ZOROASTRIANISM 161 been influenced here by personal discussions and 21. Ibid., 9. interviews with Professor Michael Sinunons) main- 22. Pavry, Zoroastrian Doctrine, 56. tain that there is no historical basis for this conclusion. They posit that the antiquity of the Gatha hymns, 23· Comments here on marriage are based on John R authc:>red by Zarathustra, and the structure of their Hinnells, Zoroastrianism and the Pams (London: Ward language argue for an earlier date. In addition, they Lock Educational, 1981),44-48. point out that the society pictured by these earliest 24. Firoze M. Kotwal and James W Boyd, eds. and trans., Zoroastrian writings is pastoral and unsophisticated, A Guide to the Zoroastrian Religion: A Nineteenth-Century not organized and settled as was the case in the later Catechism with Modern Commentary (Chico, Calif.: times of Cyrus the Great. Scholars Press, 1982), 127. For more on the many re- 6. Boyce, Zoroastrians, 46, 48. strictions and taboos associated with marriage, child- birth, widowhood, and remarriage, see 125- 37. 7. Ali A. Jafarey, The Passing Away if Asho Zarathustra: A lleatise Based on Available Sources in Avesta, Pahlavi, 25. In preparing this section I have generally drawn upon Arabic, and Persian SCriptlires (Teheran: n.p., 1980), 4. Phillip Lopates article, "Zoroaster in the New World," New }Crk Times Magazine, October 19, 1986, 8. James Darmesteter. trans., in E Max Muller, ed., The pp. 82-85, 100-101. Sacred Books cif the East, 50 vols. (1879-19ro; reprint, New Delhi, India: n.p., 1965), 47:153; Robert Ernest 26. Ibid., 84. Hume, The Worlds Living Religions , rev. ed. 27. EllisT. Rasmussen, "Zoroastrianism," Ensign, Novem- (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1959), 202. ber 1971, 37. 9· Boyce, Zoroastrians, 19. 28. James Whitehurst, "The Zoroastrian Connection:ro. Ibid., 31; Hume, Worlds Living Religions, 203-6. Mormon Theologys Persian Roots" (paper delivered at the annual Sunstone Conference, Salt Lake City,II. Jafarey, Passing Away,S. 1987; typescript in the possession of Spencer J.12. Boyce, Zoroastrians, 19-20. Palmer), 15.13. The translations of the Zoroastrian scriptures used 29. See Hume, Worlds Living Religions, 199. herein are those of S. Insler, in The Gathas cif Zarathus- 30. Rasmussen, "Zoroastrianism," 38. tra, vol. I of Textes et memoires, 3d series of Acta franim: EncyclopMie permanente des etudes iraniennes . 31. Hume, Worlds Living Religions, 199-.400. (Teheran: Bibliotheque PaWavi, 1975). 32. Ibid., 200; Lewis M. Hopfe, Religions of the World, 6th14. Boyce, Zoroastrians, 22-23. ed. (New York: Macmillan College Publishing, 1994),259.15. Mary Boyce, A Persian Stronghold of Zoroastrianism (Oxford, Engl.: At the Clarendon Press, 1977), 61. 33. Rasmussen, "Zoroastrianism," 37.16. Boyce, Zoroastrians, 20. 34· Robert C. Zaehner, ZurlJan: A Zoroastrian Dilemma (Oxford, Engl.: Oxford University Press, 1955), 132.17. IIya Gershevitch, "Zoroasters Own Contribution," Journal of Near Eastern Studies 23, no. I (January 35· Whitehurst, "Zoroastrian Connection," 4. See also 1964): 12. Boyce, Zoroastrians, 31-32; Jacques Duchesne- Guillernin, Symbols and lIalues in Zoroastrianism: Their18. Boyce, Zoroastrians, 30. Survival and Renewal (New York: Harper and Row,19· Zaehner, Teachings cif the Magi, 77. Harper Torch Books, 1970), 50.20. This section is based primarily upon Jal Dastur 36. Whitehurst, "Zoroastrian Connection," 18n. Cursetji Pavry, The Zoroastrian Doctrine of a Future 37. Ibid., 5· Life: From Death to the Individual Judgment, 2d ed., Columbia University Indo-Iranian Series, vol. I I 38. Zaehner, Teachings if the Magi, 99. (New York: AMS Press, 1965). 39· Duchesne-Guillernin, Symbols and Ullues, 139.