SYNTHESIS Presented to Aridah, S.Pd.,M.A In TESOL By Sekta Lonir Oscarini Wati Bhakti Class A MULAWARMAN UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATIONGRADUATE PROGRAM IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION SAMARINDA JULY, 2010
SUGGESTOPEDIAABSTRACT Suggestopedia is one of teaching methods that introduced by Georgi Lozanov.The main objection of this method is to motivate more of students’ mental potentialto learn and which obtained by suggestion. In this method, there are six principaltheoretical components that make it different from the other methods. And to achievethose components, it also puts suggestions into practice by making use ofinstructional techniques. There are also three kinds of teaching tools that used insuggestopedia such as, psychological means, didactic means, and artistic means. Andalso, there is a multitude of skills that someone needs to acquire in order to become a“suggestopedic” teacher. In every method, there are always some advantages andweaknesses, and so does the suggestopedia.INTRODUCTION Suggestopedia is a specific set of learning recommendations derived fromSuggestology. It is a method developed by Georgi Lozanov, the Bulgarianpsychologist and educator, in 1975. He created suggestopedia for learning thatcapitalized on relaxed states of mind for maximum retention material. By using kindof method, memorization in learning by the suggestopedic method seems to beaccelerated 25 times over that in learning by conventional methods (Lozanov1978:27). Lozanov also claimed that there is no sector public life wheresuggestology would not be useful (Lozanov 1978:2). The most important objectives of suggestopedia is to motivate more ofstudents’ mental potential to learn and which obtained by suggestion. Suggestopediafocuses on how to deal with the relationship between mental potential and learningefficiency.
Lozanov (1978) cited in Priyatmojo (2009) argued that learners havedifficulties in acquiring English as the second language because of the fear of thestudents to make mistakes. If the learners are in this condition, their heart and bloodpressure raise. He believes that there is a mental block in the learners’ brain(affective filter). This filter blocks the input, so the learners have the difficulties toacquire language cause by their fear. The combination desuggestion and suggestionis to lower affective filter and motivate students’ mental potential to learn, aiming toaccelerate the process by which they learn to understand and use the target languagefor communication to achieve superlearning. It is the final goal of suggestopedia. Sowe can conclude that there are three fundamental aims of suggestopedia according toLozanov; to demonstrate that the human personality possesses potential capabilitiesfar exceeding those recognized by generally accepted social norms; to analyze theextent to which various individual achievements could be expected from all or frommost members of society; o promote interest in the search for methods of exploration.(4, p.9) According to Richard and Rogers (1998), there are six principal theoreticalcomponents through which desuggestion and suggestion operate. They are;Authority that students remember best and are influenced when information comesfrom an authority or teachers; Infantilization that learners may regain self-confidencein a relation of student-teacher like that of parent to children; Double-planedness thatlearning comes not only from direct instruction but also from the environment inwhich instruction takes places; Intonation, rhythm, and concert pseudo-passivenesswhich varying tone and rhythm of presentation frees the instruction from boredom,and presenting linguistic material with music gets the benefit of the effect producedon body. According to Dumitrana, there three principles constitute a framework ofsuggestopedia. The three principles are joyful and spontaneous concentrative
calmness; dynamic, structured and hierarchical global; and desuggestive set-up withthe aim of the spontaneous freeing of the reserve capacities of the mind and brain. The method of suggestopedia can be analyzed by focusing on twocomponents, namely the perceptual levels of the learners and the techniques ofcontrolling them. (Kemaloglu, 2005). The Perceptual levels of the learners isconcerned about the Subconscious and conscious. According to this method, humanbeings continuously perceive and store the stimuli in their environment at bothconscious and subconscious levels. The conscious represents the verbal, rational,cognitive whereas the subconscious the non-verbal, emotional and intuitive aspects ofthe self. The learners who start the learning process bring a great deal of contentstored in their own subconscious and during the process of learning the stimulicoming from the classroom environment exert both conscious and subconsciousinfluences on mind. Another techniques is the Psychological techniques ofcontrolling the subconscious and conscious in the learning environment.Suggestopedia holds that the starting point in the language teaching process should begetting control of both conscious and subconscious influences and use them tooptimize learning. This can be achieved by “suggestion”. The ways how suggestion and its derivatives such as desuggestion, direct andindirect suggestion can be extended into the learning environment. Desuggestionmeans unloading the memory banks, or reserves, off wanted or blocking memories.It deals with by creating a learning atmosphere where all messages have a positiveemotional content. The learning atmosphere is involved by the students’ internalenvironment (the self) and the external environment (the classroom). Beside thatbased on his studies on yoga, Lazanov claims that the best learning takes place in arelaxed but focused state. To achieved this, instruction takes place on two planes.On the conscious plane there is direct suggestion and the language itself is used here.On the subconscious plane instruction is achieved indirect suggestion by usingelements which surround the language.
To achieve the components above, suggestopedia puts suggestion into practiceby making use of instructional techniques (Kemaloglu:2005). The first technique isthe techniques used in environmental set-up. In this technique, the environment ofthe classroom must be as comfortable as possible. In learning process, it needshaving a pleasing, relaxing, and stimulating arrangement of the classroom. Thesecond technique is called Authority-building techniques underlying the teachers’ andthe learners’ role. It is maintained that information which is considered to be comingfrom an authority source is likely to be remembered best and be the most influentialof all information types. This belief indeed highlights the teacher’s role and thelearner’s role in this method. The third technique is the Techniques concerningpresentation of the linguistic material. The linguistic material presented to thestudents is in the forms of lengthy (but not difficult) dialogues or stories in the targetlanguage. And the presentation must be harmony with the classical music. Theconcert session is part of lesson where the teacher read the text twice while listeningthe classical music playing in the background. This session consist of two stages,there are; the active concert where the teacher turns on the tape recorder to playclassical music for relieving effects. The teacher allow the students to get into themood of the music for a few minutes and then starts reading varying his/herintonation and rhythm in accordance with the music as if his/her voice were one ofthe instruments in the orchestra. The students at the same time follow the textactively. And the other is the passive concert: It this concert, another classical musicwork, which is slower than the former one, plays in the background. The teacheragain give some time to students to listen the music and then reads the text for thesecond time The forth technique is the technique that concerns the follow-up stages. Thereare two-follow up stages aiming student activation to present the text. At the primaryactivation stage, students are asked to reread the dialogues aloud in a dramatic way byembedding various emotions in it as individuals and in groups. At the secondactivation stage, students engage in a variety of activities such as singing songs,
making conversations, playing games and creating and acting role-plays. Thefollowing techniques is the techniques that concern error treatment. Errors aretolerated since the emphasis is on content not structure. They are not correctedimmediately. When errors of form occur the teacher uses the correct form in softvoice following the activities. The sixth technique is called the technique concerninghomework. The only homework given to the students is re-reading the presentedlinguistic material once before they go to sleep at night and once in the morning justafter they get up as these periods are alleged to be the periods where optimal learningtakes place. And the last technique is evaluation technique. Formal tests are avoidedfor the fear that they might deteriorate the relaxing aura of the classroom atmosphereand act as a threatening force against learner’s self-esteem. According to Dumitrana, there are some teaching tools used insuggestopaedia that divided in three groups. The first group is called thepsychological means that refer firstly to the overall organization of the teaching-learning communication. The important element here is the way the peripheralperceptions will be organized, that is they should stimulate rather than to illustratethese peripheral perceptions include beside the wall posters with the content of studythe whole classroom atmosphere. Measure to the classroom atmosphere; s/he shouldbe animated, inspiring, calm, enjoying the work; his/her voice itself has to be freshand melodious. The second group is the didactic means. The methods used arecommunicational, so the students’ attention is directed to the whole sentence, to itsmeaningful communicative aspect, to its place and role in the given amusing situationwhile the pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar remain on a second plane thoughnot overlooked. And the last group is the artistic means. Suggestopaedia introduces aspecial type of didactic art in the teaching- learning process, in the content of thelessons( music, literature, visual material, acting and so on). There is a multitude of skills that someone needs to acquire in order tobecome a “suggestopaedic” teacher for example; know how to conduct teaching-learning communication on the edge of knowledge and on the edge of the believing
system of the individual students in the group; know how and when to vary theintonation and behaviour to convey the study material; know how to master the“laughter” system in a practical way; know how to practically master the “song”system; know how to vary the intonation during the concert session; know how toapply the dynamic global principle at each moment of teaching; know how to makethe transition from the whole to the part and from the part to the whole; know how touse peripheral perceptions; know how to prepare illustrative material and make itstimulating at the same time; know how to plan both active and passive knowledge;know how to recognize and at the same time use or avoid the placebo; know how torecognize the inducement of a hypnotic state and how not to allow its occurrence;know how to organize and utilize the three means of desuggestive teaching: didactic,psychological and artistic in their unity; so that there should not be a segment of workor rest etc. It should all flow; know how to keep different intensity of work at the timeof elaboration near the golden proportion; and know how to understand and to applylove for human beings. The design of suggestopedic instructions outlined above, leads to theassumption that this kind of learning environment has positive cognitive,motivational, emotional, and social effects. Individual differences between learnersare taken into consideration as well, since it is the declared goal of suggestopedy togive special help to those learners with a somewhat more negative approach tolearning, such as, for example, a high degree of dispositional anxiety. In the cognitiveeffects it is dealing with the development of knowledge. The situational design ofsuggestopedic exercises as well as extensive exposure to the complex, authenticsystem of the target language in suggestopedic language instruction should lead toknowledge which can be easily activated in relevant situations. The other effect is themotivational effects. The manner in which different forms of practice are embeddedin rich situational contexts helps the learner understand rather complex remarks evenwith a limited vocabulary. Experiences of success such as those are likely tofrequently let learners experience a feeling of competence. Anxiety is the outcome
that occurs in emotional effect. Suggestopedic instruction responds to this emotionalneed through the frequent use of relaxation exercises as well as through reducingnervousness in movement- oriented exercises. The other effect is the social effect.Suggestopedic instruction frequently uses exercises which provide a high degree ofsocial interaction and authentic communication. It is seen as very important thatlearners become acquainted with each other. Therefore we can expect that students ina suggestopedic course will experience cooperation with other students as well aswith the instructor in a positive way. It is unfair if we are just talking about the strength of suggestopedia. Becauseit also has some disadvantages that perhaps appear in certain situation and condition.We are talking about the limitation of environment. Most schools in developingcountries have large classes. Each class consists of 30 to 40 students. One of theproblems faced in utilizing this method is the number of students in the class. Andalso the situation of the country that is not quite enough to do relaxation in theclassroom, such as the chaos. The other disadvantage is the use of hypnosis becausesome people say that suggestopedia uses hypnosis, so it has bad deep effects forhuman beings. Lazanov strongly denied about it. Next is about the infantilizationlearning. Suggestopedia class is conditioned be child-like situation. There are somestudents who do not like to be treated like this as they think that thay are mature.And also the using of classical music because as there are people who find classicalmusic irritating rather than stimulating and classical music in some cultures maysound “foreign”. Also there is the possibility that exaggeration of rhythm andintonation may be perceived “odd” and “illogical”. The long text that used in thismethod is usually gives bad effect to the learners. Some learners are apt to have anegative attitude to long texts. They often have a tendency to think that the longer thetext is, the more boring learning will be. And the other disadvantage is this method,the main components of language learning namely vocabulary, structures, functionsand topics are not harmonized on a sound basis so the failure in putting the languageitems in order may serve to confuse the learners rather than motivate them. There is
“this” and “that” and learners are expected to pick them up randomly throughinternalizationCONCLUSION Using suggestopedia in teaching is very interesting but challenging to do. Itcan be seen from some considerations. In one side it has some benefits, but on theother side it also has some weaknesses. In addition, the key factors of effectiveteaching are not the approaches and methods in language teaching themselves but theteacher’s deliberate selection of different approaches and methods and the devotedpractice of putting theories into real teaching activities in a corresponding social-cultural context. All in all, as teachers we should not be the fanatics of just one method.Suggestopedia helps us with the brilliant idea that there should be pleasing memoriesin the learning environment for effective language acquisition. In order to create thosememories the techniques that Suggestopedia has brought into the field of ELT can beharmonized with the current ones we apply so as to create a humanistic learningenvironment.ReferencesBeitinger, Gabriele, Mandl, Heinz & Renkl, Alexander. 1993. Dolphin Leading by Learning Suggestopedic Instruction An Empirical Study of its Cognitive, Motivational, Emotional and Social Implications from http://www.delphin- international.com/ResourceCenter/suggestopedia%20research.pdfDumitrana, Magdalena. Suggestopedia – a Theory of Integrality from http://lcce.valahia.ro/volum/59.mdumitrana.pdfKemaloglu, Elif. 2005. A Review Suggestopedia from http://www.yde.yildiz.edu.tr/uddo/belgeler/inca-ekemalog-sugg.htmLarsen-Freeman, Diane.2000.Techniqus and Principles in Language Teaching Teaching Techniques in English as a Second Language Second Edition.Oxford University Press
Lozanov, G., Suggestopaedia - Desuggestive Teaching. Communicative Method on the Level of the Hidden Reserves of the Human Mind, online edition, from (www.vobs.at/ludescher/pdf%20files/SUGGESTOPAEDIA%20- %20book.pdf)Priyatmojo, Arif Suryo. 2009. Suggestopedia as a Method for Teaching Speaking for Young Learners in a Second Language Classroom from pps.unnes.ac.id/pps1/files/.../Arif%20Suryo%20P.docRichards, Jack C. and Rodgers, Theodore S.2002. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching Second Edition. Cambridge Language Teaching library. Cambridge University Press