Pidgins creoles - sociolinguistics


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Pidgins creoles - sociolinguistics

  1. 1. Pidgins and creoles Presented by : Amal Mustafa Elsinousy
  2. 2. The main points :  Introduction  Lingua franca  Pidgins  Pidginization  creole  Creolization  Decreolization
  3. 3. Introduction: When two or more people from different languages meet and tried to communicate, what should they do ?
  4. 4. Answers : 1. 2. Use a third language (Lingua Franca) Mix the two languages (Pidgin /Creole)
  5. 5. Lingua Franca A lingua franca is a language which is used habitually by people whose mother tongues are different in order to facilitate communication between them.
  6. 6. Other terms that are used to refer to Lingua francas: a trade language e.g., Swahili in East Africa.  A contact language e.g., Greek koine  An international language e.g., English  An auxiliary language e.g., Esperanto.  A mixed language .e.g., Mitchif in Canada 
  7. 7. English – lingua franca: Spoken in many countries as a native language . Spoken as a second language in other countries e.g., India and the Philippines.
  8. 8. Other languages – lingua francas: • Many Languages throughout the history served as lingua franca: o Chinese o French o Arabic o Chinook Jargon ( American Indian) • We can conclude that mainly political and economical power defines the Lingua Franca.
  9. 9. pidgins  Origin: to be coming from a Chinese attempt to pronounce the English word business during trades in the Far East.  Historically, pidgins arose in colonial situations where the representatives of the particular colonial power, officials, tradesmen, sailors, etc., came in contact with natives  Assumed
  10. 10. Definition: or contact language is a restricted and extended language which arises with an urgency of communication to serve specific needs between social groups that are ethnically and linguistically different from each other .  One of these groups is in a more dominant position than the other; the less dominant group is the one which develops the pidgin.  A pidgin
  11. 11. Pidginization: Is a complex combination of different processes of change, including reduction and simplification of input materials ,internal innovation, and regularization of structure, with L1 influence also playing role.
  12. 12. Characteristics of pidgin language:  No native speakers yet .  spoken by millions as means of communication  Not used as a means of group identification.  A product of multilingual – 3 languages – one is dominant. The dominant language  superior because of economical or social factor.  Two languages involved  a power struggle for dominance.  The dominant group –more vocabulary (lexifier – superstrate) ,while the less dominant languages –grammar (substrate).  Main function –trading
  13. 13. • Reduced grammatical structure: syllable preferred  Morphology:  Poor affixation  -Reduplication is common  Syntax:  SVO pattern preferred  -Articles usually omitted  Limited vocabulary  Lexicon:  Semantics:  Semantic extensions  Pragmatics:  Narrower range of functions  Phonology:  CV
  14. 14. Possible outcomes of Pidgins  Die out (when original reason for communication diminishes or disappears)  Develop to more formal roles (lingua franca); which is called an ‘expanded pidgin’  Develop into a creole
  15. 15. Creoles  Origin: An adaptation of the Castilian Spanish criollo (home, local) from Portuguese criar (to rear, to bring up), from Latin creo ("to create").
  16. 16. Definition: A creole is a pidgin that has become the first language of a new generation of speakers.
  17. 17. Creolization: Is a process where a pidgin expanded in structure and vocabulary in order to express the range of meanings and serve the range of functions required of a first language.
  18. 18. characteristics of Creoles pidgins adopted as the native language.  Nativization is when pidgin passed onto new generations and became a mother tongue which is acquired by children.  Often classified as English/French/Spanish… based  speech becomes faster, o  Expansion of morphology and syntax.  Expansion of phonology.  Expansion of the lexicon.
  19. 19. Decreolization It  is a hypothetical phenomenon whereby over time a  creole language reconverges with one of the standard languages from which it originally derived. the theory of creole continua.
  20. 20. Bickerton (1975)has proposed a number of terms to refer to the creole continuum in Guyanese English:  Acrolect : which refers to educated Guyanese English which has very few differences from other varieties of standard language.  Basilect:refers to a variety that would be least comprehensible to a speaker of the standard  Mesolects: are intermediate varieties which are used to fill the space between the Acrolect and basilect.
  21. 21. Life-Cycle Model of Pidgins and Creoles  Jargon  Pidgin  Pidgin Créole  Creole ⇩ ⇩ ⇩ ⇩ Post-creole continuum ⇩ Post-pidgin continuum ⇘ ⇙ Nativized version of lexifier  e.g., - Russenorsk  - Chinese PE Solomon Islands Tok Pisin Haitian Jamaican
  22. 22. An example of a creole: • Jamaican creole is mixed with English and African. For example : instead of saying me they say mi. This sentence is written in Jamaican creole: • Unu cya lissen to we mia say! • • English is: • Cant you listen to what I'm saying!
  23. 23. Distributions of Ps and Cs Pidgins are distributed mainly in places with direct or easy access to the oceans. They are found mainly in the Caribbean and around the north and east coasts of South America and Africa .
  24. 24. Thanks for Listening