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# Chapter 1 - Introduction (Thermodynamics 1)

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Fundamentals of Thermodynamics

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### Chapter 1 - Introduction (Thermodynamics 1)

1. 1. THERMODYNAMICS 1 By: Orley G. Fadriquel
2. 2. WIND TURBINE Blade or Propeller Turbine Storage Battery Transformer High Wind Velocity Lower Wind Velocity Generator Generator
3. 3. Transformer Air Fuel Piston Cylinder Crank Shaft Brake power Indicated Power INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Generator
4. 4. Thermodynamics is the study of energy and its transformation, the direction of flow of heat, and the availability of energy to do work.
5. 5. The word thermodynamics derives from the two Greek words “therme” which means “heat: and “dynamikos” which means “power”.
6. 6. Approaches in the Study of Thermodynamics 1.Microscopic or statistical approach 2.Macroscopic approach
7. 7. Microscopic or Statistical Approach • Structure of matter is considered and a large number of variables are needed to describe the state of matter. • The matter is composed of several molecules and behaviour of each individual molecule is studied.
8. 8. • Each molecule is having certain position, velocity and energy at a given instant. • The velocity and energy change very frequently due to collision of molecules.
9. 9. Macroscopic approach • In macroscopic approach the structure of matter is not considered, in fact it is simple, and only few variables are used to describe the state of matter.
10. 10. • In this approach, a certain quantity of matter composed of large number of molecules is considered without the events occurring at the molecular level being taken into account.
11. 11. • In this case, the properties of a particular mass of substance, such as its temperature, pressure, and volume are analyzed. Generally, in engineering, this analysis is used for study of heat engines and other devices. This method gives the fundamental knowledge for the analysis of a wide variety of engineering problems
12. 12. Applications of Thermodynamics • Application of thermodynamic principles in practical design tasks, may be of a simple pressure cooker or of a complex chemical plant. The applications of thermodynamic laws and principles are found in all fields of energy technology.
13. 13. • steam and nuclear power plants • gas turbines • internal combustion engines • air conditioning • Refrigeration • gas dynamics • jet propulsion • compressors • others
14. 14. DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
15. 15. • Dimensions implies physical quantities. Examples are length, time, mass, force, volume and velocity. In engineering analysis, it is most important to check the dimensional homogeneity of an equation relating physical quantities. This means that the dimensions of terms on one side of the equation must equal those on the other side.
16. 16. Primary dimensions implies units of physical quantities conceived of and used to measure other physical quantities related by definition and laws
17. 17. Secondary dimensions implies other physical quantities measured using primary dimensions
18. 18. • Unit is a definite standard or measure of a dimension. • For example, foot, meters and angstroms are all different units with the common dimension of length. • A unit is any specified amount of a quantity by comparison with which any other quantity of the same kind is measure.
19. 19. In any dimensional system, the units of length, time, mass and forces are related through Newton’s second law of motion.
20. 20. The total force acting on a body is proportional to the product of the mass and the acceleration in the direction of the force, thus, F  ma ; F = 1/k ma where k is the proportionality constant.
21. 21. UNITS OF DIFFERENT DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS Name of system Unit of Mass Unit of Lengt h Unit of time Unit of force K in F = 1/k ma Definition of terms SI (mks) kgm m Sec N 1.0 9.806 1.0 N is the force needed to accelerate a mass of 1.0 kg at 1.0 m/s2 1.0 kgf is the force needed to accelerate a mass of 1.0 kgm at 9.8066 m/s2 English Eng’g lbm Ft Sec lbf 32.17 1.0 lbf is the force needed to accelerate a mass of 1.0 lbm at 32.174 ft/sec2 Absolute Eng’g Slug Ft Sec lbf 1.0 1.0 lbf is the force needed to accelerate a mass of 1.0 slug mass at 1.0 ft/sec2 Absolute metric (cgs) gm Cm Sec dyne 1.0 980.66 1.0 dyne is the force needed to accelerate a mass of 1.0 g at 1.0 cm/sec2 1.0 gf is the force needed to accelerate a mass 1.0 gm at 980.66 cm/s2 2 f m skg mkg   2 m sN mkg   2 f m slb ftlb   2 f slb ftslug   2 m sdyne cmg   2 f m sg cmg  
22. 22. International System Institutes(SI) Base Unit Specified once a set of primary dimensions is adopted quantity unit symbol mass kilogram kg length meter m time second s (Systeme Internationale d’Unites)
23. 23. Derived Unit Also termed secondary unit, these are units derived from the base units: given new names, normally after a famous scientist. Selected SI-derived units Newton, N 1 N = 1 kg-m/s2 Pascal, Pa 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 Joule, J 1 J = 1 N-m Watt, W 1 W = 1 J/s
24. 24. SI unit prefixes Factor prefix symbol Factor prefix symbol 1012 Tera T 10-2 centi c 109 Giga G 10-3 milli m 106 Mega M 10-6 micro  103 Kilo k 10-9 nano n 102 hecto h 10-12 pico p 101 deca da 10-15 femto f 10-1 deci d 10-18 atto a
25. 25. English Engineering Units Base unit quantity unit symbol mass pound-mass lbm length foot ft time second s
26. 26. Derived unit Quantity unit symbol force pound-force lbf pressure pound-force psi per square inch
27. 27. THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM System is defined as any collection of matter or any region in space bounded by a closed surface or wall. • Surrounding • Boundary
28. 28. Piston Cylinder Boundary Surrounding System boundary Heat Thermodynamic System gas Weight
29. 29. CLASSIFICATION OF THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM • Closed system- a system of fixed mass. In this system, energy may cross the boundary, and the total mass within the boundary is fixed. The system and it’s boundary may contract or expand in volume
30. 30. PISTON MOVEMENT gas 1 2 Q
31. 31. Surrounding Boundary Energy in Energy out Thermodynamic System W Gas Q Heat
32. 32. Open System- one in which matter crosses the boundary of the system. There may be energy transfer also, i.e, both energy and mass crosses the boundary of the system. Most engineering devices belong to this type.
33. 33. PISTON MOVEMENT gas 1 2 Q
34. 34. Air out Work in Heat boundary Air in Thermodynamic System Surrounding Energy out Energy out Mass in Mass out
35. 35. Note: If the inflow of mass is equal to the outflow of mass, then the mass in the system is constant and the system is known as steady flow.
36. 36. Isolated System - one in which neither mass nor energy crosses the system boundary. It is of fixed mass and energy. The system is not affected by the surrounding, i.e. there is no interaction between the system and surroundings.
37. 37. Thermodynamic System Surrounding Flow through pipe 1 2 43 5
38. 38. HOMOGENEOUS AND HETEROGENEOUS SYSTEM If the substance within the system exists in a single phase like air, steam, liquids then the system is called HOMOGENEOUS SYSTEM. In these systems, the substance exists in only one phase.
39. 39. If the substance within the system exists in more than one phase, then the system is HETEROGENEOUS.
40. 40. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES A property is either a directly observable or an indirectly observable characteristic of a system. Any combination of such characteristics is also a property.
41. 41. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES The distinguishing characteristics of a system by which its physical condition may be described are called the properties of the system. They are quantities that we must specify to give a macroscopic description of the system.
42. 42. Two other properties - temperature and entropy- are unique to thermodynamics. Together with energy, they play a most important role in the structure of thermodynamics.
43. 43. Two types of classical thermodynamic properties • Intensive Property These properties are independent of mass such as pressure, temperature, voltage and density.
44. 44. . • Extensive Property These properties are dependent of mass and are total values such as total volume, total energy and entropy.
45. 45. • Examples of thermodynamic properties, besides pressure, volume and Temperature, are: internal energy, enthalpy, and entropy. Other properties include: velocity, acceleration, moment of inertia, electric charge, conductivity (thermal and electrical), electromotive force, stress, viscosity, reflectivity, number of protons, and so on
46. 46. Definition of properties Mass – amount or absolute quantity of matter in a certain body. Volume – the space occupied by a certain body
47. 47. .Density 1. Mass density – the mass of substance divided by the volume the mass occupies of simply, the mass per unit volume. Water at standard conditions at 4oC (39.2oF) ρwater = 1 gm/cm3 = 1000 kgm/m3 = 62.4 lbm/ft3
48. 48. .2. Weight density – also known as the specific weight, it is defined as the weight per unit volume. Where : g = 9.80665 m/s2 = 32.174 ft/s2 Water at standard conditions, water = 9.81 kN/m = 62.4 lb/ft3
49. 49. Specific volume - defined as the volume per unit of mass of the reciprocal of density Weight, W – force exerted by gravity on a given mass, depends on both the mass of the substance and the gravitational field strength, W = mg
50. 50. • Specific gravity – the dimensionless parameter, it is defined as the ratio of the density (or specific weight) of a substance to some standard density(specific weight)
51. 51. For liquid substances For gaseous substances at STP = 1.2 kg/m3 at 1 atm, 21.1 oC air gas air gas .G.S       OH LIQUID OH LIQUID 22 .G.S      
52. 52. . Pressure – defined as the normal force exerted by a system on a unit area of its boundary. Manometer – the instrument used in measuring pressure.
53. 53. Standard reference atmospheric pressure 1 atm = 14.7 psia = 760 mm Hg = 29.92 in Hg at 32oF = 760 torrs = 101.325 kpa = 34 ft H20 = 1.033 kg/cm2
54. 54. Types of pressure a. Gage pressure, Pg – pressure of a fluid and the atmospheric pressure, measured using manometer or bourdon gage Note: -Vacuum pressure is negative pressure; -measured using fluid pressure < atmospheric pressure
55. 55. b. Atmospheric pressure, Patm - measured using a barometer, refer to standard atmospheric cited above c. Absolute pressure, Pabs – sum of the gage pressure and atmospheric pressure.
56. 56. Relationships among the types of pressure For Pabs > Patm Pabs = Patm + Pg For Pabs < Patm Pabs = Patm – Pv Also, Pg = h = ρgh
57. 57. Temperature – it is an intensive property, originates with our sense perceptions, rooted in the notion of hotness or coldness of a body
58. 58. Types of Temperature a. Arbitrary, t – man made calibrated a.1 Celsius scale, oC (used to be Centigrade scale). Named after Anders Celsius, a Swedish – - steam point - equilibrium temperature of pure liquid water in contact with its vapor at one atmosphere; 100oC – - ice point – equilibrium temperature of ice and air- saturated liquid pressure at a pressure of one atmosphere. 0oC
59. 59. a.2 Fahrenheit scale ,oF Named after Gabriel Fahrenheit, a German who devised the first mercury- in-glass thermometer; earlier thermometer fluids used were alcohol and linseed oil - steam point : 212oF - ice point : 32oF
60. 60. b. Absolute, T – measured from absolute zero, all molecular motion cease. 0 Kelvin or 0 Rankine b.1 Kelvin Scale, K Named after William Thomson, aka Lord Kelvin who related absolute scale to the Celsius scale. The ice point is assigned with a value of 273.15 K and the steam point is assigned with the value 373.15 K. The triple point of water is 273.16 K.
61. 61. b.2 Rankine Scale, R Named after William Macquorn Rankine, a Scotish. The ice point is assigned with a value of 491.67 R and the steam point is assigned with the value 671.67 R The triple point of water is 491.69 R.
62. 62. THERMODYNAMIC STATE OF A SYSTEM Thermodynamic property B Thermodynamic property A 1 2
63. 63. ZEROTH LAW This law states that when two bodies, isolated from other environment are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, the two are in thermal equilibrium with each other.
64. 64. ZEROTH LAW If two closed system with different temperatures are brought together in thermal contact with a third system, the heat will flow from the system with high temperature to the system with low temperature until the bodies reach thermal equilibrium with each other.
65. 65. Coffee in a cup Tcoffee = Tcup=Tsurroundings
66. 66. THERMODYNAMIC PROCESS If any one or more properties of a system change, the system is said to have undergone a process; there has been a change of state.
67. 67. Thermodynamic processes that are commonly experienced in engineering practice: 1.Constant pressure/ Isobaric process 2.Constant volume/ Isochoric process 3.Constant temperature/ Isothermal process 4.Reversible adiabatic/ Isentropic process 5.Polytropic process 6.Throttling process/ Iso-enthalpic process
68. 68. REVERSIBLE AND IRREVERSIBLE PROCESS
69. 69. Reversible Process • A reversible process for a system is an ideal process which once having taken place can be reversed in such a way that the initial state and all energies transformed during the process can be completely regained in both systems and surroundings.
70. 70. This process does not leave any net change in the system or in the surroundings. A reversible process is always, quasi-static.
71. 71. Irreversible Process • If the initial state and energies transformed cannot be restored without net change in the system after the process has taken place, it is called irreversible.
72. 72. Quasi-Static Process •Quasi means “almost”. Infinite slowness is the characteristic feature of this process. It is also a reversible process.
73. 73. THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE •When a certain mass of fluid in a particular state passes through a series of processes and returns to its state, it undergoes a cycle.
74. 74. p v v1 p2 p1 v2 A B 1 2 C Cycles. By our convention of signs, cycles that trace a clockwise path, as A-1-B-C-A or A-1-B-2- A are delivering work; cycles tracing a counterclockwise path, as A-C-B-1-A or A-2-B- 1-A, are receiving work.
75. 75. LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS •The law of conservation of mass states that mass is indestructible.
76. 76. The verbal form of the law is                   systemtheinstored massofchange leaving mass entering mass
77. 77. m m velocity area density
78. 78. Assume that each point of any cross section where the fluid flows, the properties are the same and use average velocity normal to the section and assumed to be the same at each point. Thus, if the density is the same in all points of the cross section of area A, then mass rate of flow is m = ρelA
79. 79. A steady flow system is an open system in which there is no change of stored mass; having an equation called the continuity equation of steady flow; m1 = m2 = m m = ρ11A1 = ρ22A2
80. 80. GENERAL METHODOLOGY FOR PROBLEM SOLVING IN ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS As suggested by HUANG
81. 81. 1.Read the problem carefully 2.Since a sketch almost always aids in visualization, draw a simple diagram of all the components of the system involved. This could be a pump, a heat exchanger, gas inside a tank, or an entire power plant.
82. 82. 3. Select the system whose behavior we want to study by properly and clearly locating the boundary of the system. Do we have an isolated system, a closed system, or an open system. 4. Make use of the appropriate thermodynamic diagrams to locate the state points, and possibly the path of the process. These diagrams are extremely helpful as visual aids in our analysis.
83. 83. 5. Show all interactions (work, heat, and mass) across the boundary of the selected system. 6. Extract from the statement of the problem the unique features of the process and list them. Is the process isothermal, constant pressure, constant volume, adiabatic, isentropic, or constant enthalpy?
84. 84. 7. List all the assumptions that one might need to solve the problem. Are we neglecting a change of kinetic energy and change of potential energy? 8. Apply first law equation appropriate to the system we have selected.
85. 85. 9.Apply the principle of mass conservation appropriate to the system that we have selected. 10.Apply the second law equation appropriate to the system we have selected
86. 86. 11.Apply the appropriate property relations. That is, bring in data from tables, charts, or appropriate property equations. 12.Try to work with general equations as long as possible before substituting in numbers
87. 87. 13.Watch out for units. For example, when we use h = u +pv, h, u, and pv must all have the same units. 14.Make sure that absolute temperature, in degrees Rankine or Kelvin, is used in calculation.