Lect. 2 (economic significance of microorganisms)


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General Microbiology for 2nd year biology departments

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Lect. 2 (economic significance of microorganisms)

  1. 1. Economic Significance of Microorganisms
  2. 2. Microorganisms • Microorganisms are small living things that can only be seen under high power microscope. • Microorganisms include: – Virus – Bacteria – Protozoa – Microscopic Fungi – Microscopic Algae
  3. 3. Use of Micro-organisms in environment 1.1. Fixation of atmospheric nitrogenFixation of atmospheric nitrogen 2.2. Decomposition of organic wastes and residuesDecomposition of organic wastes and residues 3.3. Suppression of soil-borne pathogensSuppression of soil-borne pathogens 4.4. Recycling and increased availability of plant nutrientsRecycling and increased availability of plant nutrients 5.5. Degradation of toxicants including pesticidesDegradation of toxicants including pesticides 6.6. Production of antibiotics and other bioactive compoundsProduction of antibiotics and other bioactive compounds 7.7. Production of simple organic molecules for plant uptakeProduction of simple organic molecules for plant uptake 8.8. Complexation of heavy metals to limit plant uptakeComplexation of heavy metals to limit plant uptake 9.9. Solubilization of insoluble nutrient sourcesSolubilization of insoluble nutrient sources 10.10. Production of polysaccharides to improve soilProduction of polysaccharides to improve soil aggregationaggregation
  4. 4. Beneficial Microorganisms • AntibioticsAntibiotics • Food ProductionFood Production • Soil Fertility and Bacteria andSoil Fertility and Bacteria and FungiFungi • Combating PollutionCombating Pollution
  5. 5. Antibiotics • Antibiotic is chemical substance produced by microorganisms that can kill or inhibit the growth of other microorganisms. • Antibiotics kill or inhibit other organisms by interfering the metabolic process in the bacterium that is not found in the host.
  6. 6. Penicillin conidia conidiophores phialides
  7. 7. Food Production • Fermentation: C2H12O6  2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + energy • Dairy Products: cheese, yogurt and butter • Wine and bread: yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisaea)
  8. 8. Soil Fertility and Bacteria and Fungi
  9. 9. • Formation of Humus: – Organic compounds are decomposed by saprophytic bacteria. • Nitrogen Fixation – Nitrogen  Ammonia • Nitrifying bacteria – NH4 + , NH3Nitrosomona NO2 - nitrobacter NO3 -
  10. 10. Combating Against Pollution • Sewage Treatment. • Oil spillage: Pseudomonas sp.can digest the oil into harmless forms.
  11. 11. Sewage Treatment (1) • Primary treatment –In the sewage treatment plant the solid organic matter is moved from the sewage as sludge which may be treated further to form fertilizer.
  12. 12. Sewage Treatment (2) • Secondary treatment: –The organic matter left in solution and suspension are decomposed rapidly by the added micro- organisms (e.g. Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Vorticella )
  13. 13. Sewage Treatment (3) • Tertiary treatment: –Finally all the micro-organisms are killed by adding chlorine to the effluent of the treated sewage which can run into the rivers without causing any pollution problems.
  14. 14. Water Treatment of HK
  15. 15. Microorganism in other productions vaccines amino acid Enzymes (invertase) Vitamins (e.g. B2)
  16. 16. Harmful Organisms • Causing Diseases. • Food Spoilage. This orange is covered by fungus. Source from: Microbiology: Essentials and Application (2nd Ed.). A child infected by mumps. Source from : Microbiology: Essentials and Applications. (2nd Ed.)
  17. 17. Microorganisms and Diseases • Pathogens are microorganisms that cause disease in animals and crops. • Any organisms that carry pathogen from one living organism to another is called vector.
  18. 18. Virus • Virus cause diseases by disturbing the homeostatic condition of the host cells.
  19. 19. Viral diseases • Plant virus: Tobacco Mosaic Virus • Human diseases caused by virus: -Small pox -Measles -Influenza -Hepatitis B -AIDS
  20. 20. AIDS • Acquire Immune Deficiency Symptom. • It is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). • Affects T-helper cells, making body defense system unable to combat against disease. • Mainly spread through sexual intercourse and blood transfer.
  21. 21. HIV bud from the surface of an infected Helper T cell
  22. 22. Hepatitis B
  23. 23. Pathogenic Bacteria • Pathogenic bacteria caused diseases by: – destroy the body tissues of the host directly – excrete toxins – release toxin from cell wall after death • Diseases caused by bacteria: – Cholera, Typhoid fever – Pneumonia, Whooping cough, Tuberculosis – Gonorrhea, Syphilis – Food poisoning
  24. 24. E.coli
  25. 25. Fungal Diseases -Fungal diseases are called mycoses which affect the skin, nails and hair follicles
  26. 26. Methods to control the spread of diseases 1. Prevention  Personal and Public hygiene  Immunization 2. Treatment  Chemotherapy  Surgery
  27. 27. Food Preservation • Spoilage of food is caused by saprophytic bacteria. • Basic principle of food preservation: – Killing the microorganisms in food; – Stopping or inhibiting their growth. Pickling of Food. Source from: Biology: A Modern approach. (2nd Ed.)
  28. 28. Food Preservation Techniques Thermal Processing Refrigeration Drying Food Additives Canning Smoking
  29. 29. Thermal Processing Heating Pasteurization
  30. 30. Refrigeration
  31. 31. Drying
  32. 32. Food Additive
  33. 33. Canning
  34. 34. Smoking