Social Stratification in China

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Social stratification in China

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  • Social Stratification in China

    1. 1. 当代中国的社会分层 Social Stratification in Contemporary China (from past status-society to contemporary social stratification)
    2. 2. 一、中国改革开放前的身份社会 Status-Society in pre-Reform China 二、中国的改革与身份社会的瓦解 Reform and Collapse of status-society in China 三、当前中国的社会分层和社会问题 Social stratification and social issues in contemporary China
    3. 3. 一 中国改革开放前的身份社会 Status-Society in pre-Reform China
    4. 4. <ul><li>城乡身份 residency of urban or village </li></ul><ul><li>单位身份 membership of danwei </li></ul><ul><li>享受各种社会待遇的身份 social status for different social welfare </li></ul><ul><li>政治身份 / 成份 family background </li></ul>
    5. 5. 身份社会的制度 supporting systems
    6. 6. 身份社会的制度 supporting systems <ul><li>户口制度 Hukou or Household Registration </li></ul><ul><li>统购统销制度 State monopoly of agricultural products ( + 粮油票证制度 ration-coupon system for food supply ) </li></ul><ul><li>人民公社制度 People’s Commune </li></ul>A 城乡身份的制度 Systems for residency
    7. 7. 户口制度 Household Registration <ul><li>1958 年正式实行 adopted in 1958 </li></ul><ul><li>A :常住地 permanent residency </li></ul><ul><li>B :农业或非农业 agr. or non-agr. </li></ul><ul><li>天生获得 obtained from your mother </li></ul><ul><li>基本不能改变 changes strictly limited </li></ul><ul><li>城乡二元社会形成 dual-society formed </li></ul>
    8. 8. 统购统销制度 State monopoly of agricultural products <ul><li>1953 年开始实行 ( Started from 1953 in some fields just to against grain speculation) </li></ul><ul><li>伴随 1955 年实行的城镇计划供应制度 (concomitant with government responsibility for daily food supply in cities from 1955) 。 </li></ul><ul><li>1960 年大规模开始使用票证 (strengthened when ration-coupon system extended to everything from 1960) 。 </li></ul>
    9. 9. 城乡二元社会的历史作用 Historical functions of Dual-society system 稳定当时的局势 stabilization of situation 保证中国的工业化 guarantee heavy industry oriented development strategy 形成中国最基本的社会不平等 essential inequality in China
    10. 10. B 单位制度 danwei system <ul><li>城市中的基本组织(经济、政治、福利) Basic organizational units in cities and towns (economical, political and for welfare) </li></ul><ul><li>每个人都有单位,有单位就有一切。不同的单位有不同的一切 (everyone belonged to an unit and his/her unit guaranteed everything) </li></ul><ul><li>每个人的一切都由单位控制 (everything controlled by the unit) </li></ul>身份社会的制度 supporting systems
    11. 11. 单位制度中的个人身份 personal status in danwei system <ul><li>单位身份 A :全民所有制或集体所有制 (state-owned or collective-owned) </li></ul><ul><li>单位身份 B :事业单位或企业单位(国营企业和集体企业) (institutions or enterprises) </li></ul><ul><li>单位身份 C :干部或工人 (cadres or workers) </li></ul>
    12. 12. C 城市就业和福利制度 State supplied benefits of employment and warfare in cities 从出生到上学,生活到工作,就业到退休,包括生老病死、衣食住行,都由政府负责 Everything guaranteed by government from birth to school, from living to job, from employment to retirement 身份社会的制度 supporting systems
    13. 13. 中国身份社会的特点 Social status defined by government Social mobility difficult Social Stratification immobile Integrated in the Socialist planned-economy (scarcity economy, no efficiency, no incentive) Class struggles influenced everyone
    14. 14. 二 中国的改革与身份社会的瓦解 Reform and Collapse of Status-Society in China
    15. 15. 中国农村的改革 Reform in Agriculture <ul><li>农村家庭联产承包责任制 ⇨ ⇨ 生产大发展 ⇨ ⇨统购统销放弃 </li></ul><ul><li>人民公社解散 ⇨ ⇨乡、村 </li></ul><ul><li>剩余劳动力大量出现⇨ ⇨允许进城务工(小城镇、自理口粮⇨ ⇨大城市、民工潮) </li></ul>
    16. 16. 农村家庭联产承包责任制 <ul><li>The household contracted responsibility system with remuneration linked to output </li></ul><ul><li>Great development in agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>State-monopoly of agricultural products slackened and finally renounced (Piao stopped using in late 1980s and WHJ in 1995) </li></ul>
    17. 17. 人民公社解散 <ul><li>The system of People’s communes disintegrated within two or three years (1983-) </li></ul><ul><li>The peasants freed from the planed-economy and worked according market </li></ul><ul><li>The villagers freed from the strict local organizational control </li></ul>
    18. 18. 农村 剩余劳动力出现 <ul><li>A lot of surplus labors emerged </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants went to towns or cities to work </li></ul><ul><li>Permitted by government gradually </li></ul><ul><li>(first in small towns and self supplied with food 小城镇、自理口粮 ⇨ ⇨ later to cities and metropolis and flood of migrant workers emerged 民工潮) </li></ul>
    19. 19. 户口控制放松 <ul><li>State control of Hukou and migration slackened </li></ul><ul><li>System of citizen ID adopted in 1984 </li></ul><ul><li>Free travel around country </li></ul>
    20. 20. 城市经济体制改革 <ul><li>城市经济体制改革 economic reform began in cities in mid 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>城市多种经济成份出现 non-state controlled economy appeared and flourished </li></ul><ul><li>多种用人制度实行 non-permanent employment system adopted </li></ul><ul><li>传统单位制度的瓦解 danwei system collapsed </li></ul>
    21. 21. 身份社会瓦解 Collapsed of Status-Society <ul><li>身份社会失去基础而瓦解 bases collapsed </li></ul><ul><li>社会流动加剧 social mobility increased </li></ul><ul><li>社会竞争加剧 social competition intensified </li></ul><ul><li>贫富差距加大 rich-poor gap expended </li></ul><ul><li>传统的社会身份发生变化 traditional social status changed totally </li></ul>
    22. 22. 三 当前中国的社会分层和社会问题 Social Stratification and Social Issues in contemporary China
    23. 23. 当前中国的社会分层 current social stratification <ul><li>五大等级十大阶层 5 hierarchical social strata and 10 categories of jobs </li></ul><ul><li>特殊获益、一般获益、利益受损、社会底层 specially benefited, ordinarily benefited, interest-injured, socially bottomed </li></ul><ul><li>贫富差距悬殊 great disparity between rich and poor </li></ul><ul><li>基尼系数达到危险程度 Gini coefficient 0.45 </li></ul>

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