Civil War Pp


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Power Point on the Civil War, Slavery, and Underground Railroad.

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Civil War Pp

  1. 1. The Civil War & Slavery
  2. 2. Leading to the War <ul><li>January 1861 -- The South Secedes . </li></ul><ul><li>When Abraham Lincoln, a known opponent of slavery, was elected president, the South Carolina legislature perceived a threat. Calling a state convention, the delegates voted to remove the state of South Carolina from the union known as the United States of America. The secession of South Carolina was followed by the secession of six more states -- Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas -- and the threat of secession by four more -- Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina. These eleven states eventually formed the Confederate States of America. </li></ul><ul><li>June 1861 -- West Virginia Is Born. </li></ul><ul><li>Residents of the western counties of Virginia did not wish to secede along with the rest of the state. This section of Virginia was admitted into the Union as the state of West Virginia on June 20, 1863. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>May 1862 -- &quot;Stonewall&quot; Jackson Defeats Union Forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Confederate General Thomas J. &quot;Stonewall&quot; Jackson, commanding forces in the Shenandoah Valley, attacked Union forces in late March, forcing them to retreat across the Potomac. As a result, Union troops were rushed to protect Washington, D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>September 1862 -- Harper's Ferry. </li></ul><ul><li>Union General McClellan defeated Confederate General Lee at South Mountain and Crampton's Gap in September, but did not move quickly enough to save Harper's Ferry, which fell to Confederate General Jackson on September 15, along with a great number of men and a large body of supplies. </li></ul>General Stonewall Jackson
  4. 4. <ul><li>May 1863 -- The Vicksburg Campaign. </li></ul><ul><li>On May 22, Grant began a siege of the city. After six weeks, Confederate General John Pemberton surrendered, giving up the city and 30,000 men. The capture of Port Hudson, Louisiana, shortly thereafter placed the entire Mississippi River in Union hands. The Confederacy was split in two. </li></ul><ul><li>November 1863 -- The Battle of Chattanooga. </li></ul><ul><li>On November 23-25, Union forces pushed Confederate troops away from Chattanooga. The victory set the stage for General Sherman's Atlanta Campaign. </li></ul>General Grant Army Depot
  5. 5. 1864 Abraham Lincoln Is Re-elected <ul><li>May 1864 -- Grant's Wilderness Campaign. </li></ul><ul><li>General Grant, promoted to commander of the Union armies, planned to engage Lee's forces in Virginia until they were destroyed. North and South met and fought in an inconclusive three-day battle in the Wilderness. Lee inflicted more casualties on the Union forces than his own army incurred, but unlike Grant, he had no replacements. </li></ul><ul><li>November 1864 -- General William T. Sherman's March to the Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>General Sherman continued his march through Georgia to the sea. In the course of the march, he cut himself off from his source of supplies, planning for his troops to live off the land. His men cut a path 300 miles in length and 60 miles wide as they passed through Georgia, destroying factories, bridges, railroads, and public buildings . </li></ul>
  6. 6. End of a Tragic War <ul><li>January 1865 -- The Fall of the Confederacy. </li></ul><ul><li>February 1865 -- A Chance for Reconciliation Is Lost. </li></ul><ul><li>April 1865 -- The Assassination of President Lincoln. </li></ul><ul><li>April-May 1865 -- Final Surrenders among Remaining Confederate Troops. </li></ul>
  7. 7. How America was Divided
  8. 8. Slavery During the Civil War <ul><li>Captivity uses thick iron chain Spirit of slave with fear will drain; Slavery like gravity will ingrain Self-delusive, false freedom in our brain, Invisible leash, we consider sane. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Triangular Slave Trade or Middle Passage In history, the trade linking Europe, Africa, and the New World. The transatlantic system of trade in which goods, including slaves, were exchanged between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in North America. It was given this name due to the shape that the three legs of the journey made
  10. 10. Map of Triangular Slave Trade
  11. 11. Survival Rate for Middle Passage Conditions on the slaves ships were terrible, and the average mortality rate was 13%. Most of the slaves died during the beginning of the Middle Passage mostly due to malnutrition. Floor plan of Slave trade boat.
  12. 12. First Slaves To America <ul><li>The Dutch in 1619 were the first to bring slaves to America. </li></ul><ul><li>There were brought to Jamestown Virginia. </li></ul><ul><li>There were traded for food. </li></ul><ul><li>There were only about 19-20 slaves. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Trans-Import 1450-1900 <ul><li>Region NumberofAccountedSlaves Percent </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil 4,000,000 35.4 </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish Empire 2,500,000 22.1 </li></ul><ul><li>British West Indies 2,000,000 17.7 </li></ul><ul><li>French West Indies 1,600,000 14.1 </li></ul><ul><li>British N. America & U.S. 500,000 4.4 </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch West Indies 500,000 4.4 </li></ul><ul><li>Danish West Indies 28,0000 0.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Europe (and Islands) 200,000 1.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Total 11,328,000 100 </li></ul>
  14. 14. The growth of slavery <ul><li>From 1808-1860 the slave population doubled from 1.2 million to 4 million. </li></ul><ul><li>After 1808 most slaves in America were born here. </li></ul><ul><li>There were used mostly for hard labor on plantations, and some were indentured servents. </li></ul><ul><li>Some slaves worked in the houses for the slave owner and had an easier life, however still no freedom. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Slave Rebellions <ul><li>Year Rebellion Black Participants White deaths </li></ul><ul><li>1712 New York City conspiracy 30-40 9 </li></ul><ul><li>1739 Stono rebellion 75-80 25 </li></ul><ul><li>1800Gabriel Prosser's conspiracy 40[ 4 ] 0 </li></ul><ul><li>1811 Louisiana revolt 180-500 2 </li></ul><ul><li>1822Denmark Vesey's conspiracy 49[ 5 ] 0 </li></ul><ul><li>1831 Nat Turner's rebellion 70 57 </li></ul><ul><li>1835-38 Black Seminole rebellion 935-1265 400 </li></ul><ul><li>1835-38 Black Seminole rebellion 385-465 N/A </li></ul>
  16. 16. Underground Rail Road <ul><li>The Underground Railroad was not a real railroad. It was a network of houses and other buildings used to help slaves escape to freedom in the Northern states or Canada. The Underground Railroad operated for many years before and during the Civil War. </li></ul><ul><li>According to one estimate, the South lost 100,000 slaves between 1810 and 1850. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Underground Railroad Map
  18. 18. Interesting Ways they Escaped <ul><li>Some examples of clever and creative ways slaves found to escape: </li></ul><ul><li>When abolitionist John Fairfield needed to sneak 28 slaves over the roads near Cincinnati, he hired a hearse and disguised the group as a funeral procession. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry &quot;Box&quot; Brown, a slave, had himself shipped from Richmond, VA to Philadelphia, PA in a wooden box. </li></ul><ul><li>Ellen and William Craft made a dangerous journey from the South to the North by train, steamship, and coach, dressed up as an invalid white master and his slave. </li></ul>
  19. 19. How you found a station… <ul><li>Some stations had white bricks on top of their chimney. </li></ul><ul><li>One station put a flag on top of a statue when it was safe. </li></ul><ul><li>Others put a lantern outside the house. </li></ul><ul><li>In one station of the Underground Railroad, there were trap doors that led to the attic that was in the side of the wall. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Harriet Tubman <ul><li>She was one of the most famous run away slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Born into slavery in Maryland, she escaped in 1849 but returned at least 15 times to lead more than 300 black Americans to relative freedom in the north </li></ul>
  21. 22. Just some Underground Railroad Terms <ul><li>Baggage: escaping slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Bundles of wood: fugitives to be expected </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom Train: The Underground Railroad </li></ul><ul><li>Gospel Train: The Underground Railroad </li></ul><ul><li>Heaven or Promised Land: Canada (usually found in “spirituals”) </li></ul><ul><li>Load of Potatoes: In a wagon, escaping slaves hidden under farm produce </li></ul><ul><li>Moses: Harriet Tubman, a “conductor” who aided escaping slaves and was a former slave </li></ul><ul><li>Parcels: fugitives to be expected </li></ul><ul><li>Preachers: leaders, speakers of the Underground Railroad </li></ul><ul><li>River Jordan: The Mississippi River or the Ohio River </li></ul><ul><li>Shepherds: people escorting slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Station Master: the keeper of the safe-house or “station” </li></ul>
  22. 23. Stations <ul><li>The places of safety and temporary refuge where slaves hid along the escape route. Safe-houses. They could be churches, barns, or houses. Station names were referred to in code, such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania - #10 </li></ul><ul><li>Ohio - #20 </li></ul><ul><li>Cleveland – Hope </li></ul><ul><li>Sandusky – Sunrise </li></ul><ul><li>Detroit – Midnight </li></ul>
  23. 24. Websites <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  24. 25. Lesson Plan Sites: <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http:// =1017 </li></ul>
  25. 26. Hope you enjoyed the information! <ul><li>We covered some major events of the civil war. </li></ul><ul><li>Information about slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>Information of the Underground Railroad. </li></ul>