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What's So Interesting About AMO Phyiscs?

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A talk given at the 2011 meeting of the Division of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (DAMOP) of the American Physical Society, summarizing recent and exciting results in AMO physics being presented at the meeting.

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What's So Interesting About AMO Phyiscs?

  1. 1. What’s So Interesting About AMO Physics? Chad Orzel Department of Physics and Astronomy Union College Schenectady, NY http://slideshare.net/orzelc
  2. 2. Why This Talk? 2001 DAMOP/ DAMP Meeting 3-4 parallel sessions 270 talks, 293 posters 2011 DAMOP Meeting 6-7 parallel sessions 477 talks, 548 posters http://slideshare.net/orzelc
  3. 3. CategoriesFive rough groups of invited sessions: I) Ultra-Cold Matter Laser cooling, Bose-Einstein Condensation, optical lattices II) Extreme Lasers Ultra-fast lasers (femto-, atto-second), ultra-intense lasers III) Quantum Phenomena Quantum measurement, information, communications IV) “Traditional” AMO Physics Atomic and molecular collisions, spectroscopy V) Precision Measurement Fundamental symmetry tests, atomic clocks
  4. 4. Thesis PrizeSession C6: Tuesday 6/14, 2PM, Room A706 (This room, after lunch) Novel Systems and Methods for Quantum Communication, Quantum Computation, and Quantum Simulation (I, III) Alexey Gorshkov Bright Attosecond Soft and Hard X-ray Supercontinua (II) Tenio Popmintchev Many-body physics with ultracold bosons in 1D geometry (I) Elmar Haller First practical application of quantum weak measurements, used to perform the first experimental investigations of the (III) Spin Hall Effect of Light Onur Hosten
  5. 5. “Hot Topics”Session U6: Friday 6/17 10:30 AM Room A706 Atom Trap Trace Analysis (V, I) Zheng-Tian Lu Improved Measurement of the Electron EDM (V) E.A. Hinds Sequential Double Ionization: The Timing of Release (II, IV) A.N. Pfeiffer 14-qubit entanglement: creation and coherence Julio Barreiro (III, I)
  6. 6. Ultra-Cold MatterInvited Talk Sessions: H4: Focus: Phases of Strongly Interacting Cold GasesWed: J4: Atom Circuits M6: Focus: In-situ Imaging of Ultracold Atomic GasesThurs: N6: Ultracold Molecules P6: Few-body Ultracold Systems T2: Non-Equilibrium and Cooperativity in Ultracold SystemsFri: T6: Focus: Synthetic Gauge Fields in Ultracold Systems U4: Cold Rydberg Gases
  7. 7. Ultracold GasesLaser Cooling Use light forces to slow atomic motion (neutral atoms, ions) Collect large numbers of atoms in MOT T~1-100 µK (0.1-10 neV) Na MOT, NISTEvaporative Cooling Remove high-energy atoms from sample Increase in phase-space density Bose-Einstein Condensation at Tc ~ 1nK First Rb BEC, JILA, 1995
  8. 8. BEC in Optical LatticesUse interference/holography to make periodic potential for cold atoms Depths ~1-100 ERCompetition betweentunneling and collisions ˆ =a + 1 U ∑ n (n − 1) H − J ∑ ai† ˆ j ˆ ˆi ˆi i, j 2 iTunneling betweenlattice sites On-site InteractionsPhase transition: from: I. Bloch, Nature Physics 1, 23 - 30 (2005) doi:10.1038/nphys138 Superfluid  Mott Insulator
  9. 9. In-Situ Lattice ImagingCombine 2-D optical lattice with high-resolution imagingImage individual lattice sites From J.F. Sherson et al Nature 467, 68 (2010) doi:10.1038/nature09378
  10. 10. In-Situ ImagingMonitor phase transition through site occupation From W.S. Bakr et al, Science 329 547-550 (2010) DOI: 10.1126/science.1192368
  11. 11. Single-Site ControlFrom C. Weitenburg et al., Nature 471, 319 (2011)doi:10.1038/nature09827
  12. 12. Extreme LasersInvited Talk Sessions:Tues: C2: Ultrafast and Intense X-RaysWed: J6: Attosecond Spectroscopy M4: Focus: Recollision PhysicsThurs: P2: Focus: Time-resolved Spectroscopy with HHG and FELFri: T4: Intense Field Physics
  13. 13. High Harmonic Generation1) Intense fs pulse ionizes target gas2) Laser field accelerates electrons3) Electron recombination From Popmintchev et al. DOI: 10.1038/Nphoton.2010.256 produces EUV/ X-Ray light attosecond duration From Chen et al. PRL 105, 173901 (2010)
  14. 14. Pump-Probe SpectroscopyIntense IR pulse 1) Creates as EUV pulse 2) Excites target gasDelay EUV pulse, measure absorption, photoemission Follow atomic, molecular dynamics on sub-fs time scalesJ6: Attosecond Spectroscopy E. Goulielmakis et al Nature 466, 739 (2010) doi:10.1038/nature09212
  15. 15. Ultrafast DynamicsValence Electron Motion: Delay in photoemission of electron:E. Goulielmakis et al Nature 466, 739 (2010) M. Schultze, et al. Science 328, 1658 (2010);doi:10.1038/nature09212 DOI: 10.1126/science.1189401
  16. 16. Quantum PhenomenaInvited Talk Sessions: H2: Focus: Advances in NV CentersWed: K6: Advances in Quantum Communications N4: Quantum Measurement and Control of Spin EnsemblesThurs: P4: Focus: Progress in Cavity Opto-Mechanics
  17. 17. Quantum CommunicationsQubits: 2-state systems (spin-1/2, photon polarization, atomic levels) | Ψ > α | 0 > +β | 1 > =Arbitrary superposition of 0 and 1 1 0  new possibilities for computationKey issues: Decoherence  Must preserve superposition Scalability  Must be able to add qubits Quantum communication  Connect qubits in different places
  18. 18. Entanglement and CommunicationEntangled state: State of one particle determined by state of other| Ψ= α | 0 >1| 0 > 2 + β |1 >1|1 > 2 12 > 1 1 0 0Correlation is non-local Does not depend on distance between particles, measurement time Quantum correlation stronger than possible classically  Bell Inequalities Entanglement provides resource for communicating arbitrary states  Quantum Teleportation
  19. 19. Storage and TransmissionStore qubit in spin state of cold atomsConvert to telecom wavelength S=2.64±0.12100m optical fiber, convert back 5-σ Bell violation Dudin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 260502 (2010) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.260502
  20. 20. Free-Space TeleportationSend arbitrary state 16 km through free space, 87% fidelity X. M. Jin et al Nature Photonics 4, 376 (2010) doi:10.1038/nphoton.2010.87
  21. 21. “Traditional” AMO PhysicsInvited Talk Sessions:Tues: C1: Positron-Matter Interactions and Antihydrogen H6: Advances in Gaseous ElectronicsWed: K1: Focus: Recent Advances in Collision Studies M1: Focus: Photoionization SpectroscopyThurs: N6: AMO Science for Laboratory and Astrophysical EnvironmentsFri: T1: Focus: Electronic, Atomic, and Molecular Collision Studies
  22. 22. “Traditional” AMOSpectroscopy, charged particle collisions, photoionization Critically important for atmospheric and astrophysical processes N6: AMO Science for Laboratory and Astrophysical Environments H6.00001 : Why isnt the atmosphere completely ionized? Thomas Miller, Boston College and AFRL From H. Kreckel et al. Science 329, 69 (2010) DOI: 10.1126/science.1187191
  23. 23. Trapped Antihydrogen Antiprotons, positrons combined in trap Antihydrogen formed, trapped for 1000sALPHA Collaboration, Nature Physics (2011) doi:10.1038/nphys2025
  24. 24. Antihydrogen Beam Cusp trap for efficient extraction of spin-polarized beam Goal of precision microwave spectroscopyY. Enomoto et al.Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 243401 (2010)DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.243401
  25. 25. Precision MeasurementInvited Talk Sessions:Wed: J2: Fundamental Symmetry TestsFri: U6: Hot Topics Atom Trap Trace Analysis Zheng-Tian Lu Improved Measurement of the Electron EDM E.A. Hinds
  26. 26. Proton Size Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen Lamb shift Proton 4% smaller than CODATA value!!!Pohl et al. Nature 466, 213 (2010)doi:10.1038/nature09250
  27. 27. Everyday RelativityTrapped Al+ ion “quantum logic” clocks Measure relativistic shifts due to ion motion, elevation Time dilation for v<10m/s 33cm change in elevation Chou et al. Science 329, 1630 (2010) DOI: 10.1126/science.1192720
  28. 28. What’s So Interesting About AMO Physics?I) Ultracold atoms allow studies of superfluids, phase transitions with in-situ single-site monitoringII) Ultrafast lasers and HHG allow studies of atomic and molecular dynamics on femto- and atto-second time scalesIII) Quantum communication systems allow sharing and maniuplation of quantum information over long distancesIV) Understanding of charged-particle interactions allow improved astrophysical models, creation of antimatterV) Ultra-precise laser spectroscopy allows laboratory tests of fundamental symmetry, searches for new physics
  29. 29. Undergraduate Institutions in DAMOP ReceptionWed., June 15 (tomorrow) 5:30-7:00 pm Room L508For students,faculty, andpotential/futurefaculty atundergraduateinstitutions
  30. 30. What’s So Interesting About AMO Physics?I) Ultracold atoms allow studies of superfluids, phase transitions with in-situ single-site monitoringII) Ultrafast lasers and HHG allow studies of atomic and molecular dynamics on femto- and atto-second time scalesIII) Quantum communication systems allow sharing and maniuplation of quantum information over long distancesIV) Understanding of charged-particle interactions allow improved astrophysical models, creation of antimatterV) Ultra-precise laser spectroscopy allows laboratory tests of fundamental symmetry, searches for new physics

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