KEIKO MUTO       Heldina PristantiSekta Lonir Oscarini Wati Bhakti            Sunarmi          Sukmawati     Theresia Hild...
Introduction   Language learners will need to develop the full    range of lexical strategies to improve their    communi...
Introduction   The aim    To investigate how a working knowledge of     discourse – organizing vocabulary, especially   ...
Previous study   DeCarrico (2001)    Learners should initially be taught a large     productive vocabulary of at least t...
Discourse Organizing VocabularyLexical items can have a significant structuringrole in texts Winter (1977) points out, co...
Discourse Organizing Vocabulary   Francis (1994) categorizes referring words into    two groups that provides the frame o...
Discourse Organizing Vocabulary   Knowledge of discourse organizing    vocabulary might complement L2 learners’    lack o...
Lexical Items   It is the best way to find out what the lexical    item semantically. It is to consider how    terms of m...
Lexical Cohesion   Halliday & Hasan (1976) classify    reiteration into four types: the same    word, a synonym/near syno...
Lexical Cohesion   Halliday & Hasan (1976) states that collocation    is an important part of creating cohesion in    con...
Lexical Cohesion               COHESIVE                FORCE               COHESIVE                 TIE    COHESIVE       ...
Lexical Cohesion The means by which text are linguistically  connected ….Carter 1998 Cannot exist without sentence A se...
Lexical Cohesion and Text    Lexical cohesion is not always necessary     for text to produce semantic relation     betwe...
Lexical Cohesion and Text   Text can exist without lexical cohesion,    though lexical cohesion cannot exist without    t...
Methodology   Instrument    Reading  three short stories    Writing  one kind of written exercises   Subject    80 ...
Reading Activity   The instruments were designed to encourage    the students to collect the necessary    information in ...
Writing Activity   It is designed to investigate how much    students make use of cohesion in their    writing. After rea...
Discussion: Analysis and Results
Discussion: Analysis and ResultsReading Activity   Exercise 1: Understanding the place    This exercise was designed to ...
Discussion: Analysis and ResultsReading Activity   Exercise 2: Understanding time    The students were requested to find...
Discussion: Analysis and ResultsReading Activity   Exercise 3: Understanding the Main Character    The students were req...
Discussion: Analysis and ResultsWriting Activity The students constructed the plot of their  story. The students are help...
Conclusion   In reading activity, the result of the    analysis showed the considerable effect    that the knowledge of l...
Conclusion   How to improve the general knowledge of    lexical cohesion in reading     Acquiring cultural knowledge    ...
Conclusion In the Writing Activity, students made use  of their knowledge of lexical cohesion for  interpreting the story...
Critical Evaluation   Strong point    It has a strong background about the lexical     cohesion in reading and writing  ...
Critical Evaluation   Weak Point    No detail steps in conducting test. The amount of     time in reading and writing ac...
How can the article be improved The writer should give more detailed  examples and data, that can support the  experiment...
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Critical review on the use of lexical cohesion in reading and writing

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Critical review on the use of lexical cohesion in reading and writing

  1. 1. KEIKO MUTO Heldina PristantiSekta Lonir Oscarini Wati Bhakti Sunarmi Sukmawati Theresia Hilda Kayani
  2. 2. Introduction Language learners will need to develop the full range of lexical strategies to improve their communicative competence, lexical knowledge must be considered essential to L2 learners.
  3. 3. Introduction The aim To investigate how a working knowledge of discourse – organizing vocabulary, especially lexical cohesion, can help EFL students is reading and writing.
  4. 4. Previous study DeCarrico (2001) Learners should initially be taught a large productive vocabulary of at least two thousand high-frequency words. Low-frequency words can be acquire while L2 learners are exposed to reading/listening Clarke and Nation (1980) Low-frequency words can be learned by practicing guessing new word meaning through clue words found in discourse. By guessing the word meanings through the knowledge of basic vocabulary, L2 learners can interpret discourse more precisely.
  5. 5. Discourse Organizing VocabularyLexical items can have a significant structuringrole in texts Winter (1977) points out, co- ordinating/subordinating conjunctions , and adverbials can be clue items to understand the lexical relationship in discourse. Halliday & Hasan (1976) add “general noun” to pronouns, which means “a small set of nouns having generalized reference within the major noun classes, those such as “human noun,” “place noun,” “fact noun’ and the like”
  6. 6. Discourse Organizing Vocabulary Francis (1994) categorizes referring words into two groups that provides the frame of reference within which the subsequent argument is developed. These labels will help the reader to collect information to understand the text:” Advance label means cataphoric words that allow the reader to predict the precise information that will follow Retrospective label means anaphoric that indicates to the reader “exactly how that stretch of discourse is to be interpreted
  7. 7. Discourse Organizing Vocabulary Knowledge of discourse organizing vocabulary might complement L2 learners’ lack of vocabulary and assist them in text interpretation
  8. 8. Lexical Items It is the best way to find out what the lexical item semantically. It is to consider how terms of meaning in discourse Halliday & Hasan (1976) categorize lexical item into groups: ○ Grammatical Cohesion: reference, substitution, ellipsis, and conjunction ○ Lexical Cohesion: reiteration and collocation The semantic relationship between lexical items can be considered to be lexical cohesion
  9. 9. Lexical Cohesion Halliday & Hasan (1976) classify reiteration into four types: the same word, a synonym/near synonym, superordinate, and general word A boy ○ The boy  the same word ○ The lad  synonym/near synonym ○ The child  a superordinate ○ The idiot  a general word
  10. 10. Lexical Cohesion Halliday & Hasan (1976) states that collocation is an important part of creating cohesion in connected text. Collocation refers to the semantic and structural relation among words, which native speakers can use subconsciously for comprehension or production of a text
  11. 11. Lexical Cohesion COHESIVE FORCE COHESIVE TIE COHESIVE ITEM IN A ITEM TEXT
  12. 12. Lexical Cohesion The means by which text are linguistically connected ….Carter 1998 Cannot exist without sentence A set of “discourse semantic system”….Martin 2001
  13. 13. Lexical Cohesion and Text Lexical cohesion is not always necessary for text to produce semantic relation between sentence..Brown & Yule. 1980A: There’s the doorbellB: I’m in the bath
  14. 14. Lexical Cohesion and Text Text can exist without lexical cohesion, though lexical cohesion cannot exist without text..Brown & Yule.1983 I bought a Ford. A car in which President Wilson rode down the Champs Elysees was black. Black English has been widely discussed. The Discussions between the presidents ended last week. A week has seven days. Every day. I feed my cat.. Cats have four legs. The cat is on the mat. Mat has three letters.
  15. 15. Methodology Instrument Reading  three short stories Writing  one kind of written exercises Subject 80 students of two extensive reading class at a university in Nagoya, Japan
  16. 16. Reading Activity The instruments were designed to encourage the students to collect the necessary information in a text to understand the story more accurately by paying attention to lexical cohesion. To find the place of story To find the time To find the character traits Those clues were expected to indicate the degree to which students could use the Knowledge of cohesion for the interpretation of stories.
  17. 17. Writing Activity It is designed to investigate how much students make use of cohesion in their writing. After reading the story, the students were asked to write a sequel to the story.
  18. 18. Discussion: Analysis and Results
  19. 19. Discussion: Analysis and ResultsReading Activity Exercise 1: Understanding the place This exercise was designed to introduce students to the knowledge of the relationship among word/phrases in the text. Students were requested to select words delivering the necessary information concerning ‘place’ in the first page The result ○ The mistakes were made by the students were because of the lack of cultural knowledge prevented them from determining lexical cohesion
  20. 20. Discussion: Analysis and ResultsReading Activity Exercise 2: Understanding time The students were requested to find clue words determining time in the story. The result ○ 22 students who could answer correctly, could make cohesion by collecting clue items beyond the first page
  21. 21. Discussion: Analysis and ResultsReading Activity Exercise 3: Understanding the Main Character The students were requested to explain the main character at the first and show clue items which are used to understand the main character The results ○ The students used different clue words but have the same answer. It means that the students could understand and build lexical cohesion in a text to find the main character’s traits.
  22. 22. Discussion: Analysis and ResultsWriting Activity The students constructed the plot of their story. The students are helped by the researcher by giving the aid as the knowledge of lexical cohesion The results The knowledge of lexical cohesion can help students interpret the story, develop vocabulary and give coherence to their writing
  23. 23. Conclusion In reading activity, the result of the analysis showed the considerable effect that the knowledge of lexical cohesion has on their understanding of the story
  24. 24. Conclusion How to improve the general knowledge of lexical cohesion in reading  Acquiring cultural knowledge  Expanding the area of lexical cohesion  Creating original cohesion  Expanding the area of lexical cohesion to the whole text  Creating original cohesion  Comprehending that collocationally linked words in an argument can be related to the writer’s evaluation Knowledge of lexical cohesion can help students in comprehending the coherence of the story as well
  25. 25. Conclusion In the Writing Activity, students made use of their knowledge of lexical cohesion for interpreting the story and effectively applied it to writing a story. By using lexical cohesion, students’ stories showed a more varied vocabulary and coherent plot. A knowledge of lexical cohesion helped students to write more effectively
  26. 26. Critical Evaluation Strong point It has a strong background about the lexical cohesion in reading and writing It uses several clear literature to support the article It can improve the vocabulary of the students by knowing the lexical cohesion The findings of the article can help the readers to implicate it in the teaching and learning process
  27. 27. Critical Evaluation Weak Point No detail steps in conducting test. The amount of time in reading and writing activities was not mentioned It was not shown precisely about the subject of the research. It only said that they were from a university in Nagoya, Japan It does not give enough examples and data to explain the lexical cohesion
  28. 28. How can the article be improved The writer should give more detailed examples and data, that can support the experiments. Statistic data should be provided in this article. Hypothesis should be explained more detailed.

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