitrarios 1 Pintura no figurativa
  14. 14. 0 Signos abstractos sin conexión imaginable con el significado
  15. 15. Iconicidad, abstracción y semejanzaNo figuración Realismo Poca semejanza Mucha semejanza Abstracción Abstracción Fotografía en Pintura Reducción Color no figurativa icónica Con o sin " signos de o " Fotografía en sin símbolo Blanco y negro Esquemas motivados
  16. 16. ÍNDEX SIGNOS ICONO SÍMBOLOSÍMBOLO
  17. 17. Símbolo•  Representación sensorialmente perceptible de una realidad, en virtud de rasgos que se asocian con ésta por una convención socialmente aceptada.
  18. 18. Fotografía y símboloContinente y contenido•  Fotografía como símbolo o ¿fotografía de símbolo?" •  La fotografía puede ser un símbolo per se. ! •  La fotografía puede contener un símbolo.
  19. 19. Ícono"Texto "icónicoSímboloDemocracia,Libertad, PoderSignoEn este caso"texto literario
  20. 20. Joe Rosenthal, Rising the flag on Iwo Jima, 1945
  21. 21. US Air Force, Nagasaki, 1945
  22. 22. Hazel Bryant, Another Landmark Image. Ca. 1960
  23. 23. Suart  Franklin,  Tiananmen  Square,  1989  
  24. 24. William  Anders  (NASA),  Eartrise,  196  
  25. 25. ÍNDEX SIGNOS ICONO SÍMBOLOSIGNOS
  26. 26. Ícono"Texto "icónicoSímboloDemocracia,Libertad, PoderSignoEn este caso"texto literario
  27. 27. Clave•  La fotografía de Graciela Iturbide es muy simbólica
  28. 28. ¿Qué es un signo?•  Objeto, fenómeno o acción material que, por naturaleza o convención, representa o sustituye a otro.•  La fotografía como signo –  Posturas: –  Fotografía significante •  Toda fotografía es un signo. –  Fotografía asignificante •  Ninguna fotografía es un signo. –  Fotografía metasignificante •  Toda fotografía reproduce la apariencia total o parcial de un objeto, fenómeno o acción material.
  29. 29. Clave•  En la fotografía de Shirin Neshat o Zang Huan la mezcla de signos y su iconicidad (la belleza del trazo) son una clave importante.
  30. 30. Walker Evans
  31. 31. Manuel Álvarez Bravo
  32. 32. ÍNDEX SIGNOS ICONO SÍMBOLOÍNDEX
  33. 33. Viento/Veleta Sol/Reloj Índex Unión existencial Conexión física Fuego/Humo Gravedad/Plomada Temperatura/Termómetro
  34. 34. El Índex: Conexión física•  Índex. Signo que •  Índex. Signo significa su objeto determinado por su solamente en virtud objeto dinámico en del hecho de que virtud de la relación está realmente en real que mantiene conexión con él." con él. O sea… ¿cómo?
  35. 35. Otros ejemplos de ÍNDEXHumo     La   Polvo     La  cicatriz     Ruinas  • Indicio  del   sombra   • Depósito   • Marca  de   • VesLgio   fuego   • Proyección   del  Lempo   una  herida   de  lo  que   de  un   estuvo  allí   objeto  
  36. 36. La fotografía como bronceado•  Bronceado –  Superficie foto- sensible •  Sensor/película •  Piel•  Acción de rayos solares –  Luz: Radiación electromagnética en el espectro visible.
  37. 37. Fotografía como Index•  Algunas fotografías son icónicas.•  Algunas fotografías son simbólicas o contienen símbolos.•  Algunas fotografías contienen signos. •  TODA fotografía es un índex.
  38. 38. Adam Broomberg & Oliver Chanarin, " The Day Nobody Died. 2008 hSp://www.broombergchanarin.com/ films/the-­‐day-­‐nobody-­‐died-­‐film/  
  39. 39. Triconomía Semiótica •  Los índex son signos que mantienen, o han mantenido, con su referente (su causa) una relación de conexión real, de contigüidad física, de co- presencia inmediata. Índex   ConLgüidad   •  Los íconos se definen más bien ^sica   por una simple relación de semejanza atemporal. La SIGNOS   iconicidad es igual que (Triconomía   apariencia. SemióLca   Peirciana)   •  Los símbolos son una Icono   Símbolo   convención general (todos estamos de acuerdo en suSemejanza/   Convención  Apariencia   general   simbolismo, ej. Estatua de la libertad)
  40. 40. Íntima relación•  Ninguna de estas tres categorías Símbolo existen en estado puro.•  Cada una se apoya siempre, de un modo Signo o de otro, según los Índex Icono mensajes, sobre las otras dos.
  41. 41. EL SIGNO FOTOGRÁFICO
  42. 42. La fotografía como signo•  La fotografía pertenece, de lleno, a la categoría del índex. •  La fotografía puede estar en el orden de la semejanza icónica.•  Puede pertenecer a la categoría de símbolo.
  43. 43. Semiótica y símbolos Concepto Firulais   Chuchú   Fido   Snoopy   Solovino   Objeto Signo
  44. 44. Fotografía ysemióticaOscar ColoradoCatedrático de fotografía avanzadaen la Universidad Panamericana(Ciudad de Méxicohttp://www.oscarenfotos.com

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