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SDLC system development life cycle (SDLC)


Published on

An SDLC represents a set of general
categories that show the major steps, over
time, of an information systems
development project.

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SDLC system development life cycle (SDLC)

  1. 1. Systems Development Orlando A. Moreno 408.656.2498
  2. 2. Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) • Definition of SDLC • Stages of SDLC • Traditional versus modern SDLCs 408.656.2498 14-2
  3. 3. Definition of SDLC Although it is primarily identified with structured analysis, the system development life cycle (SDLC) describes activities and functions that systems developers typically perform, regardless of how those activities and functions fit into a particular methodology. 408.656.2498 14-3
  4. 4. Stages of SDLC An SDLC represents a set of general categories that show the major steps, over time, of an information systems development project. 408.656.2498 14-4
  5. 5. Basic SDLC At a minimum the SDLC model includes the following steps: – System Planning: formal request – System Analysis: understand the business requirement. – System Design: create a blueprint for the new system that that will satisfy all documented requirements – System Implementation: the new system is constructed. – System operation and Support: maintains and enhances the systems. 408.656.2498 14-5
  6. 6. At the programming level 408.656.2498 14-6
  7. 7. Traditional SDLC – Phase and purpose Phase 1: PLANNING Required to determine the feasibility of whether the project should proceed or not. Produces a high level overview document of the project which relates to the project requirements and scope. To include requirements for data replication In this step, a company determines the IT systems that fit with the strategic goals of the company. This is when Lotus Notes may be chosen as a tool that can be used to meet some of the technical needs of a company. Guidelines are established for in sourcing and/or self sourcing, and the overall technical goals are established. 408.656.2498 14-7
  8. 8. Traditional SDLC – Phase and purpose Phase 1: PLANNING For example, a company may determine that to meet business and customer service needs, an email system, an accounting and payroll system, inventory and invoicing systems that support logistics, and several databases, all need to be developed. Then the company can establish the necessary timelines to accomplish the development of the necessary systems. Systems Planning involves four basic phases: § Define an information architecture § Data architecture § Activities or applications architecture § Technology architecture 408.656.2498 14-8
  9. 9. Traditional SDLC – Phase and purpose Phase 2: DEFINITION Defines what, when, who, and how the project will be carried out. This phase expands on the high-level project outline and provides a specific and detailed project definition. This phase assumes that an RFP has been prepared and distributed, a contract project development team chosen and a Project Manager appointed. 408.656.2498 14-9
  10. 10. Traditional SDLC – Phase and purpose Phase 3: ANALYSIS Required to understand and document the user's needs for the system. Documents in detail the scope, business objectives and requirements of the system. Emphasizes what the system is to do . Includes analysis of what data needs to be replicated. In this step, the team identified above works with the current and future system users to define and model the current business processes in detail. Flow-charting is a common tool used in this step of the system development cycle. This information is then analyzed and a model is devised for the new system that meets the needs of the business. This dynamic process often results in changes to the scope of the project. The project plan must be updated to reflect these changes (e.g., budget, timelines, technical details, and team members). 408.656.2498 14-10
  11. 11. Traditional SDLC – Phase and purpose Phase 4: DESIGN Describes how the proposed system is to be built. The design is specific to the technical requirements the system will be required to operate in and the tools used in building the system. Impacts the build and implementation phases of the SDLC. Describes movement of data between operational databases. In this step, specific technical designs are created to the smallest detail. It is common for several alternative solutions to be identified, but one must ultimately be chosen that best meets the needs of the business and the users. 408.656.2498 14-11
  12. 12. Traditional SDLC – Phase and purpose Phase 4: DESIGN Tradeoffs may become part of the reality of the project, which may include time, money, scope and functionality. Once a solution is agreed upon, the project plan must again be updated. The purpose of system design is to create a blueprint for the new system that will satisfy all documented requirements. Things to identify during system design: 1. All necessary outputs. 2. Inputs 3. Interfaces and 4. Processes 408.656.2498 14-12
  13. 13. Traditional SDLC – Phase and purpose Phase 5: BUILD Deals with the development, unit testing and integration testing of the system modules, screens and reports and data replication to the data warehouse if required. Carried out in parallel with the development of user procedures and user documentation from the implementation phase. 408.656.2498 14-13
  14. 14. Traditional SDLC – Phase and purpose Phase 6: IMPLEMENTATION Prepare for and carry out the implementation of the developed system through user acceptance testing to full production. In this step, the system is created, installed, tested and rolled out with an appropriate training program. To create the system, programming can be done in the traditional manner of writing lines of code; or in the case of Lotus, it is greatly accelerated by the use of tools and templates. Careful project management is needed during this step due to the likelihood of project creep, missed deadlines and cost overruns. 408.656.2498 14-14
  15. 15. Traditional SDLC – Phase and purpose Phase 7: Support In this step, maintenance of the system is important as well as the continuous improvement of the system via feedback from the users. Any proposed alterations in the system usually require returning to the scoping step of the SDLC and proceeding through the cycle to best evaluate, design and implement the changes. 408.656.2498 14-15
  16. 16. An Eight-Stage SDLC • Project initiation • Feasibility study • Logical analysis and design • Acquisition and development • Implementation • Operation • Post-audit evaluation • Maintenance 408.656.2498 14-16
  17. 17. Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) 14-17
  18. 18. Project Initiation • Functional Manager • Formal planning process • IS organization 408.656.2498 14-18
  19. 19. Feasibility Studies • Technology • Economics • Organizational factors • Legal, ethical, and other constraints 408.656.2498 14-19
  20. 20. Logical Analysis and Design • Determine the system’s functions • How will it accomplish those functions • Logical design • Physical design / technical design 408.656.2498 14-20
  21. 21. Logical Design • Generic IS functions: input, output, and storage • Modeling tools: DFDs “Data Flow SoftWare Diagrams” ERDs “Entity Relationship S/W Diagrams” SSADMs “Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method” Booch's Static Diagrams UMLs “Unified Modeling Languaje” • User involvement 408.656.2498 14-21
  22. 22. DFD for teaching 14-22
  23. 23. ERD for teaching 408.656.2498 14-23
  24. 24. Implementation • Parallel conversion • Direct cutover • Pilot conversion • Phased 408.656.2498 14-24
  25. 25. Traditional versus Modern SDLC • Minimal overhead • Flexibility and responsiveness • Concurrent tasks • Focused analysis 408.656.2498 14-25
  26. 26. Parallel SDLC 408.656.2498 14-26
  27. 27. Methods for Complex or Quickly Needed Systems • Prototyping • Rapid Application Development (RAD) • Object-Oriented Development (OOD) • End-User Development (EUD) 408.656.2498 14-27
  28. 28. Prototyping The prototyping approach to systems development is, in many ways, the very opposite of an old-style SDLC. The focus of prototyping is to develop something quickly from the users’ initial set of requirements. Then refine and extend it based on the users’ requirements, which are identified by using the prototype. 408.656.2498 14-28
  29. 29. 408.656.2498 14-29
  30. 30. Rapid Application Development Rapid Application Development (RAD) methodologies and tools have capabilities to meet the demands of the new environment. 408.656.2498 14-30
  31. 31. Components and Capabilities of RAD • GUI development environment • Reusable components • Code generator • Programming language 408.656.2498 14-31
  32. 32. Object-Oriented Development Benefits • Systems are more flexible • Allows analysis to think in real world terms • Ideal for Web development 408.656.2498 14-32
  33. 33. End-User Development Trends • Development speed • Business orientation • Small applications • Control • Apparent cost savings 408.656.2498 14-33
  34. 34. 408.656.2498 14-34
  35. 35. EUD Problems • Limited managerial technical skills • Documentation • Security 408.656.2498 14-35
  36. 36. Third Party Software • Application software packages • Outsourcing • Enterprise software 408.656.2498 14-36
  37. 37. Desirable Outcomes and Implementation Issues • On-time • On-budget • Full functionality • User acceptance • Favorable costs-to-benefits ratio 408.656.2498 14-37
  38. 38. Desirable Outcomes and Implementation Issues • Low maintenance • Scalability • Integration with other systems • Minimal negative cross impacts • Reusability 408.656.2498 14-38
  39. 39. System Development Issues • Internet and intranet applications • JAVA • CASE tools • IS-9000 • Project planning 408.656.2498 14-39
  40. 40. Managerial Issues • Importance • Building inter-organizational and international information systems • Ethical and legal issues • User involvement • Traditional approaches vs. prototyping 408.656.2498 14-40
  41. 41. Managerial Issues • Tool use by developers • Quality assurance vs. schedules • Behavior problems • Perpetual development 408.656.2498 14-41
  42. 42. Orlando A. Moreno, PMP A certified Project Manager and consultant with over ten years of working experience on domestic and International multidisciplinary projects. A team oriented, self-driven individual with an outgoing personality, a keen technical mind, and an eye for detail, a positive attitude, and excellent problem solving skills. Orlando Moreno has made his career helping individuals and organizations turn their potential into performance, succeed in every area of their lives and achieve their dreams. 408.656.2498 14-42