Near Field Communication


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short-range high frequency wireless
communication technology which enables the exchange of data between devices
over about a 10 centimeter (around 4 inches) distance.

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Near Field Communication

  1. 1. NFC Near Field Communication Orlando Moreno 408.656.2498
  2. 2. Definition Near Field Communication or NFC, is a short-range high frequency wireless communication technology which enables the exchange of data between devices over about a 10 centimeter (around 4 inches) distance. Imagine yourself using your cellphone to interact with posters, magazines, and even with products while at the store, and with such interaction initiating a request or search for related information in real-time. Other usages of NFC include the electronic wallet to make payments using your handset, the same way you do with your credit card. With NFC all this is possible and leveraged it in your Java application by using the Contactless Communications API. But NFC is still a young technology. That said, NFC-enabled handsets are being introduced into the market, and deployments and pilots around the world are occurring. 408.656.2498 2
  3. 3. Definition The technology is a simple extension of the ISO/IEC 14443 proximity-card standard (contactless card, RFID) that combines the interface of a smartcard and a reader into a single device. An NFC device can communicate with both existing ISO/IEC 14443 smartcards and readers, as well as with other NFC devices, and is thereby compatible with existing contactless infrastructure already in use for public transportation and payment. NFC is primarily aimed at usage in mobile phones. Near-field Communication or NFC is a standard defined by the NFC Forum, a global consortium of hardware, software/application, credit card companies, banking, network-providers, and others who are interested in the advancement and standardization of this promising technology. 408.656.2498 3
  4. 4. Definition NFC operates on the 13.56 MHz frequency, with data transfers of up to 424 kilobits per second and is triggered when two NFC-compatible devices are brought within close proximity, around four centimeters. Because the transmission range is so short, NFC-based transactions are inherently secure. How do NFC compares to the other short- range communication technologies? The following table provides a quick comparison: 408.656.2498 4
  5. 5. Basic Specifications Like ISO/IEC 14443, NFC communicates via magnetic field induction, where two loop antennas are located within each other's near field, effectively forming an air- core transformer. It operates within the globally available and unlicensed radio frequency ISM band of 13.56 MHz, with a bandwidth of 14 kHz. There are two modes:  Passive Communication Mode: The Initiator device provides a carrier field and the target device answers by modulating Active Passive Baud existing field. In this mode, the Target device may draw its device device operating power from the Initiator-provided electromagnetic 424 kBd Manchester, 10% ASK Manchester, 10% ASK field, thus making the Target device a transponder. 212 Manchester, Manchester,  Active Communication Mode: Both Initiator and Target device kBd 10% ASK 10% ASK communicate by alternately generating their own field. A 106 Modified Miller, Manchester, kBd 10% ASK device deactivates its RF field while it is waiting for data. In 100% ASK this mode, both devices typically need to have a power supply. 408.656.2498 5
  6. 6. Basic Specifications • Working distance with compact standard antennas: up to 20 cm • Supported data rates: 106, 212, 424 or 848 kbit/s • NFC employs two different codings to transfer data. If an active device transfers data at 106 kbit/s, a modified Miller coding with 100% modulation is used. In all other cases Manchester coding is used with a modulation ratio of 10%. • NFC devices are able to receive and transmit data at the same time. Thus, they can check the radio frequency field and detect a collision if the received signal does not match with the transmitted signal. 408.656.2498 6
  7. 7. Basic Specifications The NFC Forum has released eleven specifications to date • NFC Data Exchange Format (NDEF) - Common data format for devices and tags • NFC Tag Types 1,2,3 &4 Operation - Defines RW operation for NFC tags • NFC Record Type Definition (RTD) - Standard record types used in messages between devices/tags • Smart Poster RTD - For posters with tags with text, audio or other data • Text RTD - For records containing plain text • Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) RTD - For records that refer to an Internet resource • Generic COntrol Record Type Definition (RTD) - Ways to request an action • Connection Handover Specification - How to establish a connection with other wireless technologies 408.656.2498 7
  8. 8. Uses and applications NFC technology is currently mainly aimed at being used with mobile phones. There are three main use cases for NFC: card emulation: the NFC device behaves like an existing contactless card reader mode: the NFC device is active and read a passive RFID tag, for example for interactive advertising P2P mode: two NFC devices are communicating together and exchanging information. 408.656.2498 8
  9. 9. Uses and applications Plenty of applications are possible, such as:  Mobile ticketing in public transport — an extension of the existing contactless infrastructure.  Mobile payment — the device acts as a debit / credit payment card.  Smart poster — the mobile phone is used to read RFID tags on outdoor billboards in order to get info on the move.  Bluetooth pairing — in the future pairing of Bluetooth 2.1 devices with NFC support will be as easy as bringing them close together and accepting the pairing. The process of activating Bluetooth on both sides, searching, waiting, pairing and authorization will be replaced by a simple "touch" of the mobile phones. 408.656.2498 9
  10. 10. Uses and applications Other applications in the future could include:  Electronic ticketing — airline tickets, concert/event tickets, and others  Electronic money  Travel cards  Identity documents  Mobile commerce  Electronic keys — car keys, house/office keys, hotel room keys, etc.  NFC can be used to configure and initiate other wireless network connections such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or Ultra-wideband. 408.656.2498 10
  11. 11. Uses and applications  A patent licensing program for NFC is currently under development by Via Licensing Corporation, an independent subsidiary of Dolby Laboratories.  A Public platform independent Near Field Communication (NFC) library is released under the free GNU General Public License by the name libnfc.  In December 2008 the application eCL0WN was released which allows you to read and copy the chip content of biometric passports. 408.656.2498 11
  12. 12. NFC vs Bluetooth NFC and Bluetooth are both short-range communication technologies which have recently been integrated into mobile phones. The significant advantage of NFC over Bluetooth is the shorter set-up time. Instead of performing manual configurations to identify Bluetooth devices, the connection between two NFC devices is established at once (under a tenth of a second). To avoid the complicated configuration process, NFC can be used for the set-up of wireless technologies, such as Bluetooth. The maximum data transfer rate of NFC (424 kbit/s) is slower than Bluetooth (2.1 Mbit/s). With less than 20 cm, NFC has a shorter range, which provides a degree of security and makes NFC suitable for crowded areas where correlating a signal with its transmitting physical device (and by extension, its user) might otherwise prove impossible. 408.656.2498 12
  13. 13. NFC vs Bluetooth In contrast to Bluetooth, NFC is compatible with existing RFID structures. NFC uses significantly less power than Bluetooth, and NFC can also work when one of the devices is not powered (e.g. on a phone that may be turned off, a contactless smart credit card, a smart poster, etc.). NFC Bluetooth Network Type Point-to-point Point-to-multipoint Range < 0.2 m 10 m Frequency 13.56 MHz 2.4-2.5 GHz Bit rate 424 kbit/s 2.1 Mbit/s Set-up time < 0.1 s 6s Compatible with RFID Yes No 408.656.2498 13
  14. 14. Standardization Standards NFC was approved as an ISO/IEC standard on December 8, 2003 and later as an ECMA standard. NFC is an open platform technology standardized in ECMA-340 and ISO/IEC 18092. These standards specify the modulation schemes, coding, transfer speeds and frame format of the RF interface of NFC devices, as well as initialization schemes and conditions required for data collision-control during initialization-for both passive and active NFC modes. Furthermore, they also define the transport protocol, including protocol activation and data-exchange methods. Air interface for NFC is standardized in: ISO/IEC 18092 / ECMA-340 : Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol-1 (NFCIP-1) ISO/IEC 21481 / ECMA-352 : Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol-2 (NFCIP-2) 408.656.2498 14
  15. 15. Standardization Standards NFC incorporates a variety of pre-existing standards including ISO/IEC 14443 both Type A (normal) and Type B (banking/short range), and FeliCa. NFC enabled phones thus show basic interoperability with the preexisting reader infrastructure. Especially in "card emulation mode" a NFC device should at least transmit a unique ID number to a pre-existing reader. In addition, NFC Forum has defined a common data format called NDEF, which can be used to store and transport different kinds of items, ranging from any MIME-typed object to ultra-short RTD-documents, such as URLs. NDEF is conceptually very similar to MIME. It is a dense binary format of so- called "records", in which each record can hold a different type of object. By convention, the type of the first record defines the context of the entire message. 408.656.2498 15
  16. 16. Standardization NFC Forum The Forum is a non-profit industry association announced on March 18, 2004 by NXP Semiconductors, Sony and Nokia to advance the use of NFC short-range wireless interaction in consumer electronics, mobile devices and PCs. The NFC Forum promotes implementation and standardization of NFC technology to ensure interoperability between devices and services. In September 2008, there were over 150 members of the NFC Forum.  408.656.2498 16
  17. 17. Standardization GSMA The GSM Association (GSMA) is the global trade association representing 700 mobile phone operators across 218 countries of the world. They have launched two initiatives: the Mobile NFC initiative: fourteen mobile network operators, who together represent 40% of the global mobile market back NFC and are working together to develop NFC applications. They are Bouygues Télécom, China Mobile, AT&T, KPN, Mobilkom Austria, Orange, SFR, SK Telecom, Telefonica Móviles España, Telenor, TeliaSonera, Telecom Italia Mobile (TIM), Vodafone and 3 On 13 February 2007, they published a white paper on NFC to give the point of view of mobile operators on the NFC ecosystem. the Pay buy mobile initiative seeks to define a common global approach to using Near Field Communications (NFC) technology to link mobile devices with payment and contactless systems. To date, 30 mobile operators have joined this initiative. 408.656.2498 17
  18. 18. Standardization StoLPaN StoLPaN (‘Store Logistics and Payment with NFC’) is a pan-European consortium supported by the European Commission’s Information Society Technologies program. StoLPaN will examine the as yet untapped potential for bringing together the new kind of local wireless interface, NFC and mobile communication. Other standardization bodies Other standardization bodies that are involved in NFC include:  ETSI / SCP (Smart Card Platform) to specify the interface between the SIM card and the NFC chipset.  GlobalPlatform to specify a multi-application architecture of the secure element.  EMVCo for the impacts on the EMV payment applications. 408.656.2498 18
  19. 19. NFC Modes The NFC forum defines three communication modes, as illustrated next: Where:  Peer-to-Peer mode is defined for device to device link-level communication. Note that this mode is not supported by the Contactless Communication API.  Read/Write mode allows applications for the transmission of NFC Forum-defined messages. Note that this mode is not secure. This mode is supported the Contactless Communication API.  NFC Card Emulation mode allows the NFC-handset behave as a standard Smartcard. This mode is secure. This mode is supported by the Contactless Communication API. 408.656.2498 19
  20. 20. Terminology  Bluetooth Short-range (10–100m) wireless communication protocol  GSM Global System for Mobile communication  NFC Near Field Communication  PDA Personal Digital Assistant  RF Radio Frequency  RFID Radio Frequency Identification  SoC System on Chip  UWB Ultra Wide Band  WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access  WiFi Wireless Fidelity – wireless networking technology based on IEEE 802.11 standards 408.656.2498 20
  21. 21. NFC Terminology  NDEF - NFC Data Exchange Format - standard exchange formats for URI, Smart Posters, other  RTD - Record Type Definition - An NFC-specific record type and type name which may be carried in an NDEF record  NDEF message - Basic message construct defined by this specification. An NDEF message contains one or more NDEF records  NDEF record - Contains a payload described by a type, a length, and an optional identifier  NDEF payload - The application data carried within an NDEF record 408.656.2498 21
  22. 22. Security aspects Although the communication range of NFC is limited to a few centimeters, NFC alone does not ensure secure communications. In 2006, Ernst Haselsteiner and Klemens Breitfuß described different possible types of attacks. NFC offers no protection against eavesdropping and is also vulnerable to data modifications. Applications have to use higher-layer cryptographic protocols (e.g., SSL) to establish a secure channel. Eavesdropping The RF signal for the wireless data transfer can be picked up with antennas. The distance from which an attacker is able to eavesdrop the RF signal depends on numerous parameters, but is typically a small number of meters. Also, eavesdropping is extremely affected by the communication mode. A passive device, which does not generate its own RF field is much harder to eavesdrop on than an active device. An Open source device which is able to eavesdrop passive and active NFC communications is the Proxmark instrument. 408.656.2498 22
  23. 23. Security aspects Data modification Data destruction is relatively easy to realize. One possibility to perturb the signal is the usage of an RFID jammer. There is no way to prevent such an attack, but if the NFC devices check the RF field while they are sending, it is possible to detect it. Unauthorized modification of data, which results in valid messages, is much more complicated and demands a thorough understanding. In order to modify the transmitted data an intruder has to deal with the single bits of the RF signal. The feasibility of this attack, i.e., if it is possible to change the value of a bit from 0 to 1 or the other way around, is amongst others subject to the strength of the amplitude modulation. If data is transferred with the modified Miller coding and a modulation of 100%, only certain bits can be modified. 408.656.2498 23
  24. 24. Security aspects Data modification A modulation ratio of 100% makes it possible to eliminate a pause of the RF signal, but not to generate a pause where no pause has been. Thus, only a 1 which is followed by another 1 might be changed. Transmitting Manchester encoded data with a modulation ratio of 10% permits a modification attack on all bits. Relay attack Because NFC devices are usually also implementing ISO/IEC 14443 functionality, the relay attack described are also feasible on NFC. For this attack the adversary has to forward the request of the reader to the victim and relay back its answer to the reader in real time, in order to carry out a task pretending to be the owner of the victim’s smart card. One of libnfc code examples demonstrates a relay attack using only two stock commercial NFC devices. 408.656.2498 24
  25. 25. The Contactless Communication API The Contactless Communication API Java specification, led by Nokia and defined under the Java Community Process as JSR-257 , defines a set of APIs for proximity, contactless-based communication. 408.656.2498 25
  26. 26. Anatomy of a Contactless Communication API MIDlet Where we have the following typical elements:  The Java Runtime with JSR-257 implementation,  the MIDlet application running on a handset,  RFID/NFC transponder, controllers, and baseband,  a SIM card, as well as secure and external elements. 408.656.2498 26
  27. 27. NFC-enabled handsets  Nokia 6216 Classic  Nokia 6212 Classic  Nokia 6131  Nokia 3220 + NFC Shell  Samsung SGH-X700 NFC  Samsung D500E  SAGEM my700X Contactless  LG 600V contactless An NFC mobile phone interacting  Motorola L7 (SLVR) with a 'smart poster'  Benq T80 408.656.2498 27
  28. 28. Using the Contactless Communication API The Contactless Communication API allows you to discover and exchange data with supported contactless radio and visual targets (tags). Applications using the Contactless Communication API typically follow the flow illustrated next: Where:  The first step is for the application to query the implementation to discover the target types that are supported by the handset, 408.656.2498 28
  29. 29. Using the Contactless Communication API Where:  For each supported target type, the application can register a target listener to receive activity notifications. Alternatively, the application can register with the PushRegistry for activation due to target activity; supported target activities are NDEF and secure element in card emulation mode activities,  As targets come into proximity, they are detected (discovered) by the implementation, which in turn notifies the application(s) by invoking the appropriate activity listeners. Alternatively the PushRegistry activates the MIDlet,  For each discovered target, the application can learn the target's properties,  The application can connect to, read, write and exchange data with the discovered target,  When done, to release resources, the application closes any opened connections. 408.656.2498 29
  30. 30. Summary As NFC becomes more widely adopted as a mass-market technology, the advantages of SoC implementations become more compelling. Bluetooth chipset manufacturers have already shown that Bluetooth/FM integration provides a successful business model in the mobile phone market. If anything, the business case for Bluetooth/NFC integration is even better, across a broader range of applications – and this model applies equally well to other chipsets. Designing and implementing NFC SoC circuitry requires detailed knowledge and experience. Mistakes or late changes in the design of a Bluetooth or WiFi chipset could cost hundreds of thousands of dollars to put right. It therefore makes sense for chipset manufacturers considering on-chip implementations of NFC to seek expert help and guidance in the design process. Innovision Research & Technology has been in the business of developing NFC IP for many years – since its inception, in fact – and is now helping several key industry players add integrated NFC to their offerings. 408.656.2498 30
  31. 31. Questions Orlando Moreno 408.656.2498 31