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Quality gurus osama 1 3-2010


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Quality gurus osama 1 3-2010

  1. 1. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz1 Quality Leaders Walter. A. Shewart Armand V. Feigenbaum Genichi Taguchi Bill Smith Jack welsh Henry Ford Lawrence Bossiedy W. Edwards Deming Philip B. Crosby Shigeo Shingo Mikel J. Harry Frederick W. Taylor Eli Whitney Malcolm Aldridge Improvement Events in TQM Joseph M. Juran Kaoru Ishikawa Taiichi Ohno Bob Galvin Andrew Carnegie Masaaki Imai Pareto Quality Awards
  2. 2. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Carl Frederick Gauss • introduced the concept of the Normal Curve in 1777- 1885 • Also called the Gaussian Distribution after Karl Friedrich Gauss, a German mathematician (1777 – 1855) • Characteristics of any Normal Distribution – Bell-shaped curve – Unimodal – peak is at the mean – Symmetric about the mean – Mean = Median = Mode
  3. 3. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Walter Shewart • 1891: Born in USA, New Canton, Illinois. (town has 2.0 km²). • 1917: Receives doctorate in physics from the University of California at Berkeley. • 1918-1956: Joins the Western Electric Company, Bell telephone hardware manufacturer. • 1924: Suggested a radical idea “statistical control,”. • 1931: Published Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product. • 1939: Published Statistical Methods from the Viewpoint of Quality Control. • 1956: Retired from Bell Laboratories. • 1967: Died
  4. 4. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Walter Shewart • Deming popularized and disseminated Shewhart’s concepts of statistical process control and the continuous reduction of variation in processes. Deming also had the honesty to refer to the Plan-Do- Check-Act (PDCA) circle as the “Shewhart cycle” and not the “Deming cycle,” as others called it. • Awards: • • Holley Medal of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. • • Honorary Fellowship of the Royal Statistical Society. • • Honorary Fellowship of the American Society for Quality
  5. 5. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz 0S ub g ro up 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 -5 0 5 SampleMean 6 M e an= 0 .4 4 1 7 UC L = 4 .8 0 2 L C L = -3 .9 1 8 0 5 1 0 1 5 SampleRange R =7 .5 5 9 UC L = 1 5 .9 8 L C L = 0 Walter Shewart  He is the Father of statistical quality control.  Introduced the principals of PDCA cycle.  Quality from two perspectives:  An objective reality independent of the existence of the customer  The subjective perspective dependent on individual thoughts, feelings or senses as a result of the objective reality. Back to Main Menu
  6. 6. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz W. Edwards Deming  1900: Born in the western part of the USA  1928: Awarded doctorate in mathematical physics from Yale.  1928–1950s: Works in the U.S. Government Service, focusing on statistical sampling, Deming used Shewhart‟s concepts in his work .  1943: Published a technical book, Statistical Adjustment of Data.  1946: Worked as a professor of statistics and began to work with the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE).  1950, he taught statistical process control & the importance of quality to the leading CEO‟s of Japanese industry.  1951: Japanese government began offering annual Deming Prize.  1956: Awarded Shewhart Medal by American Society for Quality Control (now ASQ).
  7. 7. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz W. Edwards Deming  1960: Awarded Second Order of the Sacred Treasure by Japanese emperor.  1970s: Deming‟s name becomes better known as the Japanese “invade” the United States with high quality, reliable automobiles, motorcycles, cameras, and other technological devices.  1980: NBC television documentary “If Japan Can, Why Can‟t We?” makes Deming a quality celebrity.  1986: Works as professor of management at Columbia University, defined his 14 points 1987: Awarded the National Medal of Technology (U.S.).  1993: Died.
  8. 8. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz W. Edwards Deming  W.Edward Deming PhD was a protégé (taking over the charge of) of Shewhart.  Deming is the best known quality expert in the world.  Father of Quality Control.  System (not employees) is cause of poor quality, As per him, 94% of quality problems are management related.  His 14 points provided a theory for management to improve quality, productivity & competitive position.  Developed the shweart PDCA cycle.  He had authored a no. of books including out of the “ Crisis & quality, productive & competitive position”.  Deming Prize Instituted 1951 by Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) (for individuals, factories, small companies).
  9. 9. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz11 Deming Prize • Instituted 1951 by Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) • Several categories including prizes for individuals, factories, small companies, and Deming application prize • American company winners include: Florida Power & Light, and AT&T Power Systems Division
  10. 10. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz W. Edwards Deming Identify problem Develop plan for improvement Implement plan on test basis Is the plan working Institutionalize improvement Continue cycle 1. Plan 2. Do 3. Study / Check 4. Act The Deming Wheel (or P-D-C-A Cycle) Improve quality Costs decrease Productivity improves Increase market share with better quality and lower prices Stay in business Provide jobs and more jobs Long-term competitive strength Deming Chain Reaction
  11. 11. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz13 Deming’s System of Profound Knowledge 1- Appreciation for Systems • A system is a set of functions or activities within an organization that work together to achieve organizational goals • Most organizational processes are cross-functional • Parts of a system must work together • Every system must have a purpose • Management must optimize the system as a whole (not parts of system, but the whole!). System requires co-operation. 2- Understanding Variation • Many sources of uncontrollable variation exist in any process • Excessive variation results in product failures, unhappy customers, and unnecessary costs • Statistical methods can be used to identify and quantify variation to help understand it and lead to improvements • Two types of variations- common causes and special causes. Focus on the special causes. • Common causes can be reduced only by change of technology.
  12. 12. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz14 Deming’s System of Profound Knowledge 3-Theory of Knowledge • Knowledge is not possible without theory • Experience alone does not establish a theory, it only describes • Theory shows cause-and-effect relationships that can be used for prediction • decisions should be driven by facts, data and justifiable theories. • Don‟t follow the managements fads! 4-Psychology • The designers and implementers of decisions are people. Hence understanding their psychology is important. • People are motivated intrinsically and extrinsically • Fear is demotivating • Managers should develop pride and joy in work
  13. 13. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Deming's Fourteen Points for Management 1 Create and publish to all employees a statement of the aims and purposes of the company. The management must demonstrate their commitment to this statement. 2 learn and Adopt the new philosophy 3 Cease dependence on mass inspection, Understand the purpose of inspection – to reduce the cost and improve the processes. 4 End the practice of awarding business on price tag alone 5 Constantly and forever improve the systems of production and services 6 Institute modern methods of training on the job 7 Institute modern methods of supervision and leadership 8 Drive out fear , Eliminate fear – encourage two-way communication, encourage employees to work in the organisation‟s interest, Create an environment of innovation.
  14. 14. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Deming's Fourteen Points for Management (cont) 9 Break down barriers between departments , department‟s in an organization are “internal customers” to each other and must work together. Optimize the team efforts towards the aims and purposes of the company 10 Eliminate numerical targets for the work force – management by objectives (targets) encourages low quality. 11 Eliminate work standards and numerical quotas for production. 12 Remove barriers that rob pride of workmanship, Remover barriers to worker satisfaction – including annual appraisals 13 Institute a vigorous programme of education and training for everyone, Encourage self improvement and education for all 14 Take action to accomplish the transformation, Create a structure in top management that will push every day on the above 13 points.
  15. 15. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Deming’s 7 Deadly Sins 1 Lack of constancy of purpose 2 Emphasis on short term profits 3 Evaluation of performance, merit rating, or annual review of performance 4 Mobility of management 5 Running a company on visible figures alone 6 Excessive medical costs for employee health care that increase the final costs of goods and services 7 Excessive costs of warranty, fuelled by lawyers who work on the basis of contingency fees.
  16. 16. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Joseph Juran  1904 Born in the Balkans (Romania), Juran began his career right around the same time at Shewhart, but due to his longevity (he died in 2008)  from 1924 to1941 worked at Western electrical, there he was exposed to the concept of Shewhart.  1951: First version of Quality Control Handbook.  1954: Invited to Japan by Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE); provides seminars to top- and middle-level executives.  1964: Managerial Breakthrough published.
  17. 17. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Joseph Juran  1979: Founds Juran Institute.  1980–2008: Continues to write 12 books on quality and serve as a consultant to manufacturing companies worldwide.  2008: died.  His 12 books have collectively been translated into 13 languages. He has received more than 30 medals, honorary fellowships, and other honors. Like Deming, he received the highest decoration presented to a non-Japanese citizen, the Second Order of the Sacred Treasure.  His writing style is eminently readable and his thoughts are clear  He has received more than 30 medals, honorary fellowships, and other honors. Like Deming, he received the highest decoration presented to a non-Japanese citizen, the Second Order of the Sacred Treasure.
  18. 18. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Joseph Juran  He emphasized the necessity for management at all levels to be committed to the quality effort with hand on involvement.  Quality begins by knowing what customers want  80% of defects are controllable through Planning, control,and improvement  He recommended project improvement based on return on investment to achieve breakthrough results.  The Juran trilogy set of three words for managing quality is carried out by the 3 interrelated processes of planning, controlling and improvement.  Juran said that “all quality improvement occurs on a project-by-project basis and in no other way”
  19. 19. Juran’s key steps in implementing company-wide strategic goals Juran’s Key elements in implementing company wide strategic quality planning:  Identify the customers , determine their needs , Establish optimal quality goals (define)  Translate those needs into our language, Creating measurements of quality (measure)  Plan processes that can respond to those needs, capable of meeting quality goals under operating conditions (analyse, improve, and control)  Optimise the product features so as to meet our needs as well as exceed customer needs.  Prove that the process can produce the product under operating conditions.  Transfer the process to Operations.  Producing continuing results in improved market share, premium prices (ongoing control)  Reducing error rates in the office and factory (reduction of variation)  These items are similar to the DMAIC in Six Sigma
  20. 20. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Juran’s Breakthrough Sequence Breakthrough in attitudes Identify the vital few projects Organize for breakthrough knowledge, Steering group, Diagnostic group Conduct the analysis Determine how to overcome resistance to change Institute the change Institute controls
  21. 21. The Juran Trilogy PCI
  22. 22. The Juran Trilogy PCI • Create a product, service, or process that meets requirements, especially under operating conditions. This thought alone is the foundation for Design for Six Sigma. Planning • Verify that the process runs optimally, reducing process waste. Chronic waste is a cost of poor quality. Control of the process is congruent with lean manufacturing concepts. Control • Improve the process continuously. Quality and process improvement lead tobreakthrough Improvement
  23. 23. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Juran’s Trilogies Juran‟s Financial Trilogy • Budgeting (planning) • Cost Control (expense control) • Cost Reduction (profit improvement) Juran‟s Quality Trilogy •Planning •Process of preparing to meet quality goals. •Involves understanding customer needs and developing product features. •Ensure that process capable of meeting goals •Control •Process of meeting quality goals during operations. •Ensure that operations conducted according to plan. •Measuring the deviation and taking action. •Control parameters •Improvement •Process for breaking through to unprecedented (new) levels of performance. •Identify areas of improvement and get the right people to bring about the change. •Ensure that operations at superior performance. Budgeting Cost Reduction Cost Control Control PlanningImprovement
  24. 24. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Juran’s Trilogy (cont.) Juran‟s Resistances to unity Trilogy: • Multiple functions • marketing, production… • Multiple levels (hierarchy) • A universal thought process for all levels • Multiple product lines (Different markets, technologies… Juran‟s Management Trilogy • Setting goals • Based on competition in the marketplace • Removal of traditional wastes • Infrastructure • Enable corporate review of divisional quality goals, plans and performance • Ensures fit with strategy • Resources • Training • Measurement Resources Infra structure Setting goals Multiple levels (hierarchy) Multiple product lines Multiple functions
  25. 25. Bill Smith • Born in Brooklyn, New York, in 1929 • In 1987, after working for nearly 35 years in engineering and quality assurance, he joined Motorola, serving as vice president and senior quality assurance manager for the Land Mobile Products Sector • Started quality program at Motorola in 1984 • system complexity • process variability and drift • the effect of factory rework on system reliability • In 1990: How do we get a “true” 99% “first-pass” yield of pagers, where each pager has 2000 components ? • Rolled Yield Throughput: • we need = 0.99, therefore, X , the quality yield of each component, can be no worse than 0.9999966 , (The Bandit pager had an unexpected MTBF of 150 years !) • Considered to be the father of Six sigma.
  26. 26. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Jack Welch • CEO of GE in the mid nineties adopted six sigma „Six Sigma is the most challenging and potentially rewarding strategy GE have ever undertaken‟. • Introduced The six sigma approach and develop it at Motorola in early 1990s. • Jack Welch: Six Sigma, the GE Way • He said “The best Six Sigma projects begin not inside the business but outside it, focused on answering the question: How can we make the customer more competitive? What is critical to the customer’s success? Learning the answer to that question and learning how to provide the solution is the only focus we need.
  27. 27. Mikel J. Harry • Dr. Mikel J. Harry, Ph. D. Six Sigma Academy, Inc. • Mikel Harry “the father of Six Sigma at Motorola “ started using Deming‟s focus on process variation as a means of improving performance by statistics at Motorola in 1985. • Developed Six Sigma quality program in Motorola in 1987 • The CEO recognized the success of this approach and applied it to every area of the business to improve performance, • Motorola won the Malcolm Aldridge Quality Award in 1987 • He said “Ignorance is not bliss, it is the food of failure and the breeding ground for loss.” • Later founded Six Sigma academy. • He said “If we can’t express what we know in the form of numbers, we really don’t know much about it. If we don’t know much about it, we can’t control it . If we can’t control it, we are at the mercy of chance”
  28. 28. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Philips. B. Crosby.  1926: Born in Wheeling, West Virginia.  1952–1955: Employed at Crosley.  1955–1957: Employed at Bendix Mishawaka.  1957–1965: Employed at Martin-Marietta.  1965–1979: Employed at ITT, rising to Corporate President of Quality.  1979: Quality is Free: The Art of Making Quality Certain, which became a best-seller, published.  1979–1991: Established Philip Crosby Associates (PCA).  1991 - Retired in.  1997–2001: Purchased assets of PCA and starts PCA II.  2001: Died.
  29. 29. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Philips. B. Crosby.  Philip Bayard "Phil" Crosby is an American businessman who promoted the phrases “zero defects” and “right first time”.  “Zero defects” doesn‟t mean mistakes never happen, rather that there is no allowable number of errors built into a product or process and that you get it right first time  “Quality is Free” Quality is a subjectively identified differently by each individual and institution.  Management must be firmly behind any quality plans  Do it right the first time  He has authored many books, including Quality is free, Quality without tears, Let‟s talk Quality and Leading: The art of becoming an executive.
  31. 31. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Crosby’s “Quality is Free”  “Quality is free. It‟s not a gift, but it is free. What costs money are the unquality things - all the actions that involve not doing jobs right the first time.”  Quality improvement programs  Take time  Must convince people that it is in their best interests  5 stages of quality maturity  DOUBT  REGRESSION  CONSCIOUSNESS/ WAKEFULNESS  ILLUMINATION / KNOWLEDGE.  SURENESS
  32. 32. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Crosby's 14 Steps to Quality Improvement • Management is committed to quality – and this is clear to allManagement commitment • Create quality improvement teams – with (senior) representatives from all departments.Quality improvement team • Measure processes to determine current and potential quality issues.Quality measurement • Calculate the cost of (poor) qualityCost of quality evaluation • Raise quality awareness of all employeesQuality awareness • Take action to correct quality issuesCorrective action • Monitor progress of quality improvement – establish a zero defects committee.Defects program • Train supervisors in quality improvementSupervisor training • Hold “zero defects” days (setting a new standard)Zero defects day • Encourage employees to create their own quality improvement goalsGoal setting • Encourage employee communication with management about obstacles to qualityError cause removal • Recognise participants’ effortRecognition • Create quality councilsQuality councils • Quality improvement does not endDo it over again
  33. 33. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Armand V. Feigenbaum. 1922 -Armand Vallin Feigenbaum was born. 1944- he was the top quality expert for General Electric in Schenectady, New York. 1951- He received a PhD. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. While there he authored his magnum opus “ Total Quality Control “, The book has been translated into many languages. 1958 he was made executive of manufacturing operations for General Electric worldwide. 1968 - founded General Systems in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, where he serves as president.
  34. 34. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Armand V. Feigenbaum. Argues that total quality control is necessary to achieve productivity, market penetration & competitive advantage. Quality begins by identifying the customer requirement & ends with a product or service in the hands of a satisfied customers. Emphasis on organizational structure 1951 - Feigenbaum originated the concept of total quality control in his book Total Quality Control.
  35. 35. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Armand V. Feigenbaum. In addition to customer satisfaction some of Feigenbaum’s quality principles are genuine management involvement, employee involvement, first- line- supervision leadership & companywide quality control. Quality is based upon the customer’s actual experience with the product or service, measured against his or her requirements known for his concept of the “hidden plant“. That is that in every factory a certain proportion of its capacity is wasted through not getting it right first time.
  36. 36. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Feigenbaum’s philosophy/trilogy 3 Steps for Quality . 4 Deadly mistakes 19 Steps to Quality Improvement
  37. 37. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Feigenbaum’s 3 Steps for Quality • There must be continuous management emphasis and leadership in quality. Quality must be thoroughly planned in specific terms. This approach is excellence-driven rather than the traditional failure- driven approach. Attaining quality excellence means keeping a constant focus on maintaining quality. This sort of continuous approach is very Deming on management. The establishment of a quality circle program or a corrective action team is not sufficient for its ongoing success. 1.Quality leadership. • The traditional quality department cannot resolve 80 to 90 percent of quality problems. In a modem setting, all members of the organization must be responsible for quality of their product or service. This means integrating office staff into the process, as well as engineers and shop floor workers. Error-free performance should be the goal. New techniques must be evaluated and implemented as appropriate. What may be an acceptable level of quality to a customer today may not be tomorrow. 2.Modern quality technology. • Continuous motivation is required, and more. Training that is specifically related to the task at hand is of paramount importance. Consideration of quality as a strategic element of business planning needs to occur in the United States . 3.Organizational commitment.
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  39. 39. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Armand V. Feigenbaum • Quality Leadership, with a strong focus on planning • Modern Quality Technology, involving the entire work force • Organizational Commitment, supported by continuous training and motivation Three Steps to Quality • Prevention • Appraisal • Failure Need to Classify the Cost of Quality
  40. 40. Feigenbaum’s Four deadly mistakes • Quality gets top-level attention in a "fireworks display" manner. These proqams disappear from view when production demands become heavy, or something else captures top level attention. 1.Hothouse quality. • The federal government cannot wave a wand and make imports go away, nor should it engage in protectionist activity. This is complacency that will be costly later. 2.Wishful fitting. • A competitive advantage cannot be gained by having someone else fight our "quality war". The radio, television, auto, and consumer electronics industries have proven this. 3.Producing overseas. • Quality achievement is for everyone in every of the company. 4.Confining quality to the factory.
  41. 41. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Feigenbaum’s 19 Steps to Quality Improvement • TQC may be defined as.. An effective system for integrating the quality development, quality maintenance, and quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization so as to enable marketing, engineering, production, and service at the most economical levels which allow for full-customer satisfaction . 1.Total quality control defined. • "Big ()" or Quality refers to luxurious quality whereas "little q" refers to high quality, not necessarily luxury. Regardless of an organization's niche, little q must closely maintained and improved. 2.Quality versus quality. • the word control represents a management tool with four steps'. • 1-Setting quality standards. • 2-Appraising conformance to these standards. • 3-Acting when the standards are exceeded. • 4-Planning for improvements in the standards . 3.Control In the phrase "quality control", • Control requires the integration of often into a framework. This framework should for customer-driven quality efforts across all activities of the enterprise.4. Integration. • Total quality control programs are highly cost effective because of their results in improved levels of customer satisfaction, reduced operating losses and field service costs , and improved utilisation of resources . Without quality, customers will not return. Without return customers, no business will long survive. 5.Quality increases profits.
  42. 42. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Feigenbaum’s 19 Steps to Quality Improvement • Quality begets quality. As one supplier becomes quality oriented, other suppliers must meet or exceed this new standard. 6.Quality is expected, not desired. • The greatest quality improvements are to come from humans improving the process, not adding machines. 7.Humans impact quality. • No person or department is exempted from supplying quality services and products to its customer 8.TQC applies to all products and services. • Quality control enters into all phases of the industrial production process, starting with the customer's specification , through design engineering and assembly to shipment of the product and installation, including field service for a customer who remains satisfied with the product. 9.Quality is a total life-cycle consideration. • These controls fall into four natural classification: new design control, incoming material control, product control, and special process studies . 10.Controlling the process.
  43. 43. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Feigenbaum’s 19 Steps to Quality Improvement • The agreed company wide and plant wide operating work structure, documented in effective, integrated technical and managerial procedures, for guiding the coordinated actions of the people, the machines, and the information of the company and plant in the best and most practical ways to assure customer quality satisfaction and economical costs of quality. The quality system provides integrated and continuous control to all key activities, making it truly organization wide in scope. 11.A total quality system may be defined as. • Benefits often resulting from total quality programs are improvement in product quality and design, reduction in operating costs and losses, improvement in employee morale, and reduction of production-line bottlenecks. 12.Benefits. • Quality costs are a means for measuring and optimising total quality control activities. Operating quality costs are divided into four different classifications.. prevention costs, appraisal costs, internal failure costs, and external failure costs. four different classifications: prevention costs, appraisal costs, internal failure costs, and external failure costs. 13.Cost of quality. • It is necessary to demonstrate that quality is everybody's job. Every organizational component has a quality-related responsibility. for example, marketing for determining customers' quality preferences, engineering for specifying product quality specifications, and shop supervision for building quality into the product. Make this responsibility explicit and visible. 14.Organize for quality control. • not quality cops. The quality control organization acts as a touchstone for communicating new results in the company, providing new techniques, acting as a facilitator, and in general resembles an internal consultant, rather than a police force of quality inspectors . 15.Quality facilitators.
  44. 44. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Feigenbaum’s 19 Steps to Quality Improvement • Management must recognise at the outset of its total quality control program that this program is not a temporary quality improvement or quality cost reduction project. 16.Continuous commitment. • Statistics are used in an overall quality control program whenever and wherever they may be useful, but statistics are only one part of the total quality control pattern . 17. Use statistical tools. • Automation is complex and can become an implementation nightmare. Be sure the best human-oriented activities are implemented before being convinced that automation is the answer. 18.Automation is not a panacea. • The creator of the product or the deliverer of the service must be able to control the quality of their product or service. Delegate authority, if necessary. Norton Stores has the simple company policy of "Use your own best judgement," and allows its employees the authority and freedom that this policy requires. 19.Control quality at time source.
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  49. 49. Ishikawa 1915: Born. 1939: Graduates from the Engineering Department of Tokyo University, having majored in applied chemistry. 1947: Hired as an assistant professor at the university. 1960: Earnd his Doctorate of Engineering and promoted to professor. 1989: Died.
  50. 50. Ishikawa’s Contributions 1. Product quality is improved and becomes uniform. Defects are reduced. 2. Reliability of goods is improved. 3. Cost is reduced. 4. Quantity of production is increased, and it becomes possible to make rational production schedules. 5. Wasteful work and rework are reduced. 6. Technique is established and improved. 7. Expenses for inspection and testing are reduced.
  51. 51. Ishikawa’s Contributions 8. Contracts between vendor and vendee are rationalized. 9. The sales market is enlarged. 10. Better relationships are established between departments. 11. False data and reports are reduced. 12. Discussions are carried out more freely and democratically. 13. Meetings are operated more smoothly. 14. Repairs and installation of equipment and facilities are done more rationally. 15. Human relations are improved.
  52. 52. Ishikawa Kaoru Ishikawa,PhD, studied under Deming, Juran & Feigenbaum.
  53. 53. Ishikawa philosophy 1.Quality begins with education and ends with education. 2.The first step in quality is to know the requirements of customers. 3.The ideal state of quality control is when inspection is no longer necessary. 4.Remove the root cause, and not the symptoms. 5.Quality control is the responsibility of all workers and all divisions.
  54. 54. Ishikawa philosophy 6.Do not confuse the means with the objectives. 7.Put quality first and set your sights on long- term profits. 8.Marketing is the entrance and exit of quality. 9.Top management must not show anger when facts are presented by subordinates. 10.Ninety-five percent of the problems in a company can be solved by the seven tools of quality control. 11.Data without dispersion information is false data-for example, stating an average without supplying the standard deviation .
  55. 55. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Ishikawa He borrowed the total quality control concept & adapted it for Japanese. He authored SPC texts in Japanese & English. Ishikawa is best known for the development of the cause & effect diagram, Which is sometimes called an Ishikawa. He developed the quality circle concept in Japan whereby work groups, including their supervisor were trained in SCP concept. The group then met to identify & solve quality problems in their work environment. Advocated the use of simple visual tools and statistical techniques
  56. 56. Genichi Taguchi • 1924 - Dr Genichi Taguchi bornMid • 1950’s - was Indian Statistical Institutes visiting professor, where he met Walter Shewhart. • 1960 Awarded the Deming Application prize • 1962 - awarded his PhD by Kyushu University • 1964 - 1982 Professor at Tokyo’s Aoyama Gakuin University • 1986 - Willard F Rockwell Medal by the International Technologies Insitute Back to Main Menu
  57. 57. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Henry Ford • Continuous Process Improvement • Advances in metal cutting allowed him to cut pre-hardened steel, produce identical parts • Earned unprecedented profits in 1926 by eliminating waste to gradually reduce the production cycle to 81 hours from iron ore to finished product. • Standardized parts facilitated standardization of jobs, moving assembly line • Model T: 1908 $850 1920’s: $250 • He said “We want to get full value out of labour so that we may be able to pay it full value. It is use – not conservation – that interests us.”
  58. 58. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Frederick W. Taylor – Time and motion studies – Father of “Scientific Management” – Find ways to improve work environment and work processes – Quantify, measure & track everything: Time required to haul wheelbarrow: B p a L 0 51 0 0048 27 1 27. . .distance hauled Back to Main Menu
  59. 59. Taiichi Ohno • 1912 Born in Port Arthur, Manchuria, China • 1932 graduated from Nagoya Institute of Technology • 1932 Joined Toyoda Spinning and Weaving • 1943 Joined Toyota Motor Company • 1949 Promoted to machine shop manager at Toyota • 1954 Promoted to director at Toyota • 1964 Promoted to managing director at Toyota • 1970 Promoted to senior managing director at Toyota • 1975 Promoted to executive vice-president at Toyota • 1980 Retired from Toyota • 1990 Died in Toyota City .
  60. 60. Taiichi Ohno’s Philosophy • Toyota production system TPS • Philosophy of work – Respect for workers. – Full utilization of workers‟ capabilities. – Entrust workers with responsibility & authority. • Approach to production – Build only what is needed. – Stop if something goes wrong. – Eliminate anything which does not add value.
  61. 61. Taiichi Ohno’s Contributions • Ohno Circle, to keep managers in touch with the gemba. • providing the motivation for “lean manufacturing” reduction of cycle time. • Toyota Production System (TPS) was developed between 1945 and 1970 and it is still evolving today • Quick change of dies • Just-in-time manufacturing • Kanban systems • Andon or visual-light warning system • Zero or near-zero inventory • Pull system by watching purchasing and restocking activity at an American supermarket
  62. 62. Taiichi Ohno’s Contributions •The “five whys” problem-solving method •Autonomation (automated line stoppage on error) •Identification of the seven wastes or seven Muda (with Shingo) –Defective products and Rework –Overproduction –Transportation of materials – Time spent in actual processing –Waiting – inventory (Stock on hand ) –Movement of manpower. Back to Main Menu
  63. 63. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Shigeo Shingo • 1909: Born in Saga City, Japan. • 1930: Graduated mechanical engineer from Yamanashi Technical College. • 1930: Employed by the Taipei Railway Factory in Taiwan. • 1943: Transferred to the Amano Manufacturing Plant in Yokohama. • 1945: Becomes a professional management consultant with the Japan Management Association. • 1955: Takes charge of industrial engineering and factory improvement training at the Toyota Motor Company for both its employees and its parts suppliers (100 companies). • 1956–1958: At Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in Nagasaki, reduced the time for hull assembly of a 65,000- ton supertanker from four months to two months, a new world record in shipbuilding. • 1961–1964: Extends the ideas of quality control to develop the poka-yoke, mistake- proofing, or zero defects concept. • 1968: Originates the pre-automation system at Sata Ironworks, which later spreads throughout Japan. • 1969: Originates the single-minute exchange of die (SMED or one-touch exchange of die (OTED)) system at Toyota (part of Just in Time manufacturing, now called lean manufacturing). • 1990: Died.
  64. 64. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Shigeo Shingo • As Manufacturing Section Chief, he raised productivity 100%. Shingo worked for several manufacturers in 1945 and 1946 and also began a long association with the Japanese Management Association (JMA). • From 1946-1954 Shingo had many assignments, delivered several important papers and crystallized his ideas on process and plant layout. He also applied Statistical Process Control. • In 1955, Dr. Shingo began another long association, this time with Toyota. In addition to his many consulting assignments in other industries. It is during this period that he first started work on setups by doubling the output of an engine bed planer at Mitsubishi’s shipyard.In 1959, Dr. Shingo left JMA to start his own consulting company. • During the early 1960’s, as an outgrowth of work with Matsushita, he developed his concepts of “Mistake-Proofing.”
  65. 65. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Shigeo Shingo • In 1969, SMED was originated when he cut the setup time on a 1000 ton press at Toyota from 4.0 hours to 3.0 minutes. • During the 1970’s, Shingo traveled in Europe and North America on many lectures, visits and assignments. He began to see Toyota’s efforts as an integrated system and began to assist several U.S. and European firms in implementation. • The Shingo Prize is awarded for excellence in manufacturing as a tribute to Dr. Shingo and his lifelong work. • Shingo wrote more than 14 major books, most of which are fun to read and amazing in the elegant simplicity of the solutions they propose, he also has written hundreds of important papers on manufacturing.
  66. 66. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Shigeo Shingo’s Contributions • Shingo predominantly influenced concepts of quality and inventory. • Poka-yoke • Shingo moved beyond statistical quality control after observing how the Shizuoko plant of Matsushita’s Washing Machine Division had succeeded continuously for one month with zero defects on a drain pipe assembly line involving 23 workers. This was achieved through the installation of 1100 pokayoke devices. Together, these techniques constitute Zero Quality Control, which can achieve what may be impossible using statistical quality control methods. This concept puts Shingo in alignment with Philip Crosby; however, we need to remember that defect statistics are fundamental to Six Sigma. In other words, we can aim at the ideal but that does not mean that we should drop the measurement and study of defect arrival rates. • Shingo’s concept of mistake-proofing (poka-yoke) was designed to eliminate quality problems rather than using the more statistical approach of monitoring them using control charts. Both methods can be complementary and mistake-proofing should be implemented when feasible. Either way, the action is a containment; that is, no irreversible corrective action has occurred to eliminate the quality issue. • Even mistake-proofing occasionally leads to containment, particularly in cases where “limit switches” are used to detect erroneously sized products.
  67. 67. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Shigeo Shingo’s Contributions • Source inspection (quality at the source) to eliminate inspectors • Shingo refined his work by introducing source inspections and improved poka-yoke systems that prevented the worker from making errors. Statistical sampling could be eliminated and workers were liberated to concentrate on more valuable activities such as identifying potential error sources. Shingo argued that posting defect statistics is misguided and that the defectives should be hunted down and eliminated instead.
  68. 68. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Shigeo Shingo’s Contributions • Single-minute exchange of die (SMED) • This system was developed to cut setup times, enabling smaller batches to be produced. The setup procedures were simplified by using common or similar setup elements whenever possible: – External setup is what can be done while the machine runs. – Internal setup is what you must do after stopping the machine. • For example, at Toyota a die punch setup time in a cold- forging process was reduced over a threemonth period from one hour and 40 minutes to three minutes.
  69. 69. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Shigeo Shingo’s Contributions • European influence – Shingo consulted for die casting associations in West Germany and Switzerland. – He consulted for Daimler Benz and Thurner in West Germany and H-Weidman, Bucher-Guyer AG, and Gebr Buhler in Switzerland. – His first consultancy for an overseas firm was for Citroen in France in 1981, and Peugeot.
  70. 70. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Shigeo Shingo’s Contributions • U.S. influence – From 1975 to 1979, he conducted training for the American Company Federal Mogul on SMED and non-stock production. – His methods at the U.S. company Omark Industries led to such increased productivity and defect and stock reductions that the company started giving an annual Shingo award to the facility that, out of the 17 worldwide, demonstrated the best overall improvement. • Other companies – where Shingo advised include many parts of Daihatsu, Yamaha, Mazda, Sharp, Fuji, Nippon, Hitachi, Sony, an d Olympus in Japan,.
  71. 71. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Shigeo Shingo • Dr. Shigeo Shingo , Industrial Engineer, • 1988 Honorary Doctorate Utah State University, January 8, 1909 - November 14, 1990 • Consulted European, U.S. And japans' companies. • written 14 major books and hundreds of important papers • created: – SMED – Poka Yoke “ Mistake-Proofing.” – Expert in non-stock production improvement systems • The Shingo Prize is awarded for excellence in manufacturing • World renown author and teacher: Study of the Toyota Production System • Back to Main Menu
  72. 72. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Eli Whitney – introduced interchangeable parts in large musket contract for U.S. Army – Interchangeable parts the true secret of Ford’s success – Made possible by advances in measurement and tool steel Back to Main Menu
  73. 73. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Andrew Carnegie • The Richest Man in the World • Found out strike organizers, fired before • 1886 “Triumphant Democracy”, Forum magazine- workers’ right to unionize • 1889 “Gospel of Wealth:” rich need to help the poor ($25m annual income) • 1892 Homestead strike: 12 hour gunfight, Pinkerton defeated (12 died), state militia called in, strike breakers hired • 1901 sells out to J.P. Morgan: $480m • Built 2,500 libraries. “The man who dies rich dies disgraced.” • 1919 dies, having given away 90%
  74. 74. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Genichi Taguchi • quality loss function that combines cost, target and variation into one metric. • Pioneered a new perspective on quality based on the economic value of being on target and reducing variation and dispelling the traditional view of conformance to specifications: No Loss LossLoss Tolerance 0.500 0.5200.480
  75. 75. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Bob Galvin • Motorola Chairman and his engineers In the mid-1980s, decided that the traditional quality levels – measuring defects in thousands of opportunities didn‟t provide enough granularity. Instead they wanted to measure the defects per million opportunities.
  76. 76. Vilfredo Pareto • In 1906, Italian economist and sociologist, Vilfredo Pareto (sometimes misspelled Wilfredo, Alfredo, or Vilfred) created a mathematical formula to describe the uneven income distribution in Switzerland at that time, observing that eighty percent of the wealth was held by a mere twenty percent of the families. • In the late 1940s, Dr. Joseph M. Juran inaccurately attributed the discovery of this uneven weatlh distribution to Vilfredo Pareto , It was actually Joseph Juran's work which first recognized the applicability of the Pareto Principle within the context of inventory management. Recognizing and documenting this universal principle he called the "vital few and trivial many", Joseph Juran credited these findings to Pareto's work and thus it became known as 'The Pareto Principle'. • Pareto Principle is often called "The 80/20 rule". The 80/20 Rule means that in nearly all cases, a few (20 percent) are vital and many (80 percent) are trivial.
  77. 77. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Masaaki Imai • Introduced Kaizen for continuous improvement –Constant and gradual improvement in every process
  78. 78. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz86 Malcolm Aldridge National Quality Award • Help improve quality in U.S. companies • Recognize achievements of excellent firms and provide examples to others • Establish criteria for evaluating quality efforts • Provide guidance for other U.S. companies Malcolm Aldridge, former U.S. Secretary of Commerce
  79. 79. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Criteria for Performance Excellence Bldridge Award trophy 1- Leadership (90) 2- Strategic Planning (60) 3- Customer and Market Focus (300) 4- Information and Analysis (80) 5-Human Resource Focus (150) 6-Process Management (140) 7-Business Results (180)
  80. 80. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-88 Baldrige Award • Created in 1987 to stimulate growth of quality management in the United States • Categories – Leadership – Information and analysis – Strategic planning – Human resource – Focus – Process management – Business results – Customer and market focus
  81. 81. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-89 Other Awards for Quality • National individual awards – Armand V. Feigenbaum Medal – Deming Medal – E. Jack Lancaster Medal – Edwards Medal – Shewart Medal – Ishikawa Medal • International awards – European Quality Award – Canadian Quality Award – Australian Business Excellence Award – Deming Prize from Japan
  82. 82. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-90 American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) • Measures customer satisfaction • Established in 1994 • Web site: – Examples (in 2003) • scored 88 (highest in service) • Dell scored of 78 (highest in computer industry) • Cadillac scored 87 (highest in car industry)
  83. 83. The Aldridge Framework – A Systems Perspective 4 Information and Analysis 5 Human Resource Focus 3 Customer & Market Focus 7 Business Results 2 Strategic Planning 1 Leadership 6 Process Management Organizational Profile: Environment, Relationships, and Challenges
  84. 84. 92 História… Sakichi Toyoda Kiichiroi Toyoda Taiichi Ohno  Fundador do Grupo Toyota  Inventor do tear automático  Dispositivo de parada após quebra dos fios  Jidoka  Adaptou Fordismo ao baixo volume  Agregação de valor  Just-in-Time – Eliminação de desperdícios  Conceito de supermercado – Pull System  Estruturou TPS
  85. 85. 93 História… H. Ford ASSEMBLY LINE •System synchronizatio n •Waste elimination A. Sloan E. Whitney F. Taylor T. Ohno J. Juran E. Deming P. Drucker DIVISION OF LABOR •Time and motion studies INTERCHANGE ABLE PARTS MODEL VARIETY EMPLOYEE PARTNERSHIP QUALITY K. Toyoda / E. Toyoda S. Toyoda JIT JIDOKA AMERICAN SUPERMARKET SYSTEM TPS TPS TPS TPS
  86. 86. Eng:Osama Abdel Aziz Five characteristics of an“Eternally Successful Organisation” People routinely do things right first time Change is anticipated and used to advantage Growth is consistent and profitable New products and services appear when needed Everyone is happy to work there
  87. 87. IMPORTANT EVENTS IN TQM 1249- 1932 Hawthome demonstrated the importance of the social and psychological climate in work. 1924 Shewart developed statistical process control. 1926 The bell telephone began to apply statistical control methods. Mid-1940s the American army pushed the use of sampling methods during world war II. 1950s A large number of attempts at work improvement were undertaken ( egg job enrichment, work redesign, participative management , quality of work life and worker involvement). 1950 First visit of Deming to Japan. 1951 Creation of "Deming application prize" in Japan. First edition of Juan to Japan. 1954 first visit of Deming to Japan Maslow's theories about human needs. 1960 Liberalisation of economy in Japan with pressure to improve quality to compete with foreign companies. McGregor's X and Y theories. 1961 First edition of Feighbaum's Total Quality Control. 1962 The idea of quality circles appeared in the first issue of the Japanese Journal Quality Control for the Foreman. L1te 1960s and early 1970s The pressure of Japanese companies began to ve felt in American companies. 1972 QFD was developed at Mitsubishi's Kobe shipyard site. 1973 After the 1973 oil crises the JIT system was adopted by a vast number of Japanese companies , a small number of American and European companies began to apply this system in the 1980s.
  88. 88. IMPORTANT EVENTS IN TQM mid-1970s Quality circles began to be widely introduced in the USA, the first quality circle program was launched in Lockheed in 1974 and in the UK it was Rolls-Royce witch introduced the concept in 1979. 1979 First edition of Crosby's Quality is Free. Xerox corp. started to apply the benchmarking concept to processes. Publication of the BS5750 quality management series. 1980 An NBC television documentary about the "Japanese miracle" proposed deming as a key element in the miracle. 1981 Ouchi's Z theory. 1982 first edition of Deming's Quality, Productivity and competitive position. 1983 "Quality on the line" published be Garvin in Harvard business review, analysed the difference between Japanese and American companies, showing some of the reasons for the better performance of the former. A paper about Taguchi's design of experiments is published in Harvard Business Review. 1985 The Naval Air Systems Command named its Japanese-system management approach "Total quality management". 1986 First edition of Deming's Out of the Crises, it become a bestseller. 1987 First edition of ISO 9000 quality management system series. 1987 Publication of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award.
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