entails between distinct languages either through written form or through direct social contact between speakers.
THE EXAMPLE OF: THROUGH WRITTEN FORM * Latin and contemporary English TROUGH DIRECT SOCIAL CONTACT * Recruiting of foreign workers from Turkey by German companies contact of German with Turkish in many large cities in German * The arrival of immigrants from Mexico and Cuba to the United States contact between Spanish and America English
Sometimes contact situations are established in the history of a language but later exist to a much lesser extent.For Example: English was in very close contact with French after the Norman invasion of England in 1066, but today the contact between those languages in England is much less intense.
The Linguistic System GrammarThe Relationship between the speakersThe Linguistic Outcome
It is often influenced by BORROWINGBorrowing is the adoption by one language of linguistic elements from another language. Lexical Borrowing Structural Borrowing
Loans or loanwords the adoption of individual words into one language from another. Example in American English include BALLET and CHAISE from French, MACHO and TACO from Spanish and PIZZA and SPAGHETTI from ItalianLoan translations or calques the adoption of whole phrases and idiomatic expression. Example include English IT GOES WITHOUT SAYING from French IL VA SANS DIRE
Phonological Borrowing when a language adopts a new sounds or phonological rules from a language with which it is in contact. word final [ž] has been introduced from French loanwords like rouge and prestige Morphological Borrowing the adoption of morphological features by one language under the influence of another language suffixes –able/-ible from French readable, incredible suffix –er from Latin reader, writer Syntactic Borrowing ordering requirements of surface elements in one language may be borrowed into another language, replacing the native word order. Asia Minor Greek dialects have adopted SUBJECT – OBJECT – VERB word order under the influenced of Turkish.
The Intensity of ContactThe Prestige (or Power) of the speakers
It is determined by: The Linguistic Contact The Level of Interaction between the speakers * a long-term contact + a high level of interactions an intense contact situation * a short-term contact + limited social interaction a low-intensity contact situationIt affects on Linguistic system: Lexical borrowing requires a low-intensity contact situation without a depth knowledgeable of the grammar system of the donor language a Structural borrowing requires the existences of at least some speakers who are knowledgeable in both languages Bilingualism (requires a relatively intense degree of contact between the group in order to develop)
The Adstratal Relationship if the speakers in the contact situation consider themselves to be equally prestigious Adstratal borrowing is bidirectional the borrowing takes places in both directions as donor and recipient at the same time. English and Norse in contact in Early England were adstratum The Substratal/ Superstratal Relationship If the speakers themselves to be unequal in term of prestige The Substratal/Superstratal is undirectional the superstatum language is the donor langauge and accepts only a few loanwords from the substratum language Superstratum language: the language of the dominant group Subtratum language : the language of the less dominant group for the example: English and Native American Language English language is the superstratum language Native American language is substratum language
Language Convergence If the speakers of different languages enter into an extensive, long term contact. the development of an increasing mutual agreement of the language systems in contact Sprachbund (union of language): languages which enter into such a linguistic alliance BALKAN Sparchbund Albania Macedonian Greek Romanian Serbo-Croatia
Language Shift If there is extensive, long –term contact between languages that have an unequal prestige relationship. As the shift by a group of speakers toward another language, while abandoning the native language.Language Death If the shifting group is the only group speakers who used their original language.
Arises in a setting where two or more people come together for the purposes of trade.If the traders do not share a common language for communication, they might create a simplified, yet distinct language, A PIDGIN, to help facilitate trading. CHINOOK JARGON a pidgin spoken by Native American, British, and French traders in the Pacific Northwest in the nineteenth century.
Arises in situation where the speakers in contact are in need of a common, primary means of communication.For a wide range of communication purposes, not just facilitation of trade. plantation setting on the Caribbean Islands and in the Southern United States. a large number of Africans speaking a multitude of mutually unintelligible native languages came together with a small number of Africans. This situation created the need for a common means of communication among the Africans as well as between the African and Europeans English-based Jamaican Creole Trinidadian Creole French-based Haitian Creole