Introduction Language learners will need to develop the full range of lexical strategies to improve their communicative competence, lexical knowledge must be considered essential to L2 learners.
Introduction The aim To investigate how a working knowledge of discourse – organizing vocabulary, especially lexical cohesion, can help EFL students is reading and writing.
Previous study DeCarrico (2001) Learners should initially be taught a large productive vocabulary of at least two thousand high-frequency words. Low-frequency words can be acquire while L2 learners are exposed to reading/listening Clarke and Nation (1980) Low-frequency words can be learned by practicing guessing new word meaning through clue words found in discourse. By guessing the word meanings through the knowledge of basic vocabulary, L2 learners can interpret discourse more precisely.
Discourse Organizing VocabularyLexical items can have a significant structuringrole in texts Winter (1977) points out, co- ordinating/subordinating conjunctions , and adverbials can be clue items to understand the lexical relationship in discourse. Halliday & Hasan (1976) add “general noun” to pronouns, which means “a small set of nouns having generalized reference within the major noun classes, those such as “human noun,” “place noun,” “fact noun’ and the like”
Discourse Organizing Vocabulary Francis (1994) categorizes referring words into two groups that provides the frame of reference within which the subsequent argument is developed. These labels will help the reader to collect information to understand the text:” Advance label means cataphoric words that allow the reader to predict the precise information that will follow Retrospective label means anaphoric that indicates to the reader “exactly how that stretch of discourse is to be interpreted
Discourse Organizing Vocabulary Knowledge of discourse organizing vocabulary might complement L2 learners’ lack of vocabulary and assist them in text interpretation
Lexical Items It is the best way to find out what the lexical item semantically. It is to consider how terms of meaning in discourse Halliday & Hasan (1976) categorize lexical item into groups: ○ Grammatical Cohesion: reference, substitution, ellipsis, and conjunction ○ Lexical Cohesion: reiteration and collocation The semantic relationship between lexical items can be considered to be lexical cohesion
Lexical Cohesion Halliday & Hasan (1976) classify reiteration into four types: the same word, a synonym/near synonym, superordinate, and general word A boy ○ The boy the same word ○ The lad synonym/near synonym ○ The child a superordinate ○ The idiot a general word
Lexical Cohesion Halliday & Hasan (1976) states that collocation is an important part of creating cohesion in connected text. Collocation refers to the semantic and structural relation among words, which native speakers can use subconsciously for comprehension or production of a text
Lexical Cohesion COHESIVE FORCE COHESIVE TIE COHESIVE ITEM IN A ITEM TEXT
Lexical Cohesion The means by which text are linguistically connected ….Carter 1998 Cannot exist without sentence A set of “discourse semantic system”….Martin 2001
Lexical Cohesion and Text Lexical cohesion is not always necessary for text to produce semantic relation between sentence..Brown & Yule. 1980A: There’s the doorbellB: I’m in the bath
Lexical Cohesion and Text Text can exist without lexical cohesion, though lexical cohesion cannot exist without text..Brown & Yule.1983 I bought a Ford. A car in which President Wilson rode down the Champs Elysees was black. Black English has been widely discussed. The Discussions between the presidents ended last week. A week has seven days. Every day. I feed my cat.. Cats have four legs. The cat is on the mat. Mat has three letters.
Methodology Instrument Reading three short stories Writing one kind of written exercises Subject 80 students of two extensive reading class at a university in Nagoya, Japan
Reading Activity The instruments were designed to encourage the students to collect the necessary information in a text to understand the story more accurately by paying attention to lexical cohesion. To find the place of story To find the time To find the character traits Those clues were expected to indicate the degree to which students could use the Knowledge of cohesion for the interpretation of stories.
Writing Activity It is designed to investigate how much students make use of cohesion in their writing. After reading the story, the students were asked to write a sequel to the story.
Discussion: Analysis and ResultsReading Activity Exercise 1: Understanding the place This exercise was designed to introduce students to the knowledge of the relationship among word/phrases in the text. Students were requested to select words delivering the necessary information concerning ‘place’ in the first page The result ○ The mistakes were made by the students were because of the lack of cultural knowledge prevented them from determining lexical cohesion
Discussion: Analysis and ResultsReading Activity Exercise 2: Understanding time The students were requested to find clue words determining time in the story. The result ○ 22 students who could answer correctly, could make cohesion by collecting clue items beyond the first page
Discussion: Analysis and ResultsReading Activity Exercise 3: Understanding the Main Character The students were requested to explain the main character at the first and show clue items which are used to understand the main character The results ○ The students used different clue words but have the same answer. It means that the students could understand and build lexical cohesion in a text to find the main character’s traits.
Discussion: Analysis and ResultsWriting Activity The students constructed the plot of their story. The students are helped by the researcher by giving the aid as the knowledge of lexical cohesion The results The knowledge of lexical cohesion can help students interpret the story, develop vocabulary and give coherence to their writing
Conclusion In reading activity, the result of the analysis showed the considerable effect that the knowledge of lexical cohesion has on their understanding of the story
Conclusion How to improve the general knowledge of lexical cohesion in reading Acquiring cultural knowledge Expanding the area of lexical cohesion Creating original cohesion Expanding the area of lexical cohesion to the whole text Creating original cohesion Comprehending that collocationally linked words in an argument can be related to the writer’s evaluation Knowledge of lexical cohesion can help students in comprehending the coherence of the story as well
Conclusion In the Writing Activity, students made use of their knowledge of lexical cohesion for interpreting the story and effectively applied it to writing a story. By using lexical cohesion, students’ stories showed a more varied vocabulary and coherent plot. A knowledge of lexical cohesion helped students to write more effectively
Critical Evaluation Strong point It has a strong background about the lexical cohesion in reading and writing It uses several clear literature to support the article It can improve the vocabulary of the students by knowing the lexical cohesion The findings of the article can help the readers to implicate it in the teaching and learning process
Critical Evaluation Weak Point No detail steps in conducting test. The amount of time in reading and writing activities was not mentioned It was not shown precisely about the subject of the research. It only said that they were from a university in Nagoya, Japan It does not give enough examples and data to explain the lexical cohesion
How can the article be improved The writer should give more detailed examples and data, that can support the experiments. Statistic data should be provided in this article. Hypothesis should be explained more detailed.