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Jazz theory

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Jazz-Theory

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Jazz theory

  1. 1. Jazz Theory I 5th edition by Hiroaki Honshuku Index Notation ........................................................................................................... 2 Class Restrictions ............................................................................................ 4 Key Signature (the Circle of the 5th) .............................................................. 5 Intervals ........................................................................................................... 6 How to get the Interval ............................................................................... 7 Chord Chord Structure .......................................................................................... 8 Chord Tone & Tension ............................................................................... 9 Inversion ................................................................................................... 10 Mode Church Mode ............................................................................................ 12 How to get the correct mode scale ........................................................... 13 Tension & Avoid Note .............................................................................. 14 Tritone ...................................................................................................... 15 Tritone Substitution Chord (Altered Mixo) ............................................. 16 Melody Analysis ...................................................................................... 18 Exercise .................................................................................................... 19 Summary .................................................................................................. 20 Diatonic Functioning Chord .......................................................................... 21 Analysis .................................................................................................... 22 Harmonic Rhythm .................................................................................... 23 Secondary Dominant ................................................................................ 24 Extended Dominant .................................................................................. 26 Related II minor ....................................................................................... 27 Example (Peace) ...................................................................................... 28 Summary .................................................................................................. 31 Project ............................................................................................................ 32 About the author ............................................................................................ 33 Theory II Subject Diminished Scales Minor Key Modal Interchange Spec#ial Dominant IV-7(b5) Deceptive Resolution Compound Chords Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 1 -
  2. 2. Notation • Notation is the most profound communication tool between the composer and the performer. If the music is not notated clearly, the performer will fail to sight read. The composer, most likely, has to be present at the rehearsal, and the performer will demand more payment for the over work. On the other hand, if the music is written perfectly clear, the performer will be blamed for a bad perfor-mance. As most of the college assignments will not accept hand written paper, this class requires basic notation skill by hand. The assignments done by unreadable hand writing or notated by computer will not be graded. • Basically, a right up angle of 30° should be kept in mind. This angle is the maximum and/or comfortable angle to the sight reader's eyes. TIP Unlike written language, music notation is very psychological to the sight reader. You must pretend to be a a performer reading the music for the first time, trying to get all the necessary information (tempo, dynamics, articulations, etc.) as quick as possible. Starts from the bottom. Note that the starting circle is on the 2nd line. • 8th Rest Should fit be-tween the 2nd and the 4th line. Starts from circling the note F (4th line). The direction of the flag is the same side of the note head, going down, and up. Same space as the staff space ¬ Extended • Note Head 30° right up angle. ® ® • Treble Clef (G Clef) • Quarter Rest Starts from the bottom, should make a sharp top, and circle the note G. • Bass Clef (F Clef) • Flag The length of the stem is an 8va. The direction of the stem switches at the 3rd line. • Important: Each ledger must be the same size as the staff space. If the ledger lines • Stem ® are more than two, the length of the stem is extended to the 3rd line. 8va - 2 - Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  3. 3. • The Beam Angle Should not exceed 30°. • The direction of the beam is decided by the first and the last note. However, it is better to use a leveled one when many notes in the beam are distant. Leveled ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ • Imaginary Bar Line An imaginary bar line is a line drawn in the middle of a measure that has a time signature in even beats (2/4, 4/4, 6/8, 12/8 etc.). It is a sub-division of a bar. The dotted quarter on the 2nd beat crosses the Imaginary bar line which makes it harder to read. The sight reader will not be able to tell the time signa-ture of the piece without going back to the top of the piece. Therefore, it must be written as shown in the 2nd bar. Exception to this rule is when the note value is bigger than 2 beats (half note in this case), because it is not as difficult to identify the imaginary bar line in sight reading. • Space Spacing is one of the biggest issues. If each note is not spaced in relation to the others, the sight reading will not be easy. The example on the first measure here makes sight reading almost impossible. You have to rewrite it as in the 2nd measure. Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 3 -
  4. 4. Class Restriction (the big rules) * The neat manuscript skill is required as described in page 2 and 3. * When the Interval is asked verbally, the prefix must always be said along with the number. For example, 7th will not have any meaning if Major, minor or other prefixes are not attached. * "-" sign must be used for chord tones, -3rd and -7th, while "b" sign is used for tensions, b9th and b13th. "Aug" and "dim" sign must be used for chord tones, Aug5th and dim5th, while "#" sign is used for tensions, #9th and #11th. * The Chord spelling must follow the class rule as shown below: Prefered very much in this class Never in this class Prfered in this class Major minor minor 7th with flatted 5th Never "Half Diminished"! There is no diminish function. Augumented diminished Chord with tensions X CM7 X Cy7 CMaj7 C-7 C-7( b 5) CAug7 Cdim7 b 13 C7( b9 ) X Cm7 X C¿7 X C+7 X Co7 X C7 b 9, b 13 - 4 - Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  5. 5. Key Signature Circle of the 5th E The Circle of the 5th only goes clockwise, because 5th goes down to resolve. For example, "C" is a tonic, which becomes the 5th of "F", so "C" goes down to "F". "F" becomes 5th of "Bb" so on... C B C F G B D E A A D G F C P5th Down B P5th Up F E C A G D D G A C E F B Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 5 -
  6. 6. C D E F G A B (C) Major 2nd No Spot Mjor 3rd No Spot Perfect 4th 1 Spot Perfect 5th 1 Spot Major 6th 1 Spot Major 7th 1 Spot Perfect 8th 2 Spots Perfect Augmented diminished THE SPOT 1/2 Step C Major Scale Starting from the Tonic Double Augmented double diminished Intervals THE SPOT 1/2 Step Intervals Major 2nd Major 3rd Perfect 4th Perfect 5th Major 6th Major 7th Perfect 8th Major minor Augmented diminished Double Augmented double diminished If the interval is 2nd, 3rd, 6th, and 7th, use this chart. One level = Half Step If the interval is 4th, 5th, and 8th, use this chart. One level = Half Step - 6 - Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  7. 7. • How to get the correct interval with no screw-ups & w #w Lets find the interval shown here, step by step as shown below. 1. Hide any accidentals. & 2. Use your fingers to count the distance. w w E F G A B C D E F G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 w w Now you know the interval is some kind of 10th. When you count, do not forget to include the first note. Write down the number NOW. & ( 10th) 3. Since this is more than an octave away (the number is greater than 8), you have to take the top note down an octave in order to find the kind (Major, Perfect, etc.) or it will not fit with the chart shown on page 6. & Ï ww ¬ Now this is a 3rd that will fit in the chart. The third is the Major-minor group, not the Perfect group. So, is this Major or minor? Lets use the keyboard chart. C D E F G A B C D E F G A B ¬ Major 3rd According to the chart on page 6, C to E is a Major 3rd and does not have the Spot (where the black key is missing). But E to G has the Spot, which tells you the interval is a step shorter than Major 3rd. Therefore, it is a minor 3rd. 4. Put the accidental back in. From here on, forget the keybord. & Ï ww # Use both of your hands vertically, and add the accidental. « E to G = minor 3rd ¬ Adding a # on the bottom note makes the distance shorter by a step. • Now you know the answer is a diminished 10th. Easy!. * The MORE Spots, the SMALLER the Interval. The Fewer Spots, the BIGGER the interval. Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 7 -
  8. 8. & & & & Chord Diatonic Triads The definition of a chord is two or more notes in a certain interval away vertically. To be a tonal harmonic chord, the root and the 3rd are essential. Major Triad minor Triad A-w ww M3rd -3rd P5th P5th Augumented Triad diminished Triad C # dim w w w # #w w w w ww M3rd -3rd Aug5th dim5th Major Seventh minor Seventh A-7 w www w w w w -3rd P5th -7th b 5) Dominant Seventh minor Seventh ( b 5) ww ww w w w w CMaj Eaug w ww w w w # # w #w #w w ww Seventh Chord CMaj7 w www w w w w M3rd P5th M7th G7 ww ww w w w w B-7( M3rd P5th -7th -3rd dim5th -7th - 8 - Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  9. 9. Chord Tone & Tension (references) C Major Scale & w w w À w w w Root (1) T9th 3rd (4) 5th 13th M7th A minor Scale & w w w w w À w Root (1) T9th -3rd T11th 5th b6th -7th G Dominant Scale & w w w À w w w Root (1) T9th 3rd (4) 5th T13th -7th & CMaj7( # 5) w www # Cdim7 w www bbº CMaj6 w ww w C 96 w ww ww C-6 w w ww b b C-( 6) w w ww bb M7th dim7th M6th M9th M6th -6th Aug5th dim5th P5th M6th P5th P5th M3rd -3rd M3rd P5th -3rd -3rd Root Root Root M3rd Root Root & CMaj9 w w ww C-9 bbww w w ww b G7( w 9) b wRoot G7( b 13) w www b G7( # 9) w www # C-(11) w ww w bb M7th -7th Root M3rd T.Aug9th -3rd P5th P5th P5th M3rd -7th -7th M3rd -3rd M3rd Root P5th T.P11th T.M9th T.M9th T.-9th T.-13th M3rd Root Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 9 -
  10. 10. Inversion • Chord: Root Position and Inversion Almost every type of chord is formed with a rule. That is, if the root is on the staff line, the rest of the chord tones above it will also be on the line. Similarly, if the root is in the staff space, the rest of the chord tones above it will also be in the space. Therefore, whenever you see a chord formed with notes that are a mix of on the line and in the space, you should assume the chord is an Inver-sion. FMaj7/E ww ww ww • Examples shown below contains Cb, Fb, and B root of the chord. D & w w & w ww w bb b FMaj7 b 7 ww ww b b b F-7( b 5) A b Maj7/E w ww b b w # . Those spellings are necessary to find the G b 7 ww ww bb b b b Maj7 ww ww A C # -(Maj7) b b w www ## # • Likewise, all the tension notes must be written in the same rule to be a root positioned chord. & b -7(13) CMaj7(13) w w w ww w E w www bb b b DMaj7( w w ww w ## # b # 11) #w E-9 w www • Diminished chords are the ones you need to spell correctly, or you may never find the right Edim7 scale. & w ww w b b Ddim7 w www b b Fdim7 ww ww b bº D b dim7 w www bb b bº • Exception is Six and/or Six Nine chords. Though usually, the Six chords are regarded as a type of inversion. & CMaj6 w w w w C-6 w w w b w 6 C9 ww ww w 6 C-9 ww bww w - 10 - Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  11. 11. Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 11 -
  12. 12. Church Mode Ionian I Maj7 Dorian II-7 Parent Key: C Major Transposed to C Root Phrygian III-7 Lydian IV Maj7 Mixo-Lydian V7 Aeolian VI-7 Locrian & & & & & & & C Ionian w w w À w w w w R T9 3 (4) 5 T13 M7 R D Dorian w w À w w w w w * R T9 -3 T11 5 (6) -7 R E Phrygian w À w w w (T13) w À w w R (2) -3 T11 5 (6) -7 R F Lydian w w w w w w w w R T9 3 T #11 5 T13 M7 R G Mixo-Lydian w w w À w w w w R T9 3 (4) 5 T13 -7 R A Aeolian w w w w w À w w R T9 -3 T11 5 (6) w -w 7 w R B w Locrian À w w w R (2) -3 T11 b 5 T b 13 -7 R [x=Avoid Note] C Ionian w w w À w w w w C Dorian w w bw w w À bw w C Phrygian w b À bw w w bw bw w C Lydian w w w #w w w w w C Mixo-Lydian w w w À w w w b w C Aeolian w w bw w w b À bw w C Locrian w b À bw w bw bw bw w VII-7(b5) C Major Diatonic Chords & CMaj7 w www D-7 w www Diatonic Chords are chords built on each of the scale notes within the same key. Therefore, no note will have accidentals except melodic and harmonic minor scale. E-7 w www FMaj7 ww ww *Note: The 6th note of Dorian becomes Avoid Note only when it is followed by V7 chord of the key, because the note will create Tritone with the -3rd, which will be a duplicate of the Tri-tone G7 ww ww following V7 has. A-7 ww ww b B-7( ww ww 5) Ionian Dorian Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian Aeolian Locrian - 12 - Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  13. 13. • How to get the correct mode scale with no screw-ups Parent Key: C C Maj D-E-F Maj G7 A-B-( 5) Major 2nd Dorian Ionian Major 3rd Phrygian Perfect 4th Lydian Perfect 5th Mixolydian Major 6th Aeolian Major 7th Locrian • Lets find the correct scale for Eb Aeolian using the chart above. First, write out the notes across an octave from E to D (ignore the b at this point). & w w w w w w w • Next, using the chart above, find the Parent key for Eb Aeolian. The Aeolian is located at the Major 6th above the Parent key. You will get Gb Major going down a Major 6th from Eb as the Parent key. • Apply the key signature of Gb Major to the scale above. The key signature for Gb Major is Bb-Eb-Ab-Db-Gb-Cb. & bw w bw bw bw bw bw • This is the Eb Aeolian scale. Easy, Isn't it?! Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 13 -
  14. 14. Tension * Tension notes are notes other than chord tones that can be placed 8va above the chord, yet will not create b9th interval from one of the chord tones. If the note creates the b9th interval from one of the chord tones, the note becomes a scale note rather than a tension note. Non Chord Tones & w w w w w w w Chord Tones CMaj7 CMaj9 CMaj13 Avoide Note & w www ú úÏ ÏÏ úú ÏÏ Ï ú Ï ÏÏú M9th 9th M9th * The example above shows that each one of the non chord tones from the C Ionian scale can be placed above the chord, except the 4 th note. The scale note 2nd (D) becomes Tension 9th, and the scale note 6th (A) becomes Tension 13th. The scale note 4th (F), however, will create b9th interval from the chord tone 3rd (E). Therefore, the 4th note in a Ionian scale becomes an Avoid Note, which is identified by writing with a parenthesis, like (4), and is called "The scale note 4". * The b9th interval is the most dissonant interval that will destroy a sense of quality of the chord. In the example above, as soon as the note F is played over C Maj chord, it destroys a sense of Major harmony. * The definition of the Avoid Note is; 1) Do not start with. 2) Do not hold with. 3) Do not end with. Note that in general, passing the Avoid Note with a value smaller than an 8th note will not create any effect. Occasionally, even the beat value (i.e., quarter note in 4/4) is acceptable if the note is placed on the weak beat (i.e., 2nd and 4th beat in 4/4). - 14 - Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  15. 15. Tritone ab ac / / 2 2 = = c; b; (8va (8va / 2 / 2 = = Tritone) Tritone) * The word Tritone originally came from the in-terval a b c & w #w bw w Whole Note x 3 built with three whole tones. However, it is often talked about as the three points within an Octave: the bottom note (a), the top note (c) and the very mid point note (b). Since the Me-dieval Era, this interval was often called "The Devil's interval" because of the difficulty in per-formance. Since this interval must be exact mid point of an Octave, the enharmonic spelling will not matter. * The real importance of the Tritone interval is as follows: The Tritone interval is the most unstable interval to the human ear, and it wants to be resolved. In other words, this interval will not create a stable sound for use as a stand-alone chord. If this interval is used in the end of a music, it will never sound a sense of complete release. Note that it became more popular to purposely use the Tritone to make an unstable impression in this century. & G7 From F to E C Ïú úÏúÏÏ Down by 1/2 step From B to C Up by 1/2 step & From E to G Up by 1/2 step G7 G Ïú úÏ b ÏÏú b b b From B to B Down by 1/2 step The Primary Resolution (Inward resolution) Tritone goes inward to re-solve to the root and the third of the target chord. The chord itself resolves down from G7 to C by Perfect 5th. The Secondary Resolution (Outward resolution) Tritone goes outward to re-solve to the root and the third of the target chord. The chord itself resolves down from G7 to Gb by minor 2nd. Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 15 -
  16. 16. Tritone Substitution Chord (Substituted Dominant, or subV7) * As shown before, a dominant chord can resolve to 2 targets, one by going down Perfect 5th as a primary dominant motion, the other by going down minor second. This is called Substituted Domi-nant Motion. * The example bellow shows that there are two dominant chords that can be resolved to a target chord, C Maj. Note that G7 (Primary Dominant) and Db7 (Substituted Dominant) have the same Tritone, F and B(Cb). This means that Db7 can substitute G7. Thus, this function of the dominant resolution is called Tritone Substitution. Coincidentally, the distance from the root of G7 to the root of Db7 is a Tritone away. * This is an example of a Be-Bop line over a Substituted Dominant chord. & ? * When the same line is played over the Primary Dominant, the natural tensions, 9th, 13th, and a least important chord tone, 5th becomes Altered Tensions. & ? G7 D & Ï ú Ïú b 7 C B = C Up by 1/2 step ú ÏÏú bb From C to C b Ï Ïú From F to E Down by 1/2 step F = F b D Ï 7 Ï bÏ bÏ Ï Ï bÏ bÏ ww ww bb # 11th T9th R 3rd T b 7th R T13th T9th ÏG7 Ï bÏ bÏ Ï Ï bÏ bÏ b b 7th R T ww w w n CMaj7 ú . Î úú úú .... Î CMaj7 ú . Î úú úú .... Î b 13th b 5th 3rd b 5th T # 9th T b 9th - 16 - Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  17. 17. * As seen in the example, an Altered Mixolydian scale is a result of a superimposed Substituted Dominant scale. G Mixolydian (parent Key: C) Db Mixolydian (parent Key: Gb) G Altered Mixolydian (Db Mixolydian Superimposed over G Mixolydian) Db Lydianb7th (Raised 11th in order to maintain the substitute function) • There are few important points that must be remembered: & & 1) ONLY on a Dominant chord is a b9th interval allowed for the non-chord tones, because Tritone is stronger than the b9th dissonance effect. 2) The 4th note of the Mixolydian (includes any kind of tension notes) is ALWAYS the Avoid Note, because the 4th note is the root of the target chord. Tritone must maintain the wanting to resolve, so it cannot anticipate the target. 3) Note that the tension 9th splits to b9th and #9th as a result of superimposing the Substituted Mixolydian. V to I motion G7 ww ww subV to I motion D b 7 w wwwbbb & ú Ï ú Ï ú Ï ú & b ú b Ï ú b Ï b ú b Ï b ú & ú b Ï # Ï ú Ï b Ï b Ï ú & b ú b Ï ú nÏ b ú b Ï b ú C w Altered Mixolydian (Commonly called; Altered Scale) w w w bw #w w À bw bw w CMaj7 w www # 9th 3rd (4) b5th Tb13th b7th R(1) Tb9th T Lydian b7th (Mixolydian with #11th) bw bw w w bw bw bw R(1) T9th 3rd T # 11th 5th T13th b7th Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 17 -
  18. 18. Melody Analysis C7 * This is jazz specific, while classical music theory explains further. & 44 ä Ï Ï Ï b Ï Ï Ï Ï T9th R 3rd 7th T9th R 5th C7 & 44 ä Ï Ï Ï b Ï Ï Ï Ï 5th (4) 3rd 7th T9th R 5th C7 1/2 step 1/2 step & 44 ä Ï # Ï Ï b Ï n Ï Ï Ï T9th Pass.3rd 7th T9th R 5th C7 1/2 step 4 ä Ï #Ï Ï bÏ nÏ Ï Ï & 4 5th App.3rd 7th T9th R 5th C7 1/2 step 1/2 step & 44 ä Ï Ï Ï nÏ b Ï Ï Ï T9th R 3rd W.App. R 5th W.App. C7 B7 & 44 ä b Ï j Ï Ï Ï 7th 7th T 13th C7 B7 & 44 ä b Ï j Ï ä j Ï Ï 7th 7th T 13th 5th * Analyzing melody is done by numbering each note according to the mode (C Mixolydian, in this example). An Avoid Note An Avoid Note is one of the Scale Notes as ex-plained before, so it will be marked accordingly. In this example, the 4th note is the Avoid Note to the Mixolydian. Therefore, it will be marked as (4), which indicates it is one of the Scale Notes. A Passing Note Passing Note is a note located between the notes from the mode. APassing Note must be pre-ceded by a 1/2 step, and followed by a 1/2 step as well. Note that D# in this example is not T#9th because the Passing Note function is obvious. An Approach Note An Approach Note , unlike a Passing Note, is a note that is followed by a note from the mode by a 1/2 step. Note that D# in this example is not T#9th because the Approach Note function is obvious. An Double Approach Note An Double Approach Note is a note that is fol-lowed by an Approach Note. Note that a Double Approach note must have the opposite direction of an Approach Note by a whole step. Anticipation Anticipation is defined by a value smaller than the beat value (i.e., Quarter Note in 4/4). In this first example, if the note A is a quarter note placed on 2 instead of an 8th note on the end of 2, it becomes T13th against C7, and will be changed to b7th on beat 3 even though the note is tied over. The second example shows that the Anticipa-tion appears followed by a rest. It is easier if the imagination is used to hear the ring of the note over the rest. - 18 - Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  19. 19. Melody Analysis Exercise * Number each note according to the chord. A & 44 .. 1 C ä Ï . Ï Ï 2 b Ï . j F-7 B b 7 bÏ Ï b Ï Ï Ï 3 C7 B b 7 Yardbird Suite by Charlie parker ú Ï. j Ï 4 A7 Ï . j Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï D7 1 G7 Î ä j j Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï E-7 A7 G7 D-7 & .. 5 Ï Ï ä j Ï ú 6 Ï ä Ï Ï Ï 7 Ï . 8 ú . Î & 9 2 Î ä j Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï G7 10 C w 11 C7 B7( î Î 3 Ï Ï Ï b Ï # 9) B & 12 E-7 Ï . j #Ï j Ï Ï j Ï 13 b 5) B7( # -7 ( F ä j Ï ú . b 9) 14 E-7 Ï Ï Ï #Ï Ï Ï Ï # Ï 15 A7 ú Î ä j b Ï & 16 D-7 Ï . j Ï ä Ï Ï Ï 17 b 5) A7 E-7 ( ä Ï . Ï Ï Ï # Ï 18 D7 Ï Ï ä j Ï Ï . j Ï 19 D-7 D Ï Ï Ï Ï î b 7 A' & 20 C ä Ï . Ï Ï 21 bÏ . j F-7 B b 7 b Ï Ï b Ï Ï Ï 22 C7 B b 7 ú Ï . j Ï 23 A7 Ï Ï Ï ä # Ï Ï Ï & 24 D7 ä j Ï ú . 25 G7 ä j Ï 3 Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï 26 6 C9 w 27 · Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 19 -
  20. 20. • The definition of a Chord is any combination of more than one note piled up vertically. • The definition of Tension is one of the non-chord tones from the scale (including the church mode & & Summary of Chord and Tension scales), and can be placed an octave above the chord and yet does not create b9th interval with any one of the chord tones. However, the b9th violation will not affect the dominant chord which Avoid Note is always (4). CMaj7 C-7 w www w www bb C2 ww ­ This is still a chord. Note that there is no 3rd, 5th or 7th, be-cause highest chord tone. C-6 w w ww b CMaj6 ww w w ­ ­ Note the difference. The Major 13th chord may have hidden 9th and #11th. b C-( 6) w w ww bb wCMaj13 Cw-7(13) w www w www bb 2nd is the • As shown above, the number attached to the chord name indicates the available tensions. In 6 chord, because 6 is the highest number, 7th, 9th, 11th, and 13th will not be available in the strict sense in theory. However, composers often write 6 chord to prohibit only 7th. Especially in Major chord, Major 7th chord cannot be used if the melody is the root. Because the melody always sounds an 8va above the chord no matter what the actual range of the note is, it will sound the violation with the b9th interval. Even though the melody is played in a close range on the same harmony instrument, it will still be weak sounding by a 1/2 step above the M7th of the chord. Thus, when the melody is the root of the chord, M6th or 6/9th chord must be used to maintain the integrity of the melody. • The minor b6th chord in the example above may be easier if treated as an inversion of AbMaj7 chord. However, spelling this chord this way maintains minor quality which affects the perfor-mance, and indicates Aeolian mode as well. • Important Chord spelling rule: If a number appears with no prefix (i.e., C9, C13), it is a dominant chord; while the Maj sign must be used to indicate a Major chord (i.e., CMaj9, CMaj13), except on 6 chord, which does not need any prefix to identify whether Dominant or Major because 6 chord is prohibited to have 7th note which is needed to create Tritone in the dominant chord, and therefore it will never be a dominant chord. - 20 - Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  21. 21. Diatonic Functioning Chord Basic Cadence T - SD - T T - D - T T - SD - D - T CMaj7 D-7 w www E-7 w www CMaj7 FMaj7 & w www CMaj7 G7 w ww w w ww w CMaj7 FMaj7 G7 & & w www FMaj7 ww ww w w w ww G7 ww ww CMaj7 CMaj7 A-7 ww ww b B-7( ww ww 5) w ww w www w ww w CMaj7 w www w ww w T SD T SD D T D T = Tonic Function SD = Subdominant Function D = Dominant Function & w www Tonic Functioning Chords III- (E-7) is I Maj9 without the Root. VI- (A-7) is Inverted I Maj6 & w CMaj(13) E-7 A-7 w ww ww ww ww ( ) Ï ww ww Subdominant Functioning Chords II- (D-7) is Inverted IV Maj(13). Dominant Functioning Chords VII- (B-7( b 5)) is V7 without the Root. & ww www ww ww G7(9) B-7( b 5) & w ww ww w www FMaj(13) w D-9 Note: In jazz theory, -7( b 5) will not substitute the dominant even though it contains Tritone. This chord is a member of minor chords, instead (i.e., II degree in a minor key). Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 21 -
  22. 22. Analysis Find all the Dominant Chords first • When you see a set of progression: __7 (any Dominant 7th, including altered tension(s)) going down Perfect 5th to any kind of chord, draw an arrow. P5 ¯ [V to I Motion] G7 CMaj 7 G7( b 9) C-6 Scale: Mixolydian with or without altered tension(s) P5 ¯ • When you see a set of progression: __7 (any Dominant 7th, including altered tension # 11th) going down minor 2nd to any kind of chord, draw a dotted arrow. (See page 13 for the scale) [SubV to I Motion] b 7 C7 D Lydian b7th -2 ¯ • When you see a set of progression: __ -7 (any minor, including __ -7(b5) ) going up Perfect 4th to __7 (any Dominant 7th, including altered tension(s)), draw a bracket. D-7 G7 [II - V Motion] P4 ­ b 5) G7( D-7( b 9) P4 ­ Complete Major II - V - I P5 ¯ D-7 G7 CMaj 7 P4 ­ Complete minor II - V - I b 5) G7( D-7( b 9) C-Scale: P4 ­ P5 ¯ - 22 - Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  23. 23. Harmonic Rhythm • Harmonic Rhythm is a division line in music that evenly divides the section. I.e., a 32 bars music form is divided in 16 bars x 2, the 16 bars section will be divided in 8 bars x 2, the 8 bars section....., a measure in 4/4 is divided in 2 beats x 2..., and so on. • Harmonic Rhythm creates a sense of section which affect melody as well as chord changes. • Note that the Blues form differs in division. The 12 bars form could have been divided into 6 bars each, but the 6 bars section cannot be divided into 3 bars each because it is an odd number. There-fore, the Harmonic Rhythm in a 12 bars Blues form is 4 bars x 3. • In most of the standard jazz music, which written in a 32 bars form, the Harmonic Rhythm subdi-vision is 8 bars x 4, because most common form styles are "A-A-B-A" and "A-B-A-C". 32 bars form A(A) 4 4 A(B) 4 4 B(A) 4 4 A(C) 4 4 * IMPORTANT: Note that any of the dominant functions are not affected when it appears within Harmonic Rhythm; However, II - V motion are affected. As shown in the examples , if the II -V motion is seen across the Harmonic Rhythm division, it will never sound II - V motion. F7 & 44 Õ Õ Õ Õ E-7 Harmonic Rhythm Division Õ Õ Õ Õ A7( b 9) Õ Õ Õ Õ D-7 G7 Õ Õ Õ Õ Harmonic Rhythm Division Harmonic Rhythm Division b 9) D-7 CMaj7 E-7 A7( & 44Õ Õ Õ Õ b 5) A7( E-7 ( b 9) D-7 G7 Õ Õ Õ Õ In both examples, E-7 will sound an extension of CMaj7 because E-7 is a tonic functioning diatonic chord. Therefore, it will not be analyzed with a bracket. Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 23 -
  24. 24. Secondary Dominant • Secondary Dominant Chords are non-diatonic dominant chords that resolve to a diatonic chord. V7 chord is already a diatonic chord, so it is called primary dominant chord. IV7 is not a Secondary Dominant Chord, because expected destination (Perfect 5th down) is a bVII, which is not a diatonic chord. However, it may be considered as a SubV7 chord which resolved to III-7 (minor 2nd down), so it could be analyzed as SubV7/III. C & CMaj7 w www D-7 w www E-7 w www FMaj7 ww ww G7 ww ww A-7 ww ww b B-7( ww ww 5) V7/II II-7 V7/III III-7 A7 4 Õ Õ Õ Õ & 4 D-7 Õ Õ Õ Õ B7 Õ Õ Õ Õ E-7 Õ Õ Õ Õ V7/IV IVMaj7 V7/V V7 C7 &Õ Õ Õ Õ FMaj7 Õ Õ Õ Õ D7 Õ Õ Õ Õ G7 Õ Õ Õ Õ V7/VI VI-7 V7/VII VI-7 E7 &Õ Õ Õ Õ A-7 Õ Õ Õ Õ F # 7 Õ Õ Õ Õ ( b 5) b 5) B-7 ( Õ Õ Õ Õ - 24 - Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  25. 25. • Available Scale for Secondary Dominant Chords. V7/II A7 Mixolydian b13 (see the option bellow) & ú Ï #ú Ï ú Ï ú R T9 3 (4) 5 Tb13 b7 V7/III B7 Mixolydian & ú Ï ú # Ï ú Ï ú R Tb9 3 (4) b5 Tb13 b7 V7/IV C7 Mixolydian b5, b9, b13 (Can be Altered Mixo with # 9 added) ú Ï ú Ï ú Ï ú b R T9 3 (4) 5 T13 b7 & V7/V D7 Mixolydian & ú Ï #ú Ï ú Ï ú R T9 3 (4) 5 T13 b7 V7/VI E7 Mixolydian b9, b13 & ú Ï #ú Ï ú Ï ú R Tb9 3 (4) 5 Tb13 b7 V7/VII F # 7 Mixolydian b5, b9, b13 (Can be Altered Mixo with # 9 added) & #ú Ï #ú Ï ú Ï ú R Tb9 3 (4) b5 Tb13 b7 • It is very common to see V7/II with Tb9. This is because II-7 is assumed as a I-7 momentary, so the key signature of that assumed minor will apply, which is b9 to V7/II. This option will not occur with any other Secondary Dominant Chord. V7/II A7 Mixolydian b9, b13 & w bw #w À w w w R Tb9 3 (4) 5 Tb13 b7 Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 25 -
  26. 26. Extended Dominant Scale: Mixolydian • Extended Dominant Chords are dominant chords in a pattern of Circle of 5th which eventually reaches to a target. The changes shown below are typical Rhythm Changes bridge in Bb. The target chord after this section is Bb Maj7, which is I Maj7. (V7/V/V/V) (V7/V/V) D7 & ÕÕÕÕ G7 ÕÕÕÕ ÕÕÕÕ V7/V V7 C7 ÕÕÕÕ ÕÕÕÕ F7 ÕÕÕÕ ÕÕÕÕ ÕÕÕÕ Extended Dominant Extended Dominant Secondary Dominant Primary Dominant • Note that the Roman Numeral Analysis is usually not applicable to the Extended Dominant Chords. However, this class will apply them with Parentheses as shown. Left: Hiro Honshuku with Dave Liebman and Tiger Okoshi at Live House RAG. Bottom: Honshuku with his Boston Blazing Or-chestra and Mike Stern. - 26 - Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  27. 27. Related II- • Any dominant chord can be preceded by a minor chord, which is a P4th below the dominant chord. This is because the dominant chord is assumed as a V7 no matter where it is resolving to, so the added minor chord becomes a II- chord as the relationship. Therefore, the Roman numeral analy-sis are not applied, but brackets are needed. • Shown below is the bridge of Rhythm Changes and an arrangement applied with related II- chords. This kind of re-harmonization was common during the Be-Bop Era. D7 & ÕÕÕÕ G7 ÕÕÕÕ ÕÕÕÕ V7/V V7 C7 ÕÕÕÕ ÕÕÕÕ F7 ÕÕÕÕ ÕÕÕÕ ÕÕÕÕ A-7 & ÕÕÕÕ D7 ÕÕÕÕ D-7 ÕÕÕÕ G7 ÕÕÕÕ G-7 ÕÕÕÕ V7/V II-7 V7 C7 ÕÕÕÕ C-7 ÕÕÕÕ F7 ÕÕÕÕ B b B b • The example shown below is Autumn Leaves, and its arrangement. Note that the target is completely ignored and replaced with a sequence of subV7 and its related II-7. & b b & b b 4 4 4 4 IV-7 -7 Ï Ï Ï w C IV-7 C-7 ä j Ï Ï Ï ú î bVII7 F7 Ï Ï Ï Ï bVII7 subV7/V II-7(b5) V7(b9) Ï Ï Ï Ï F7 Î ä j bIII Maj7 B b Maj7 ú ú B-7 E7 J Ï Ï . Ï Î bVI Maj7 II-7(b5) E b Maj7 Ï Ï Ï Ï B b -7 E Î ä j A-7( w b7 Ï Ï Ï Ï b 5) A-7( w b 5) D7( Ï b 9) G-G- Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 27 -
  28. 28. PEACE Horace Silver Analysis (cont.) & b b 4 4 G- F .. 3 ä Ï Ï 1 II-7(b5) V7(b9) II-7 V7 A-7( b 5) 3 Î Ï Ï b D7( 9) Ï Ï Ï3 Ï 2 G-7 Ï Ï3 Ï Ï C7 Ï . J Ï Bb Bb Bb & b b 3 b II Maj7 II-7(b5) V7( BMaj7 3 Ï bÏ b Ï Ï C-7( b 5) Ï # 9) I Maj7 II-7 V7 # F7( 9) Ï 4 b B Maj7 ú . A 3 ä Ï n Ï 5 B-7 3 # Ï Ï Ï E7 Ï 3 Ï n Ï Ï & b b 6 - I Maj7 (I Maj7) VI-7 (VI-7) II-7(b5) SubV7 I Maj7 AMaj7 # Ï n Ï # A/G Ï n Ï # F -7 # Ï F # -/E 3 Ï Ï Ï Db 7 E b 5) 3 b -7( # Ï n Ï Ï D7( # 11) b Ï Ï 8 b D Maj7 bú . Î n/a SubV7 I Maj7 C7( # 11) 3 B7( # 11) b B Maj7 ú . Î Bb & b b .. 9 bÏ b Ï Ï Ï Ï 10 - 28 - Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  29. 29. PEACE Horace Silver Analysis (cont.) & b b 4 4 .. Bb 3 ä Ï Ï 1 VII-7(b5) V7(b9)/VI VI-7 V7/V A-7( b 5) 3 Î Ï Ï b D7( 9) Ï Ï Ï3 Ï 2 G-7 Ï Ï3 Ï Ï C7 Ï . J Ï & b b 3 b II Maj7 II-7(b5) V7( BMaj7 3 Ï bÏ b Ï Ï C-7( b 5) Ï # 9) I Maj7 # F7( 9) Ï 4 b B Maj7 ú . 3 ä Ï n Ï 5 B-7 3 # Ï Ï Ï E7 Ï 3 Ï n Ï Ï • The analysis shown on page 22 is a way for improvisation, which is not quite correct in the sense of strict theory. These complicated changes in the beginning are landing on bar 4. One reasons is that the 4th bar will sound strong as a target to the human sense. Another reason is that all of the changes will not sound too far away from key in Bb Major. Therefore, if all of the progressions of the first 4 bars are analyzed as in key in Bb Major, it will be shown above. This analysis is done using a technique called Modal Interchange, which will be explained later in this book. When you are improvising, it is necessary to see the quick momen-tary key changes in order to make effective solo line. When you are composing, it is necessary to use a related change to get to a landing key. Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 29 -
  30. 30. Analysis (cont.) • Available Scale for "PEACE". A-7( b 5) Loc Mixo b9 Dori Mixo & Ï b À Ï Ï b Ï Ï Ï D7( b 9) Ï b Ï #Ï Ï À b Ï Ï G-7 Ï Ï b Ï Ï Ï À Ï C7 Ï Ï Ï À Ï Ï Ï b BMaj7 Note: When this is analyzed as VI-7 as theory suggests, Aeolian should be used instead. As matter of fact, if this piece is played slow using Aeolian rather than Dorian, it will sound more effectively. Lyd Loc Mixo & Ï # Ï #Ï #Ï # Ï #Ï # Ï C-7( b 5) Ï b À b Ï Ï bÏ b Ï b Ï F7( # 9) # 9 Ion Ï #Ï Ï b À Ï b Ï bÏ B b Maj7 b Ï Ï Ï b À Ï Ï Ï B-7 Dori Mixo Ion Aeo & Ï #Ï Ï Ï # Ï # À Ï E7 Ï # Ï #Ï À Ï # Ï Ï AMaj7 Ï Ï #Ï À Ï #Ï # Ï F # -7 # Ï # Ï Ï Ï #Ï À Ï E bbDori Lyd 7 Ion Lyd 7 b -7 & b Ï Ï b Ï b Ï b Ï Ï b Ï D7( # 11) Ï Ï # Ï # Ï Ï Ï Ï D b Maj7 b Ï b Ï Ï b À b Ï b Ï Ï C7( # 11) Ï Ï Ï # Ï Ï Ï bÏ B7( # 11) Lyd b7 Ion & Ï #Ï # Ï #Ï #Ï #Ï Ï B b Maj7 b Ï Ï Ï b À Ï Ï Ï - 30 - Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  31. 31. Summary of Analysis • When you are asked to analyze a tune in the class, the steps shown below are required 1. Arrow and Bracket Analysis, and the Key of the Moment indication with the box. CMaj7 A-7 4 ä C & 4 Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï D7 G7 Ï Ï Ï 3 Ï Ï Ï G7 E-7 CMaj7 FMaj7 A7 Ï Ï Ï 3 Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï ú D-7 ä Ï Ï Ï 2. Roman Numeral Analysis and Mode (Scale) Analysis. I Maj7 VI-7 V7/V V7 I Maj7 IV Maj7 V7 III-7V7/II II-7 Ion Aeo Mixo Mixo Ion Lyd Mixo Phry Mixo Dori CMaj7 A-7 4 ä C & 4 Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï D7 G7 Ï Ï Ï 3 Ï Ï Ï b 9,b G7 E-7 13 CMaj7 FMaj7 A7 Ï Ï Ï 3 Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï ú D-7 ä Ï Ï Ï 3. Indication for M.I.(Modal Interchange) and/or D.R.(Deceptive Resolution) if applicable. I Maj7 VI-7 V7/V V7 I Maj7 IV Maj7 V7 III-7V7/II II-7 Ion Aeo Mixo Mixo Ion Lyd Mixo Phry Mixo Dori CMaj7 A-7 4 ä C & 4 Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï D7 G7 Ï Ï Ï 3 Ï Ï Ï b 9,b G7 E-7 13 CMaj7 FMaj7 A7 Ï Ï Ï 3 Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï ú D-7 ä Ï Ï Ï D.R. 4. Scale Degree Analysis. I Maj7 VI-7 V7/V V7 I Maj7 IV Maj7 V7 III-7V7/II II-7 Ion Aeo Mixo Mixo Ion Lyd Mixo Phry Mixo Dori b 9,b 13 D.R. C CMaj7 A-7 D-7 & 44 ä Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï D7 G7 Ï Ï Ï 3 Ï Ï Ï G7 E-7 CMaj7 FMaj7 A7 Ï Ï Ï 3 Ï Ï Ï Ï Ï ú ä Ï Ï Ï 5 b 3 b b 7 T9 b b 5 R T11 5 7 5 R R R R 5 T11 T13 3 7 3 3 M7 3 3 Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 31 -
  32. 32. Project • Write a piece using the technique you have learned • 32 bars form recommended. • Two types of the conventional forms are recommended. 1) A -- A -- B -- A i.e.; "Take The A Train" 2) A -- B -- A -- C i.e.; "The Days Of Wine And Roses" If you are sure you can make unconventional form musically, it is acceptable as long as you know what you are doing. I.e.; "Peace", "Blue In Green" No Blues please. • Check Points • Notation Neatness, Imaginary bar line, Beats positioning, Accidentals, Ending bar line, Beaming, Clef and so on. • Scale notes Notes must fit in the chord scales, unless otherwise it is an passing/approach note. Therefore, you must analyze with Roman numeral and name of the scale (mode) for your piece referring to the page 31. • Extra Points • Musical Phrasing. • Intro and TAG (Outro). • Recording of the piece. - 32 - Jazz Theory I, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  33. 33. Draft Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 1 -
  34. 34. Diminished Scales & Diatonic Functioning Diminish Chord • All the diatonic functioning diminished chords must resolve by half step up or down, b b∫ I dim 7 I Maj 7 # I dim 7 II-7 F #I dim 7 ................................ resolve to .......................... I Maj 7 b I dim 7................................ resolve to ............................... II-7 #III dim 7 .............................. resolve to ............................... II-7 # II dim 7 ............................... resolve to ............................. III-7 IV dim 7 .............................. resolve to ................................. V7 #V dim 7 ............................... resolve to ................................. V7 bV dim 7 ............................... resolve to .............................VI-7 VI dim 7 .............................. resolve to .................................V7 # dim7 ww ww & b ww ww & b b Cdim7 D w ww w w ww w b # ∫ b∫ b b dim7 C ww w An w # CMaj7 w ww w A G-9 # dim7 C-7 w ww w AA oe w b oe w b oe ∫w ∫oe nw R T9 b 3 T11 dim 5 (6) dim 7 TM7 #oe w oe Aw oe w b oe #w R (2) b 3 (4) dim 5 T # oe w n oe w oe w Aoe #w - 2 - Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) b 13 dim 7 TM7 C F Bb b III dim 7 II-7 R (2) b 13 dim 7 TM7 b 3 (4) dim 5 T except I dim 7 and V dim 7 resolve to the same root. See Tip on Page 29.
  35. 35. G & C & # II dim 7 III-7 # ww ww ## # IV dim 7 V7 F A # dim7 ww ww # dim7 ww ww ww ww b # aB-7 G7 # oe w #oe w oe aw oe ‹w R (2) b 3 (4) dim 5 T b 13 dim 7 TM7 # oe w oe w oe w b oe #w V dim 7 V7 Cdim7 # V dim 7 VI-7 # dim7 b VI dim 7 V7 G F & b w ww w b b∫ F & b C w ww w A# Bb & b b ww ww∫ ∫∫ b b dim7 F ww w w A # C7 w ww w A D-7 w ww w # dim7 ww ww AF7 R (2) b 3 T11 dim 5 T b 13 dim 7 TM7 oe w b oe w b oe ∫w ∫oe bw R T9 b 3 T11 dim 5 (6) dim 7 (7) #oe w oe w oe w Aoe #w R (2) b 3 (4) dim 5 T b 13 dim 7 TM7 #oe w oe Aw oe w Aoe #w See Tip on Page 29. 13 dim 7 TM7 R (2) b 3 (4) dim 5 T b Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 3 -
  36. 36. Symmetric Diminished Scale & & CMaj9 ww ww w w w bw w W 1/2 W 1/2 bw W bw 1/2 bw W bw R T9 dim 3 T11 dim 5 T • Symmetric Diminished Scale appears as non-diatonic functioning • The example shown above will sound strong resolution because • If one diminished scale could built with whole and half steps, the b b b Gdim7 ww ww b G7(# 9) 11 w ww ww b # diminished chord (means it does not fit any one of eight categories described before). Because the scale is built with constant whole/ half steps, there is no tension which will create b9th interval. There-fore, all the tensions are available. of the root motion of V to I. G dim 7, however, does not create any logical voice leading (will be discussed later). Therefore, G dim 7 is not functioning as diatonic. reversed positions as half/whole would be possible, too. This scale is usually used for dominant. Note; there is no available tension this time. CMaj9 w w bw bw nw #w w w w w ww w Altered Lydian 7 • The same scale may start on the root of the substitute dominant chord. b 9) w bbbww - 4 - Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) b 13 dim 7 TM7 Combination Dominant Scale & D b 7(# 11 w ww C 96 w w www b bw nw w w w bw bw bw Lydian b Altered 7 R T b 9 T # 9 3 T # 11 5 13 b 7 R T b 9 T # 9 3 T # 11 5 13 b 7
  37. 37. Non Diatonic Functioning Diminished Chords Additional information for the diminished chords (p.10-12). • As we discussed thoroughly, diminished chord scales will be decided by the fact that if the dimin-ished chord is acting as a diatonic function within the key of the moment. The list below shows the progressions which will not create a resolution sound in the sequence even though it may look diatonic functioning diminished chords. This list will against the list on page 10. b II dim 7 ........... goes to, but does not resolve to ........... I Maj7 b V dim 7 ........... goes to, but does not resolve to ........... IV Maj7 b VI dim 7 .......... goes to, but does not resolve to ........... V7 b VII dim 7 ........ goes to, but does not resolve to ........... VI-7 # VI dim 7 .......... goes to, but does not resolve to ........... VII-7(b5) Those progressions are called non diatonic functioning diminished chords sequence. Therefore, the chord scales will not be considered by the Key of the moment. The Symmetric diminished scale will be used, instead. • Again, if any of the diminished chords do not resolve in the Key of the moment as shown on the page 10, the chord scale will be Symmetric diminished scale as well. • There is an exception to the rule above. & I C w ww w # I dim 7 V on 5th C w ww w b# # dim7 w wwG/D # II dim 7 I on 3rd D w ww w # # # dim7 C/E w ww The # I dim 7 did not resolve to II-7. Instead, it resoled to V with the 5th (D) on bass. This is a semi-diatonic functioning progression, because the ear will hear the bass move to the 2nd degree of the diatonic scale (C Major) as where the II-7 is supposed to be, and the actual chord on top of the bass which is another diatonic chord. # II dim 7 resolves to I with the 3rd on bass is also semi-diatonic for the same reason. Therefore, the chord scale will be decided by the Key of the moment. Note that this kind of progression is commonly heard in Gospel music. Tip Enharmonic respelling is necessary when the root of the diminished choed is flat. b dim 7 to D I.e.; Respell E # dim 7 in order to find the chord scale. Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 5 -
  38. 38. & w ww w w ww w w www ww ww Scale Degree Diatonic Chords / Modes ww ww ww ww ww ww w ww w w ww w b 5) b - 6 - Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) w www ww ww ww ww Minor Key Relative Keys • Relative Keys are a pair of keys which uses same key signature. Those two keys are Major and minor, and the minor key starts from VI degree of the Major key. In other word, the tonic of relative minor starts from Major 6th above the tonic of relative Major. C Major ---- Major 6th ↑ ---- A minor C minor ---- Major 6th ↓ ---- EbMajor & w w w w w w w w w I II III IV V VI VII w w w I II b III IV V b VI b VII C Maj A - Ion Dori Phry Lyd Mixo Aeo Loc IMaj7 II-7 III-7 IVMaj7 V7 VI-7 VII-7( b 5) I-7 II-7( IIIMaj7 IV-7 V-7 b VIMaj7 b VII7 Aeo Loc Ion Dori Phry Lyd Mixo C Maj A -
  39. 39. Minor Key (cont.) • Minor scale has three different types. The reason is Leading Tone. Leading Tone is a note which leads the tonic form -2nd below. Since Natural minor scale (Aeolian Mode) is VIth mode of rela-tive Major, the scale does not have Leading Tone. Therefore, Natural minor does not sound resolving to the Tonic. C Maj Scale A Natural minor Scale (Aeolian Mode) & w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w ↑ Leading Tone ↑ Not Leading Tone Aug 2nd Gap A Harmonic minor A Melodic minor & w w w w w w #w w w w w w w w # #w w nw nw w w w w w ↑ Leading Tone ↑ Leading Tone • Harmonic minor is a minor scale with Leading Tone. Leading Tone is needed for resolution harmonically. Note that raising the 7th note to make Leading Tone changed V-7 chord to V7 chord (E-7 to E7 in A minor, see page 32), which makes much smoother progression of V7 to I -. • Harmonic minor is smoother harmonically. It, however, no longer smooth as a scale because Leading Tone created an Aug 2nd in-terval from the 6th note F. To make the scale smoother, the 6th note is rased, too. That is Melodic minor Scale. The rased 6th and 7th are needed only when going up to the tonic. Therefore, descending scale goes back to Natural minor Scale (Aeolian Mode). Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 7 -
  40. 40. & w www w www w ww w w ww w w www ww ww # w ww w # w www # w ww w - 8 - Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) ww ww A-7 B-7( b 5) CMaj7 D-7 E-7 FMaj7 G7 & w ww w # w www # w ww w # ww ww # ww ww ## A-(Maj7) B-7 CMaj7( # 5) D7 E7 F # -7( b 5) G # -7( b 5) & w www # w www w ww w w www# ww ww ww ww # A-(Maj7) B-7( b 5) CMaj7( # 5) D-7 E7 FMaj7 G # dim7 Minor Key (cont.) Diatonic Chords Harmonic minor I-(Maj7) II-7( b 5) b IIIMaj7( # 5) IV-7 V7 b VIMaj7 VIIdim7 Natural minor I-7 II-7( b 5) b IIIMaj7 IV-7 V-7 b VIMaj7 b VII7 Melodic minor Ascending I-(Maj7) II-7 b IIIMaj7( # 5) IV7 V7 VI-7( b 5) VII-7( b 5)
  41. 41. Harmonic Consideration for minor key Typical minor diatonic chords in minor key chord progression. & b 5) b IIIMaj7 IV-7 V7 b VIMaj7 VIIdim7 Aeo Loc Ion Dori Mixo Lyd dim b 5) CMaj7 D-7 E7 FMaj7 G I-7 II-7( A-7 B-7( w www w www w ww w w ww w w www # ww ww ww ww # # dim7 • Because Mixolydian and diminished scales varies according to the Key of the Moment, all the tension notes must be adjusted. & w w #w ¿ w w w E7 R Tb9 3 (4) 5 Tb13 b7 Therefore, this is Mixo b9 which contains b13 automatically. diminished scale for VIIdim7 is shown below. & #w ¿ w ¿ w w w w R (2) dim3 (4) dim5 Tb13 dim7 T Maj7 Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 9 -
  42. 42. Minor Key (cont.) II-7( b 5), and Mixo b9 Loc Mixo b9 Ion D-7( 4 oe oe oe w & 4 b 5) V7 I Maj7 b 5) G7 ˙ 3 oe oe # oe CMaj7 w II-7( b 5) V7 I Maj7 Loc Mixo b9 Ion - 10 - Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) ˙ oe oe oe C- C Night And Day by Cole Porter & b 4 4 oe ˙ b ˙ G-7( b 5) ˙ oe . j oe C7( b 9) # oe . j oe ˙ FMaj7 ˙ OE oe F- F I Love You by Cole Porter • "-7( b 5)" appears very distinctively. Most likely, this is a II chord of a minor key of the moment. If this chord is followed by a Dominant chord, it must be a minor II - V progression, no matter what chord to resolve. There-fore, the mode is Locrian for the II-7( for the V7.
  43. 43. Modal Interchange C Natural minor I-7 II-7( C-7 D-7( b 5) b IIIMaj7 IV-7 V-7 b 5) E b w www b b w wwoe Tonic minor Subdominant minor I-7 b IIIMaj7 V-7 II-7( C-7 E & w ww w & w ww w ww w b b b b w b b b VIMaj7 b Maj7 F-7 G-7 A b Maj7 G-7 ww ww b b 5) IV-7 D-7( ww ww b woe ww b b b VII7 b Maj7 B b VIMaj7 b 5) F-7 A ww woe b ww woe w ww oe b b woe ww b b oe w ww bb b 7 b VII7 b Maj7 B oe w ww bb b 7 b b • Note that the notes indicated black are scale degree b6 in C Natural minor (C Aeolian) which is the Avoid. That is why any diatonic chord contains scale degree b6 is not Tonic minor. Those are Subdominant minor chords. V-7 (G Phrygian) & w b¿ bw w G-7 w b ¿ w R (2) b3 T11 5 (b6) b7 • V-7 is not common, because b3 of the Parent minor Key (Eb in C minor) which is necessary to characterize minor sound is not chord tone nor available tension on V-7 (Phrygian Mode) Scale. Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 11 -
  44. 44. b 5) V7 I-Altered b 9) b 5) G7( 7( D-7( & w ww w b w w bww C-II- w ww b b 5) usually precedes the V7 chord, it is a modal interchange chord from Harmonic Subdominant Chord II-7( b 5) b D-7( II Maj7 b 5) D b w www minor II - V - I • Because the II-7( & w www & b b Lyd b VI Maj7 b VI7 b Maj7 A b A ww ww b b ww ww bb b Maj7 b 7 Lyd b7 minor. • Note that the b VI7 (altered b VI Maj7) and the b VII7 (diatonic) are not Dominant functioning chords because those are not located at the 5th position in the diatonic, and do not resolve to I- going down Perfect fifth. - 12 - Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  45. 45. Modal Interchange (cont.) • Mixolydian Modal Interchange Chord. C Mixolydian Scale & w w w w V-7 b VIIMaj7 G-7 B ww ww b w ww ww b Maj7 C7 ww ww b R T9 3 (4) 5 T13 b7 R Summary of the basic Modal Interchange Chords Tonic minor from natural minor Subdominant minor from natural minor b 5) V7 II-7( from Harmonic minor • I-b 7 Aeolian • IIIMaj7 Ionian • V-7 (not common) Phrygian • b IIMaj7 Lydian • II-7( b 5) Locrian • IV-7 Dorian b • VIMaj7 Lydian • b VI7 Lydian b 7 • b VII7 Mixolydian • II-7( b 5) Locrian • V7 Mixo b 9, b 13 • b VIIMaj7 Lydian • V-7 Dorian Mixolydian Modal Interchange Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 13 -
  46. 46. & b b 4 2 1 IMaj6 B b Maj6 ‰ . R oe oe oe oe 2 oe oe oe oe oe oe 3 G ˙ b Maj7 B B II-7 V7 F-7 Ab Eb - 14 - Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) 4 B7 oe OE & b b 5 ‰ . R oe oe oe oe B b Maj6 6 oe oe oe oe oe oe 7 ˙ b -7 8 b 9) G7( oe OE & b b 17 ‰ . R oe oe oe oe B b Maj6 18 oe oe oe oe oe oe 19 ˙ b -7 20 E b 7 oe OE & b b 21 ‰ . R oe oe oe oe B b Maj6 22 oe oe oe oe oe oe 23 ˙ 24 B b 7 oe OE Modal Interchange (cont.) b VIMaj7 SubV7 IMaj6 I-7 V7(b9)/II IMaj6 II-7 V7 IMaj6 IV-7 V7/IV
  47. 47. Special Dominant • Special Dominant Chords are chords which appear in diatonic situation, yet do not resolve by going down Perfect 5th nor minor 2nd. II7 II7 appears as a substitution of V7. The tritone resolves to a part of I Maj7 (5th, M7th). D7 & w ww w ww & 4 # CMaj7 w ww w w w # oe Since II7 is derived from V7/V, Take The "A" Train changes (below) is well known. CMaj7 j 4 w oe oe . # 11) D7( oe oe oe # oe ˙ . D-7 ˙ . OE w G7 oe # oe oe oe oe b oe oe b oe CMaj7 oe oe ˙ . ˙ . OE • II7 can be explained as a Modal Interchange chord from I Lydian. III7 Since III7 is derived from V7/VI, it resolves to IV Maj7 which is Inverted VI-6. III7 IV Maj7 V7/VI VI-b E7 ww ww & w www # -( E7 ww FMaj7 ww #ww wwA 6 b 6) b VI7 Since bVI7 is same structure as SubV7/V, it resolves to I Maj with 5th on root. & bVI7 I Maj b 7 ww ww C ww ww bb b A bVI7 V7 b 7 ww ww ww ww bb b A G7 Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 15 -
  48. 48. VI7 Since VI7 is derived from V7/II, it resolves to IV Maj7 which is II-9 without the root. & VI7 IV Maj7 V7/II II-9 A7 ww ww w www # FMaj7 A7 # w w ww B7 w ww # # I Maj7 V7/III III- CMaj7 B7 w ww # # Swinging So Hard - 16 - Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) D-9 ww ww oe Special Dominant (cont.) VII7 Since VII7 is derived from V7/III, it resolves to I Maj7 which is III- without the root. & w w www w w ww E-VII7 International Groove Machine Check It Out
  49. 49. ##### IV-7(bbbbb5) # IV-7( b 5) is often found in standard jazz progressions as a special diatonic functioning chord. It can be explained theoretically in a number of different ways (shown bellow). Yet, as always, the available scale is Locrian because it is a minor 7th chord with a flated 5th. # IV-7( # -7( b 5) Locrian b 5) & #w ¿ w w w w F w • It can be explained as a Modal Interchange chord from Tonic Lydian (C Lydian), just as II7 was explained in p. 37. b 5) can be explained as a V7/V without the root. & • Instead of resolving to V, This also supports that II7 followed by I chord (p. 29). & # IV-7( b 5) can resolve to I/5th (inverted), just as # IV diminished chord did. # IV-7( b 5) V7 # IV-7( b 5) I/5th b 5) can be found as a passing chord which resolve to IV chord. This is the most common # IV-7( b 5). & # IV-7( F # -7( ww ww F # -7( ww ww # IV-7( F b 5) V7 V7/V V7 b 5) G7 w w ww b 5) ww ww # -7( ww ww # # # b 5) IVMaj7 b 5) D7(9) ww ww w # -7( # G7 ww ww b 5) # IV-7( # -7( # F FMaj7 ww ww ww ww # F b 5) IV-7 b 5) G7 w w ww C/G F-7 ww ww ww w b b • • # IV-7( • # IV-7( use of Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 17 -
  50. 50. • Those are the common use of & 44 oe oe oe 1 b 5) D-7( w 2 G7 ˙ 3 oe oe # oe 3 CMaj7 w 4 oe OE oe oe oe CMaj7 F b 5) # -7( E-7 E b dim7 D-7 E b 7 D7( b 9) B b -(Maj7) B E b 7 A-7 b 7 A-7 D-7 G-7 C7 FMaj6 - 18 - Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) 5 b 5) D-7( oe oe oe oe & 6 oe oe 3 oe oe # oe G7 7 w 8 oe OE oe . j oe 9 oe oe oe oe 10 b˙ j oe oe j oe F-7 & 11 oe oe oe oe 12 oe b oe oe oe oe 13 oe b oe oe ˙ 14 ˙ oe oe oe G7 15 CMaj7 w 16 ˙ . OE & oe 17 w F Maj7 18 OE oe oe oe 19 ˙ ˙ 20 ˙ oe oe 21 G-7 oe oe ˙ & 22 ˙ oe oe 23 oe b oe ˙ b -7 24 ˙ oe oe 25 oe oe oe oe 26 oe oe oe oe D-7 & 27 wB-7( b 5) 28 ˙ . oe B 29 oe oe oe oe 30 oe ˙ oe 31 w 32 ˙ . OE Night And Day The Days of Wine And Roses # IV-7( b 5) # IV-7( b 5) # IV-7( b 5) shown below. There are many Modal Interchange chords in the music, as well. Reviewing the Modal Interchange (p. 35-38), indicate those chords with "M.I.".
  51. 51. Deceptive Resolutions • Standard Deceptive Resolutions: A dominant 7th chord resolve to a tonic functioning chord (see page 16) other than I chord. & ww ww I V7 VI-V7 G7 ww wC ww ww - G7 ww wA G7 & w ww w VI- shares the root and the 3rd of I. I V7 III- CMaj7 w ww w G7 w ww w E-V7 w ww III- is I Maj7 without the root. • Non Standard Deceptive Resolutions: Since the dominant 7th chord resolve to the I Major 7th in a Major key, other Modal Interchange Major 7th chords may be seen as a deceptive resolution. & bVI Maj7 V7 bIII Maj7 b Maj7 V7 G7 ww ww b b ww ww A G7 w w ww E b Maj7 w www b b Altered Deceptive Resolution of V7 to VI-. Altered Deceptive Resolution of V7 to III-. Other Modal Interchange Major Chords. V7 G7 &w ww w bII Maj7 V7 bVII Maj7 D w www bb b Maj7 G7 w w ww B b Maj7 w ww b w Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 19 -
  52. 52. & D-7 ww ww CMaj7 ww ww D-7 ww ww ww w w b 5) B7 # -7( G7 F # ww ww b 5) - 20 - Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) .... ˙˙ ˙˙ OE Deceptive Resolutions (cont.) • One additional Deceptive Resolution is a dominant 7th chord followed by # IV-7( b 5). This progres-sion may be seen as three diferent functions. II-7 V7 # IV-7( b 5) M.I. • # IV-7( E-7 b 5) appears as a Lydian Modal Interchange tonic functioning chord. As the VI-7 and the III-7 replaces I Major in the Standard Deceptive Resolution, # IV-7( b 5) replaces I Major Lydian chord. & ww w w G7 ˙˙ ˙˙ # ˙ ˙˙ # ˙ F # -7( w ww w II-7 V7 # IV-7( b 5) V7/III III-7 • # IV-7( b 5) appears as a related II-7 of V7/III. & ww w w G7 ww ww # F # -7( b 5) ww ww b b F-7 I Maj7 V7 # IV-7( b 5) IV-7 M.I. • # IV-7( b 5) appears as a passing chord to IV-7. This may be called Altered Subdomi-nant minor, sometime.
  53. 53. Compound Chords • Inversion is a chord with the bass which is replaced with a chord tone other than the root. & C7 w ww w b C7/G w C7/E ww w w ww b w bw C7/B www b b Root Position 1st Inversion 2nd Inversion 3rd Inversion • Hybrid is a chord with a bass which is other than any of chord tones. Note that the any kind of 3rd against the bass can not be included in the upper structure chord, because it will characterize a chord to the bass. Basically, the upper structure chord is derived from the scale notes against the bass. However, because the 3rd of the bass is not included, ambiguous sound will be created. & ? CMaj7/D w w ww w D-7/G w w ww w A/D w ww # # #w 1) 2) 3) 1) Derived from D Dorian with b7, 9, 11, and 13 those which create the upper structure chord. Since the b3rd (F) is missing from this chord, it will not sound D-7. It rather sound C Maj7 with the 9th on the bass. 2) Derived from G Mixolydian with 5, b7, 9 and S4. Note that the avoid note (S4: C) can be used because the 3rd (B) is missing from this chord. The sound will be D-7 with the 11th on the bass. 3) Derived from D # Locrian with 11, b7 and S2(b9). Note that the flat 9th interval created # and E is acceptable in two reasons. The one is because Locrian is a semidomi-nant between D functioning mode, so as altered dominant tensions are, flat 9th interval will create more resolution sense. The other is because the upper structure chord creates strong unity as a chord, the ear can separate it from the bass. However, the caution must be taken when it is used. • Polychord is a chord combined with two triads or 7th chord. Usually, the upper structure is created from the available tensions of the bottom chord. This is extremely useful when the key-board voicing is needed to be specified for ensemble arranging reasons. & ? D C ww w ww w # D-E-ww w ww w F-b7 G ww ww b b w w w b b b Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 21 -
  54. 54. Project I • Write a piece using the technique you have learned. • 32 bars form recommended. • Two types of the conventional forms are recommended. 1) A -- A -- B -- A ie; "Take The A Train" 2) A -- B -- A -- C ie; "The Days Of Wine And Roses" If you are sure you can make unconventional form musically, it is acceptable as long as you know what you are doing. ie; "Piece", "Blue In Green" No Blues please. • Check Points • Notation Neatness, Imaginary bar line, Beats positioning, Accidentals, Ending bar line, Beaming, Clef and so on. • Scale notes Notes must fit in the chord scales, unless otherwise it is an approach note. Therefore, you must analyze with Roman numeral and name of the scale (mode) for your piece. • Extra Points • Musical Phrasing. • Intro and TAG (Outro). • Recording of the piece. - 22 - Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  55. 55. Project II 1. Quiz on Intervals and Chord Scales (Modes). 2.Write a piece using five subjects of the seven listed below (Diatonic Functioning Dominant Chords must be included as indicated). The piece must be analyzed according to the directions of Appendix A. 1) Diatonic Functioning Dominant Chords (include Primary Dominant). Must use at least two of the four listed below. a) Secondary Dominant b) Extended Dominant c) Special Dominant d) Substituted Dominant (SubV7) 2) Related II- 3) # IV-7( b 5) 4) Diatonic Functioning Diminished Chord. 5) Minor Key. 6) Modal Interchange (exclude Lydian M.I. and Mixolydian M.I.). 7) Deceptive Resolutions Warning • If the piece is notated and analyzed in a hard-to-read way, it will be re-turned without being graded. • Note that this assignment is not for writing a musical composition, but for a correct harmony and melody with the theory you have learned. • Duplicated analysis must be avoided (i.e. # IV-7(b5) as a Modal Interchange). Tip • Write the chord progression first, then the melody according to the avail-able scales. • The bass motion (P5th down, Major or minor 2nd up and down) will make the sound stronger. Jazz Theory II, Draft, ©1997 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA) - 23 -
  56. 56. & Quiz #1 Name Date 1. Write out the Intervals. w b w w w ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2. Write a note by the given Interval. & bw ww ∫ b #w w # w #w w # ‹ w w w b b -9th Below P12th Above Aug.6th Below dim.15th Above -10th Above Hint 1. Hide all the accidentals. 2. With your fingers, count the Interval. Do not forget to include the note to begin with. 3. Write down the number NOW. 4. If the Interval is more than an octave apart, take the top note down, so the Interval becomes within an octave. 5. Find how many of "1/2 Step Spot" in the distance according to the chart. Remember, you need to think of only C Major scale. 6. Find the kind ( Major, Perfect, etc.) using the bar chart. Use your both hands verti-cally, so you can picture the distance with the bar chart. For example, the Interval is 6th with 2 of "1/2 Step Spot" in the distance, because M6th supposed to have only 1 "1/2 Step Spot", it becomes one of the bar chart level shorter, so it is -6th. 7. Still holding your hands vertically, apply the accidental(s) you hid in the beginning one by one. Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  57. 57. Quiz #2 Name Date 1. Write out the Intervals. & w w w b w ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2. Write a note by the given Interval. & #w w ww b w w # ww # w bw #w M10th Above Aug.4th Above -13th Above P15th Below M7th Below 3. Find out the parent key, then write out the given scale. & & & b Mixolydian Parent Key ____ B Phrygian Parent Key ____ D Parent Key ____ A Lydian Parent Key ____ D Locrian Parent Key ____ B b Aeolian Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  58. 58. Quiz Summer '96 par 1 Name Date 1. Write out the Intervals. [4 point each] & w w # # b w # b w ww w w b #w # w & ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) w w b b ww ‹# b w b w w ‹w w w ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2. Write a note by the given Interval. [4 point each] & b oe oe oe oe oe Aug 4th ↓ -13th ↓ -9th ↑ Aug 5th ↑ M16th ↑ 3. Fill out the blank, write out the Chord Scale and label each note. [5 point each] Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key ( III- / / Eb ) Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key E b - ( bVI Maj / / ) Key Key Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key ( / F # Loc / G ) Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key D- ( / F Ion / ) Key Key Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key ( VI- / / ) Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key ( V7 / / ) Key C Key C Harmonic minor Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key ( V dim / n/a / n/a ) Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key ( bIII dim / n/a / n/a ) Key C G Key Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  59. 59. • Analyze the composition shown below by the direction given on the next page. [Bossa] q»ª• A & 42 1 F # -7( b 5) ≈ oe ≈ oe oe 2 A-/G oe oe . oe 3 FMaj7 ˙ 4 E7( b 13) oe OE 5 E b Maj7 ≈ oe ≈ oe oe Hiroaki Honshuku 6 E-7( b 5) boe oe & 7 A7( b 9) #oe ≈ b oe oe oe 8 j oe ‰ oe oe 9 D7 ≈ #oe ≈ oe oe oe ≈ oe 10 D # dim7 oe oe oe oe 11 E-7 oe oe ≈ oe #oe oe oe oe & 12 F-7 B b 7 b oe ≈ oe ≈ oe 13 E-7 oe ≈ oe oe ≈ oe ≈ oe 14 E b 7 ≈ oe ≈ oe oe oe 15 D-7 oe ≈ oe oe ≈ oe ≈ oe 16 D b Maj7 ≈ oe ≈ boe j oe ‰ & B 17 G b Maj7 b oe . b oe oe 18 A b -7 oe OE 19 B b -7 oe b oe oe ≈ oe ≈ b oe 20 A7 oe OE 21 A b 7 oe boe oe ≈ b oe ≈ oe & 22 oe b oe b oe ‰ J oe b 23 b oe A b -7 oe b oe b oe ≈ . J 24 D b 7 ≈ oe ≈ oe oe oe ≈ oe 25 G b Maj7 b oe . b oe oe 26 Gdim7 oe OE & 27 A b -7 b oe boe b oe ≈ oe ≈ oe 28 Adim7 oe OE 29 A b -7 ≈ b oe ≈ boe oe oe 30 G7 ≈ oe ≈ oe oe oe ≈ oe 31 G ˙ b Maj7 32 oe OE Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  60. 60. Quiz Summer '96 par 2 Name Date Direction for the analysis • Indicate the key(s) with box(es) beginning of the piece and whenever modulation occur. • Draw arrows, dotted arrows, and brackets. • Write out roman numeral wherever it applies. • Write out the name of mode or scale for every chords. Be aware of hidden altered tension. • Indicate with M.I. wherever which applies. • Write out the diminished scale on bar 10, 26, and 28 below. Number each scale note below the scale. • Find the notes which are not one of chord tones under every chords, and write the number of the scale degree or tension number in the each boxes below. Use parenthesis if the note is not available. Use n/a for the measure which does not have any one of them. Be aware of anticipations. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  61. 61. Quiz #2 Name Date 1. Write out the Intervals. & ww # # ww b ( ) ( )( )( ) ( ) 2. Write a note by the given Interval. & bw #w b w w w ‹w w ww b# w ∫w b b -9th Below P12th Above Aug.6th Below dim.15th Above -10th Above Hint 1. Hide all the accidentals. 2. With your fingers, count the Interval. Do not forget to include the note to begin with. 3. Write down the number NOW. 4. If the Interval is more than an octave apart, take the top note down, so the Interval becomes within an octave. 5. Find how many of "1/2 Step Spot" in the distance according to the chart. Remember, you need to think of only C Major scale. 6. Find the kind ( Major, Perfect, etc.) using the bar chart. Use your both hands verti-cally, so you can picture the distance with the bar chart. For example, the Interval is 6th with 2 of "1/2 Step Spot" in the distance, because M6th supposed to have only 1 "1/2 Step Spot", it becomes one of the bar chart level shorter, so it is -6th. 7. Still holding your hands vertically, apply the accidental(s) you hid in the beginning one by one. Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  62. 62. Quiz Winter '96 Name Date 1. Write out the Intervals. [4 point each] & w w # # b w # b w ww w w b #w # w & ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) w w b b ww ‹# b w b w w ‹w w w ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2. Write a note by the given Interval. [4 point each] & b oe oe oe oe oe Aug 4th ↓ -13th ↓ -9th ↑ Aug 5th ↑ M16th ↑ 3. Fill out the blank, write out the Chord Scale and number each note. [5 point each] Roman Numeral Mode ( III- / _____ ) Roman Numeral Mode A ( V7/VI / _____ ) b Key Key Roman Numeral Mode # ( / F Loc ) Roman Numeral Mode F ( SubV7 / _____ ) Key Key Roman Numeral Mode ( VI- / B _______) Key Key Roman Numeral Mode ( V7/V / _____ ) Roman Numeral Mode ( SubV7/II/ Eb _______) Roman Numeral Mode # ( / F Phry ) Key Key Eb B Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  63. 63. Quiz Winter '96 Name Date 1. Fill out the blank, write out the Chord Scale and number each note. [5 point each] Roman Numeral Mode ( III- / _____ ) Roman Numeral Mode A ( V7/VI / _____ ) b Key Key Roman Numeral Mode # ( / F Loc ) Roman Numeral Mode F ( SubV7 / _____ ) Key Key Roman Numeral Mode ( VI- / B _______) Key Key Roman Numeral Mode ( V7/V / _____ ) Roman Numeral Mode ( SubV7/II/ Eb _______) Roman Numeral Mode # ( / F Phry ) Key Key Eb B Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  64. 64. 2. Analyze the music along with the direction listed as follow; [50 pints total] & 44 1 B b 7 ‰ J oe • Draw arrows (including dotted arrows). • Draw Brackets. • Identify the Key of the music. • Apply Roman Numeral Analysis. • Apply Mode or Chord scale. • Scale Degree Analysis (applying number below each note against the chord). b oe oe oe ‰ J 2 A- 7 oe oe boe oe ˙ 3 oe ‰ J oe G b 7 ‰ J b boe oe oe oe 4 FMaj7 ˙ . OE & 5 G- 7 C7 ‰ J oe ‰ j oe oe oe 6 FMaj7 oe b oe oe oe ˙ 7 A- 7 A oe ‰ J ‰ J b dim7 oe oe oe 8 G- 7 C7 oe oe b oe oe ˙ & 9 FMaj7 F ‰ J oe # dim7 ‰ j oe oe oe 10 G- 7 C7 oe b oe oe oe oe OE 11 D b - 7 G b 7 oe b oe oe b oe ‰ J oe ‰ J oe n 12 FMaj7 ˙ . OE 3. Write out the diminished chord scale appears in the bar 7 and the bar 9. [5 point each] Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  65. 65. Quiz • Fill out the blank, write out the Chord Scale. Roman Numeral Mode ( II- / _____ ) Roman Numeral Mode D ( IVMaj / _____ ) b Key Key Roman Numeral Mode # ( / C Loc ) Roman Numeral Mode G ( V7 / _____ ) Key Key Roman Numeral Mode ( VI- / G _______) Key Key Roman Numeral Mode ( VII-(b5) / _____ ) Roman Numeral Mode ( III- / Eb _______) Roman Numeral Mode # ( / C Phry ) Key Key Bb B Roman Numeral Mode ( VI- / _____ ) Roman Numeral Mode A ( IVMaj / _____ ) Key Key Roman Numeral Mode ( / Bb Phry ) Roman Numeral Mode F ( VI- / _____ ) Key Key Roman Numeral Mode ( II- / G _______) Key Key Roman Numeral Mode ( II- / _____ ) Roman Numeral ( VII-(bMode # 5) / A Roman Numeral Mode # ( / F _______) Dori ) Key Key E Db Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  66. 66. • Number the melody according to each chords. Non-available note must be parenthesized. Be aware of the passing note, the approach note, and Enharmonic spelling on the altered tensions. A & 43 .. 1 ˙ . FMaj7 2 D-7 ˙ . 3 G-7 b ˙ . 4 E7 ˙ . 5 A7/C ˙ . # 6 from Waltz For Debby by Bill Evans D7/C ˙ . 7 G7/B OE oe oe 8 C7 oe oe oe F7 B b Maj7 1 G-7 b ˙ oe C7 C7/B b ˙ . A-7 ˙ . D7 ˙ . G-7 ˙ . C7 & .. 9 ˙ oe 10 oe oe oe 11 12 oe oe b oe 13 14 15 16 & 17 2 B-7 n ˙ oe 18 E7 # oe oe oe 19 # ˙ . AMaj7 20 ˙ . B-7 21 # -7 ˙ . C 22 OE # ˙B-7 B 23 ˙ . G-7 24 ˙ oe C7 25 ˙ . A-7 & 26 ˙ oe D7 27 G-7 oe oe b oe 28 A7 oe b oe oe 29 D-7 n ˙ oe 30 F7 oe oe b oe 31 B b Maj7 ˙ . 32 A7 oe oe oe 33 oe oe oe D-7 34 oeE7 oe oe & 35 ˙ . A-7 36 b 7 ˙ . A 37 ˙ . G-7 38 b 7 ˙ . G C 39 ˙ . FMaj7 40 D-7 ˙ . 41 G-7 b˙ . 42 E7 ˙ . 43 A7/C ˙ . # & 44 D7/C ˙ . 45 G7/B OE oe oe 46 C7 oe oe oe 47 F7 ˙ oe 48 B b Maj7 oe oe oe 49 B b 6 b oe oe oe 50 b 7 oe b oe oe E 51 ˙ . A-7 52 D7 ˙ OE & 53 OE oe oe B-7 54 oeE7 oe oe 55 ˙ . A-7 56 ˙ . 57 B b Maj7 OE oe b oe 58 b 7 oe boe oe E 59 A-7 ˙ . 60 E7 OE oe oe 61 A-7 oe oe oe & 62 E7 oe oe oe 63 ˙ . G-7 64 C7 ˙ . 65 F6 ˙ . 66 ˙ . 67 ˙ . 68 ˙ OE Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  67. 67. 1) Draw solid and dotted arrows. 2) Draw brackets. 3) Write out applicable Roman numerals over the chord. 4) Write out the name of the scales or neame of the modes below each measure. A & 43 .. 1 FMaj7 ’ ’ ’ 2 D-7 ’ ’ ’ 3 G-7 ’’’ 4 E7 ’ ’ ’ 5 A7/C # ’ ’ ’ 6 D7/C ’ ’ ’ 7 G7/B ’ ’ ’ 8 C7 ’ ’ ’ F7 B b Maj7 1 G-7 ’’’ C7 C7/B b A-7 D7 G-7 C7 & .. 9 ’’’ 10 ’ ’ ’ 11 12 ’ ’ ’ 13 ’ ’ ’ 14 ’ ’ ’ 15 ’ ’ ’ 16 ’ ’ ’ & 17 2 B-7 ’’’ 18 E7 ’ ’ ’ 19 AMaj7 ’’’ 20 B-7 ’’’ 21 C # -7 ’’’ 22 B-7 ’ ’’ B 23 G-7 ’’’ 24 C7 ’’’ 25 A-7 ’’’ & 26 D7 ’’’ 27 G-7 ’ ’ ’ 28 A7 ’ ’ ’ 29 D-7 ’’’ 30 F7 ’ ’ ’ 31 B b Maj7 ’’’ 32 A7 ’ ’ ’ 33 D-7 ’ ’ ’ 34 E7 ’ ’ ’ & 35 A-7 ’ ’ ’ 36 A b 7 ’ ’ ’ 37 G-7 ’ ’ ’ 38 G b 7 ’ ’ ’ C 39 FMaj7 ’ ’ ’ 40 D-7 ’ ’ ’ 41 G-7 ’’’ 42 E7 ’ ’ ’ 43 A7/C # ’ ’ ’ & 44 D7/C ’’’ 45 G7/B ’ ’ ’ 46 C7 ’ ’ ’ 47 F7 ’’’ 48 B b Maj7 ’ ’ ’ 49 B b 6 ’ ’ ’ 50 E b 7 ’ ’ ’ 51 A-7 ’’’ 52 D7 ’’’ & 53 B-7 ’ ’ ’ 54 E7 ’ ’ ’ 55 A-7 ’’’ 56 ’’’ 57 B b Maj7 ’ ’ ’ 58 E b 7 ’ ’ ’ 59 A-7 ’’’ 60 E7 ’ ’ ’ 61 A-7 ’ ’ ’ & 62 E7 ’ ’ ’ 63 G-7 ’’’ 64 C7 ’’’ 65 F6 ’’’ 66 ’’’ 67 ’’’ 68 ’’’ Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1996 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  68. 68. & Theory II Quiz Spring '98 Name Date 1. Write out the Intervals. [4 point each] w b w w w ( ) ( )( )( ) ( ) & w w w b w # ‹ ww ∫ b # w w w w b b ( ) ( )( )( ) ( ) 2. Write a note by the given Interval. [4 point each] & #w w ww b w w # ww # w bw #w M10th Above Aug.4th Above -13th Above P15th Below M7th Below 3. Fill out the blank, write out the Chord Scale and label each note. [5 point each] Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key ( III-7 / / Eb ) Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key B b - ( bVI Maj7 / / ) Key Key Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key ( # IV-7(b5)/ F # Loc / ) Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key D- ( / F Ion / ) Key Key Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key ( SubV7/II/ / ) Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key ( V7/VI / / n/a ) Key Key Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key ( I dim7 / n/a / n/a ) Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key ( bIII dim7 / n/a / n/a ) Key E Eb Key G C Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1998 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  69. 69. & Theory I Quiz Spring '98 Name Date 1. Write out the Intervals. [4 point each] w b w w w ( ) ( )( )( ) ( ) & w w w b w # ‹ ww ∫ b # w w w w b b ( ) ( )( )( ) ( ) 2. Write a note by the given Interval. [4 point each] & #w w ww b w w # ww # w bw #w M10th Above Aug.4th Above -13th Above P15th Below M7th Below 3. Fill out the blank, write out the Chord Scale and label each note. [5 point each] Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key ( VI-7 / / Gb ) Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key B ( SubV7 / / n/a ) b Key Key Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key ( # IV-7(b5)/ F # Loc / ) Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key B ( II-7 / / ) Key Key Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key ( V7/III / / n/a ) Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key ( V7/VI / / n/a ) Key Key Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key ( V7/V / / n/a ) Roman Numeral Mode Parent Key ( V7/VI / / n/a ) Key E Eb Key G C Jazz Theory Quiz, New England Conservatory Extension Division, ©1998 Hiroaki Honshuku (A-NO-NE Music, Cambridge, MA)
  70. 70. About the author Hiroaki Honshuku : flute, ewi, composer, arranger, band leader http://a-no-ne.com • http://anonemusic.com Hiroaki Honshuku was first introduced to jazz in 1985 while teaching music at the US Naval Base in Yokosuka, Japan. Two years later, Hiro came to Boston area. He started at Berklee College of music as a scholarship student in January 1987. By the fall, he was also accepted to New England Conservatory as a scholarship graduate student. He has studied with George Russell, Dave Holland, Bob Moses, George Garzone, Matthew Marvuglio, and Thomas McKinley. Hiro was chosen leader of the 1990 New England Conservatory Honors Jazz Quintet, which performed throughout New England region. In May 1990, Hiro graduated simultaneously from Berklee College of Music and New England Conservatory. He received Summa Cum Laude for his Diploma of Music at Berklee as a performance major. He received Academic Honors and Distinction in Performance for his Master of Music at New England Conservatory as a Jazz Composition major. Besides being very active playing in New England region jazz clubs, he has been busy teaching in the Boston area. Since graduation, he has taught multiple levels of jazz theory and directed small and large jazz ensembles at New England Conservatory. Hiro has been an assistant director for George Russell at New England Conservatory since 1987 until Russell’s recent retirement. He was also invited as an assistant and a flutist as well as digital audio technician for Russell’s Living Time Orchestra since 1997. Hiro has been deeply inspired by Russell’s Lydian Chromatic Concept for Tonal Organization, which now characterizes Hiro’s writing style with Tonal Gravity without any traditional II-V-I resolution. Hiro has also played with Mike Stern, Dave Liebman, Mick Goodrick, Dave Weckl, Tiger Okoshi, George Russell, George Garzone, Maria Schneider, Bob Moses, and Tom McKinley. Hiro has recorded more than 20 CDs for various artists. He also recorded 5 leader albums, which are available at Amazon.com, CDBaby, and iTunes Store. The complete discography is available at A-NO-NE web site. While Hiro was into performing Avant-garde improvisational music using his electric gear in Berlin, Germany between 1990 and 1991, he was introduced to the Brazilian music by Paulo Maragucci, a well-known Rio de Janeiro composer/multi instrumentist who was studying at New England Conservatory. Since he joined Brazilian group, Manga-Rosa led by Sergio Brandão in 1992, not only his composition style has added Brazilian rhythms, Hiro has been very active performing and recording in the Brazilian music scene including Jequere led by José Pienasola, Gustavo Assis-Brasil Group, Teresa Inês Group, Gilson Schachnik Group, Alfredo Cardim, João Marcos, and many others. Hiro has performed for Teresa Inês Rio de Janeiro shows in 2000 – 2001. In the jazz scene, Hiro has been a long-time regular member of Jazz Composers Alliance Orchestra and Power Jazz Unit. The nature of the A-NO-NE Band varies according to the performance. This concept was started by Hiro at the end of 1987 when he realized he wanted to be a strong composer. He made a list of good musicians around the Boston area, and tried to organize different size bands and different types of music for several concerts. The A-NO-NE Band can be a small Jazz group, Avant-garde, Funk Fusion and even a Big Band. All of the selections of the A-NO-NE Band are written by Hiro. Because of the success in four A-NO-NE Big Band concerts, he was invited to Paris as a guest conductor in June 1990, and his later formed big band “Boston Blazing Jazz Orchestra” was invited to the Jazz Festival in Kyoto ‘94 for a week long performance hosted by Geila Zilkha. Hiro still keeps his classical music activity. Among those, he was invited for a recital at Paroisse de la Trinité, Paris, France, where he performed his own compositions dedicated to Messiaen. Besides Hiro is busy performing and teaching, Hiro also runs a small project studio for digital audio editing and MIDI sequencing as well as location recording works using the state of the art tools. To help his own audio work on Macintosh, he has programmed a few applications, which are freely available at Apple web site under Dashboard Widget. April 2007

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