BLOOM’S TAXONOMY:ORIGINAL AND REVISEDABSTRACT Many curriculum planners, administrators, researchers, and classroom teachers at alllevel of education have used Bloom’s taxonomy. Bloom’s taxonomy is a multi-tieredmodel of classifying thinking according to six cognitive level of complexity. Bloom’staxonomy has stood the test of the time. Due to its long history and popularity, it has beencondensed, expanded, and interpreted in a variety of ways. Research findings have led tothe discovery of a veritable smorgasbord of interpretations and applications falling oncontinuum ranging from tight overviews to expanded explanations. Nonetheless, one recentrevision merits particular attention. To know both version of cognitive taxonomy of bloomhelp us to make a better plan to have a successful problem solving because they involve thefeelings and beliefs of the students and teachers as well as the social and culturalenvironment of the classroom.INTRODUCTION Bloom’s taxonomy is a topic that education people keep talking about. Hisattention to the development of specifications through which educational objectives couldbe organized according their cognitive complexity. If such an organization or hierarchycould be developed, university examiners might have a more reliable procedure forassessing students and the outcomes of educational practice. Bloom and his coworkerscreated the classic definition of the levels of educational activity, from the very simple (likememorizing facts) to the more complex (such as analyzing or evaluating information). Their intent was to develop a method of classification for thinking behaviors thatwere believed to be important in the processes of learning. Eventually, this frameworkbecame taxonomy of three domains: (www.coe.uga.edu/epltt/bloo.htm) • The cognitive – knowledge based domain that consists of six levels • The affective – attitudinal based domain that consists of five levels • The Psychomotor – skills based domain that consists of six levelWhat resulted from his work is Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Handbook 1, thecognitive domain was published in 1956 (Eisner 2000). Because many curriculumplanners, administrators, researchers and educators, it is better if we know better about theBloom’s taxonomy.DISCUSSION The cognitive taxonomy is predicated on the idea that cognitive operations can beordered into six increasingly complex levels. What is taxonomic about the taxonomy isthat each subsequent level depends upon the students’ ability to perform at the level orlevels that precede it. The taxonomy was no mere classification scheme. It was an effort tohierarchically order cognitive processes. The bloom taxonomy has been revised to correctsome of the problems in it.
Evaluation Creating Synthesis Evaluating Analysis Analyzing Application Applying Comprehension Understanding Knowledge Remembering OLD VERSION NEW VERSIONThe Bloom taxonomy (www.nerds.unl.edu/pages/preser/sec/articles/bloom.html):Level of Taxonomy : Evaluating/CreatingDefinition : Judging the values of the idea, material, and methods by developing and applying standards and criteria.Cognitive Process : Checking (coordinating, detecting, monitoring, testing) & Critiquing (judging)Teacher’s Role : to clarify, to accept, to harmonize, to guideStudent’s Role : to judge, to dispute, to develop, to active, to participateProcess Verbs : to judge, to rate, to validate, to predict, to asses, to score, to evaluate, to compare, to defend, to select, to measure, to appraise, to value, to probe, to argue, to decide, to estimate, to revise, to infer, to criteria, to determine, to prioritize, to tell why, to choose,Products : investigation, judgment, opinion, report, survey, editorial, debate, scale, evaluation, verdict, conclusion, recommendation, panelSkill Demonstrated : compare and discriminate between the ideas, asses value of theories, and make choice based on reasoned argumentPossible Activities : Prepare a list of criteria to judge a show and include priorities and ratingsPossible Question : - Is there a better solution to …? - Judge the value of…? - Can you defend your position about…?Level of Taxonomy : Synthesis/EvaluatingDefinition : Putting together constituent elements or parts to form a whole requiring original, creative thinking.Cognitive Process : Generating (hypothesis), Planning (designing),, & Producing (constructing)Teacher’s Role : to reflect, to extend, to analyze, to evaluateStudent’s Role : to discuss, to generalize, to relate, to compare, to contrast, to abstract, to active, to participantProcess Verbs : to compose, to assemble, to manage, to pretend, to arrange, to organize, to invent, to generalize, to systematize, to show, to
compile, to forecast, to modify, to devise, to derive, to purpose, to construct, to plan, to revise, to collect, to prepare, to develop,Products : film, story, project, blueprint, plan, solution, new game, song, pantomime, video, newspaper, painting, HyperCard stack, media product, advertisement, poem, formula, machine, goal, play, cartoon, invention, product, radio, event, collage, designSkill Demonstrated : use old ideas to create new ones and generalize from given factsPossible Activities : invent a machine for a specific task, create a new product, and write about your feelings in relation to…Possible Question : - Can you design a …to…? - Can you see a possible to ….? - Can you develop a proposal which would…?Level of Taxonomy : Analysis/AnalyzingDefinition : Breaking information down into its constituent elementsCognitive Process : Differentiating (discriminating, distinguishing, focusing, selecting), Organizing (finding coherence, integrating, outlining, parsing, structuring) & Attributing (deconstructing)Teacher’s Role : to probes, to guide, to observe, to evaluate, to act as a, to resource, to question, to organize, to dissectStudent’s Role : to discuss, to uncover, to list, to active, to participantProcess Verbs : to distinguish, , to interpret, to inspect, to compare, to examine, to inventory, to probe, to scrutinize, to separate, to discover, to inquire, to survey, to arrange, to detectProducts : diagram, chart, investigation, outline, graph, conclusion, plan, list, categorize, summary, questionnaire, survey, illustration, database, inventory, mobile, spreadsheet, abstract, checklist, reportSkill Demonstrated : see the patterns, organize some parts, recognize the hidden meanings, and identify the componentsPossible Activities : Design a questionnaire to gather further information, write a commercial to sell a new product, and write a biographyPossible Question : - Which events could have happened - How was this similar to ….? - What do you see as other possible outcomes?Level of Taxonomy : Application/ApplyingDefinition : Carry out or use a procedure in a given situationCognitive Process : Executing (carrying out) & Implementing (using)Teacher’s Role : to show, to facilitate, to observe, to evaluate, to organize, to question
Student’s Role : to solve problems, to demonstrate, to use of knowledge, to construct, to active, to participateProcess Verbs : to translate, to manipulate, to exhibit, to illustrate, to calculate, to sketch, to interpret, to prepare, t make, to experiment, to list, to practice, to apply, to practice, to relate, to operate, to interviewProducts : prediction, puzzle, scrapbook, relate, product, diary, photograph, report, illustrate, diorama, simulation, poster, sculpture, diagram, experiment, lesson, interview, model, performance, journal, presentation, map, demonstrationSkill Demonstrated : use information, use method, concept, theories in new situation, and solve problems using required skills or knowledgePossible Activities : construct a model to show how it will work, edit films / photograph /recordings to demonstrate a particular point, and make a puzzle game using ideas from eventPossible Question : - How can you use - What examples can you find to …? - What factors would you change if …?Level of Taxonomy : Comprehension/UnderstandingDefinition : construct meaning from instructional messages, including oral, written, and graphic communicationCognitive Process : Interpreting (clarifying, representing), Exemplifying (illustrating, instantiating), Classifying (categorizing), Summarizing (abstracting), Inferring (concluding), Comparing (contrasting), & Explaining (constructing methods)Teacher’s Role : to demonstrate, to listen, to compare, to contrast, to examineStudent’s Role : to explain, to translate, to demonstrate, to interpret, to activeProcess Verbs : to relate, to identify, to discuss, to locate, to retell, to research, to convert, to annotate, to translate, to give, to describe, to report, to recognize, to review, to observe, to locate, to outline, to explain, to tell, to summarize, to ask, to identifyProducts : recitation, summary, collection, explanation, story problems, quiz, definition, test, label, debate, outlineSkill Demonstrated : understand the meaning, translate knowledge into new context, and predict consequencesPossible Activities : draw/paint pictures to explain what an event was about, Illustrate the main idea, and write a summary reportPossible Question : - Can you write in your own words…? - Can you write a brief outline - Who do you think…?
Level of Taxonomy : Knowledge/RememberingDefinition : Retrieve relevant knowledge from long-term memoryCognitive Process : Recognizing (identifying) & Recalling (retrieving)Teacher’s Role : to direct, to tell, to show, to examine, to question, to evaluate, to question, to evaluateStudent’s Role : to respond, to absorb, to remember, to recognize, to memorizeProcess Verbs : to define, to name, to record, to match, to select, to underline, to cite, to sort, to know, to recall, to listen, to choose, to quote, to memorize, to show, to distinguish, to reproduce, to describeProducts : quiz, definition, fact, worksheet, reproduction, label, list, test, workbookSkill Demonstrated : observe and recall of information, master the subject matter, and know the major ideasPossible Activities : make a list of the main events, make a fact chart, and recite a poemPossible Question : - How many…? - Can you tell…? - Which is true or false…? Bloom’s taxonomy has been applied to a variety of situation. In almost allcircumstances when an instructor desires to move a group of students through a learningprocess utilizing an organized framework, Bloom’s taxonomy can prove helpful. Astouched upon earlier, through the years, Bloom’s taxonomy has given rise to educationalconcepts including terms such as high and low level thinking. It has been closely linkedwith multiple problem solving skills, creative and critical thinking, and more recently,technology integration. (www.coe.uga.edu/epltt/htm).CONCLUSION Like any theoretical model, Bloom’s taxonomy has its strength and weakness. Itsgreat strength is that it has taken the very important topic of thinking and placed a structurearound it that is usable by practitioners. Those teachers who keep a list of question promptsrelating to the various level of Bloom’s Taxonomy undoubtedly do a better job ofencouraging higher-order thinking in their students than those who have no such tools. Onthe other hand, as anyone who has worked with a group of educators to classify a group ofquestions and learning activities according to the Taxonomy can attest, there is littleconsensus about what seemingly self –evident terms like “analysis,’ or “evaluate” mean.But we don’t have to worry about the using the Bloom’s taxonomy and its revision becauseboth of them are giving the students with the knowledge and cognitive process they needfor successful problem solving.
REFERENCESwww.coe.uga.edu/epltt/bloom.htmwww.nerds.unl.edu/pages/preser/sec/articles/bloom.htmlwww.coun.uvic.ca/learning/exams/blooms-taxonomy.htmlTeaching and e