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Ger inf


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Ger inf

  2. 2. Look at the following sentences <ul><li>Many inventors were trying to build gas-powered vehicles in the late 1800’s. </li></ul><ul><li>A French inventor succeeded in creating a steam powered tricycle in 1769. </li></ul><ul><li>A German engineer, Kiklaus Ottos, is known for inventing the four-stroke gasoline engine in 1876. </li></ul><ul><li>Building vehicles that did not need horses was the biggest challenge. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Forming the gerund <ul><li>A gerund is a verb + -ing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swimming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenging </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Forming the infinitive <ul><li>An infintive is to + the verb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To smoke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To go </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To earn </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Definition: gerunds as verb objects <ul><li>Gerunds and Infinitives are forms of verbs that have the same functions as nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>Pepe quit smoking five times last year. </li></ul><ul><li>Pepe quit school . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So the word smoking is like school ; both are things, both are objects of the verb </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Infinitives as verb objects <ul><li>He just decided to quit last Tuesday. </li></ul><ul><li>He decided cigarettes were harmful. </li></ul><ul><li>To quit is like cigarettes . Both are objects of the verb. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Gerunds and Infinitives can also be the subject of the verb <ul><li>Smoking is a hard habit to give up </li></ul><ul><li>To quit takes a lot of will power </li></ul>
  8. 8. So when do I use gerunds? <ul><li>As the subject of a sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking may be harmful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing was hard for Frank McCourt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading the text several times is a great idea. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. When do I use gerunds? <ul><li>After a preposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frank McCourt thought about writing his book after retiring . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before writing , plan how you will write. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. When do I use gerunds? <ul><li>After certain verbs (which you have to memorize) </li></ul><ul><li>Frank enjoyed teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone acknowledges working hard </li></ul><ul><li>We all recall learning how to ride a bike </li></ul>
  11. 11. And when do I use infinitives? <ul><li>After certain verbs (which you also need to memorize) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I learned to swim very young </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I decided to quit smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I agreed to study English five hours a day </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Using infinitives <ul><li>To express Spanish subjunctive ideas </li></ul><ul><li>He persuaded me to start writing. </li></ul><ul><li>They will ask you to help them after class. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Using infinitives <ul><li>With some adjectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You are free to go when class is over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We were always able to find our own mistakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is hard to concentrate in a noisy room </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Using infinitives <ul><li>After certain nouns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You have the right to remain silent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She has the ability to understand general concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No one has the freedom to avoid paying taxes. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Go, Go, Go <ul><li>A common expression in English is go + activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We go swimming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We go shopping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We go camping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We go clubbing </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Like,love, hate, begin, continued <ul><li>These verbs can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>I love dancing. I love to dance </li></ul><ul><li>I began singing. I began to sing. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Remember, forget, stop <ul><li>These verbs change meaning if a gerund or an infinitive is used. </li></ul><ul><li>I remembered to buy milk </li></ul><ul><li>I remembered buying milk </li></ul><ul><li>(What do you think is going on here?) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Sequence of events <ul><li>Infintives: </li></ul><ul><li>First Second </li></ul><ul><li>First I remembered, then I bought milk </li></ul>
  19. 19. Sequence of events <ul><li>Gerunds: </li></ul><ul><li>Second first </li></ul><ul><li>I bought the milk first </li></ul><ul><li>I remembered afterwards </li></ul>
  20. 20. Complete these sentences with either a gerund or an infinitive… <ul><li>1. UDLAP students enjoy _________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>2. UDLAP teachers need _________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>3. UDLAP students can practice _________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>4. UDLAP teachers encourage their students _________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>5. UDLAP students never finish _________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>6. UDLAP teachers are good at _________________________________________ </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>For a useful summary of how to use gerunds and infinitives, see page 163 of your student textbook, World Pass </li></ul>