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COPYRIGHT, MEDIA ETHICS,
LIBERTY & PRIVACY
AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
Aram Sinnreich

Associate Professor

American Univ...
Configurable

Culture
/CONFIGURABLE CULTURE/
NEW CULTURAL FORMS & PRACTICES
MemesMashups Machinima …& Much More
/CONFIGURABLE CULTURE/
CONSUMPTION VS. PRODUCTION
CONSUMPTION PRODUCTIONPRODUCTION-

ADJACENT
CONSUMPTION-

ADJACENT
???
/CONFIGURABLE CULTURE/
COPYRIGHT IS STILL VERY 19TH CENTURY
PERMISSION THEFT
(Exceptions & User Rights)
/CONFIGURABLE CULTURE/
21ST CENTURY CULTURAL LOGICS, SOCIAL FORMATIONS & INSTITUTIONS
Survey
/SURVEY/
RESPONDENTS: ONLINE, ENGLISH-SPEAKING ADULTS
2014-15
452 U.S.

945 non-US
U.S. 452

U.K. 172

India 147

Australi...
Awareness
/SURVEY/AWARENESS/
AWARENESS OF CONFIGURABLE CULTURE HAS JUMPED IN THE U.S.
PHOTOSHOP
MUSIC MASHUP
MODS
AMV
VID REMIX
MACH...
/SURVEY/AWARENESS/
MUSIC MASHUPS: AWARENESS BY NATION, 2010-2015
US
PHILIPPINES
UK
S. AFRICA
CANADA
SINGAPORE
AUSTRALIA
IN...
Consumption
/SURVEY/CONSUMPTION/
CONSUMPTION HAS SKYROCKETED IN THE U.S.
PHOTOSHOP
MUSIC MASHUP
MODS
VID REMIX
MACHINIMA
AMVS
NONE
0 2...
/SURVEY/CONSUMPTION/
GENERAL CONSUMPTION BY NATION, 2010-2015
US
INDIA
PHILIPPINES
S. AFRICA
SINGAPORE
UK
CANADA
AUSTRALIA...
Engagement
/SURVEY/ENGAGEMENT/
MUSIC ENGAGEMENT BY NATION, 2010-2015
PHILIPPINES
SINGAPORE
US
INDIA
S. AFRICA
UK
CANADA
AUSTRALIA
0 2...
/SURVEY/ENGAGEMENT/
VIDEO ENGAGEMENT BY NATION, 2010-2015
PHILIPPINES
INDIA
US
CANADA
S. AFRICA
UK
SINGAPORE
AUSTRALIA
0 2...
/SURVEY/ENGAGEMENT/
GLOBAL AWARENESS VS. CONSUMPTION VS. ENGAGEMENT, 2014/15
PHOTOSHOP
MUSIC MASHUP
MEMES
VID REMIX
AMV
MA...
Opinions
/SURVEY/OPINIONS/
U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT ORIGINALITY, 2006
25
50
75
100
32.3
49.1
18.5
25
50
75
100
44.6
44.7
10.7
18-25 35-4...
/SURVEY/OPINIONS/
U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT ORIGINALITY, 2006-2010
25
50
75
100
2006 2010
18.7
18.7
32.3
48.7
49.1
13.918.5
25
5...
/SURVEY/OPINIONS/
U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT ORIGINALITY, 2006-2014
25
50
75
100
2006 2010 2014
1
18.7 13.7
18.7
32.3
62.7
48.7
4...
/SURVEY/OPINIONS/
U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT COPYRIGHT, 2006
25
50
75
100
42.2
45.6
12.2
25
50
75
100
60.5
33.9
5.7
0
25
50
75
10...
/SURVEY/OPINIONS/
U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT COPYRIGHT, 2006-2010
25
50
75
100
2006 2010
18.2
31.6
42.2
43.9
45.6
6.412.2
25
50
7...
/SURVEY/OPINIONS/
U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT COPYRIGHT, 2006-2014
25
50
75
100
2006 2010 2014
18.2 18.6
31.6
42.2
56.9
43.9
45.6
...
/SURVEY/OPINIONS/
U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT ORIGINALITY BY EXPOSURE, 2015
Heard of

Mashups
0
25
50
75
100 2.3
10.1
65.5
22.1
Or...
/SURVEY/OPINIONS/
ALL/SOME USES CAN BE “ORIGINAL”, 2010-2015
US
PHILIPPINES
INDIA
SINGAPORE
CANADA
UK
MALAYSIA
S AFRICA
AU...
/SURVEY/OPINIONS/
ALL/SOME USES SHOULDN’T REQUIRE PERMISSION, 2010-2015
US
PHILIPPINES
UK
MALAYSIA
CANADA
INDIA
SINGAPORE
...
Ethics
/SURVEY/ETHICS/
THE ETHICS OF CONFIGURABILITY: 12 CRITERIA
Unethical Criterion	(n	=	574) Ethical
Unpermissioned Legal	(91)...
/SURVEY/ETHICS/
CRITERION: AUTHENTICITY
“Remixes are fun, but
the original creators
should be given their
due credit as we...
/SURVEY/ETHICS/
CRITERION: INNOVATION
“I have NEVER seen
or heard anything
that, in my opinion, is
better than the
origina...
/SURVEY/ETHICS/
CRITERION: POWER RELATIONS
“I feel that technology has
moved to a point where
legislation can no longer
ke...
/SURVEY/ETHICS/
CRITERION: INDUSTRY RELATIONS
“I think copyright holders
(music labels, movie
companies) could do more
to ...
/SURVEY/ETHICS/
ETHICAL FRAMEWORKS VARY BY NATION (2014/15 DATA)
US Phil Aust MalayCanada NZ UK India S. Afr
Innovation
Us...
Law
/COPYRIGHT LAW/
CHANGES AFOOT IN COPYRIGHT LANDSCAPE (2016 EDITION)
TPP COMPLETION

LONGER (C) TERMS

ANTI-CIRCUMVENTION
D...
/CONCLUSION/
WHAT ROLE CAN LIBRARIES PLAY?
‣ Preserve the public domain
‣ Protect access to knowledge
‣ Stand up for user ...
THANK YOU.
ARAM@AMERICAN.EDU
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LIDA 2016: COPYRIGHT, MEDIA ETHICS, LIBERTY & PRIVACY AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

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Presentation given at "Libraries in the Digital Age", June 2016: COPYRIGHT, MEDIA ETHICS, LIBERTY & PRIVACY
AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE. Uses international survey data to examine trends in digital culture, and implications for copyright law and library policy

Published in: Education
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LIDA 2016: COPYRIGHT, MEDIA ETHICS, LIBERTY & PRIVACY AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

  1. 1. COPYRIGHT, MEDIA ETHICS, LIBERTY & PRIVACY AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE Aram Sinnreich
 Associate Professor
 American University SOC Presented at LIDA
 Zadar, Croatia
 June 14, 2016
  2. 2. Configurable
 Culture
  3. 3. /CONFIGURABLE CULTURE/ NEW CULTURAL FORMS & PRACTICES MemesMashups Machinima …& Much More
  4. 4. /CONFIGURABLE CULTURE/ CONSUMPTION VS. PRODUCTION CONSUMPTION PRODUCTIONPRODUCTION-
 ADJACENT CONSUMPTION-
 ADJACENT ???
  5. 5. /CONFIGURABLE CULTURE/ COPYRIGHT IS STILL VERY 19TH CENTURY PERMISSION THEFT (Exceptions & User Rights)
  6. 6. /CONFIGURABLE CULTURE/ 21ST CENTURY CULTURAL LOGICS, SOCIAL FORMATIONS & INSTITUTIONS
  7. 7. Survey
  8. 8. /SURVEY/ RESPONDENTS: ONLINE, ENGLISH-SPEAKING ADULTS 2014-15 452 U.S.
 945 non-US U.S. 452
 U.K. 172
 India 147
 Australia 144
 Canada 118
 Philippines 83
 New Zealand 52
 Ireland 52
 Singapore 52
 South Africa 51
 Malaysia 47 2010 1,100 U.S.
 1,955 non-US U.S. 971
 India 291 
 Turkey 270
 Canada 148 
 Canada 148
 South Africa 146 
 Philippines 129
 Israel 64
 Australia 63
 Singapore 62
 U.K. 52 
 Sweden 41
 Malaysia 40 2006 1,779
 U.S.
  9. 9. Awareness
  10. 10. /SURVEY/AWARENESS/ AWARENESS OF CONFIGURABLE CULTURE HAS JUMPED IN THE U.S. PHOTOSHOP MUSIC MASHUP MODS AMV VID REMIX MACHINIMA NONE 0 25 50 75 100 17.9 11 27.6 21.5 16.6 24.1 42.8 14.6 10.6 31.8 25.1 12.9 31.4 39.6 1.3 40 53.8 57.1 58.4 77 90.3 US 2014 US 2010 US 2006
  11. 11. /SURVEY/AWARENESS/ MUSIC MASHUPS: AWARENESS BY NATION, 2010-2015 US PHILIPPINES UK S. AFRICA CANADA SINGAPORE AUSTRALIA INDIA 0 25 50 75 100 44.3 30.2 41.9 41.2 47.9 34.6 56.6 31.4 42.2 44.4 57.7 61.9 62.8 69.8 69.9 77 2015 2010
  12. 12. Consumption
  13. 13. /SURVEY/CONSUMPTION/ CONSUMPTION HAS SKYROCKETED IN THE U.S. PHOTOSHOP MUSIC MASHUP MODS VID REMIX MACHINIMA AMVS NONE 0 25 50 75 100 44.4 7.1 5.2 10 6.9 11.9 14.5 4.9 19 20.1 25.2 38.9 43.4 68.1 US 2014 US 2010
  14. 14. /SURVEY/CONSUMPTION/ GENERAL CONSUMPTION BY NATION, 2010-2015 US INDIA PHILIPPINES S. AFRICA SINGAPORE UK CANADA AUSTRALIA 0 25 50 75 100 59.3 61.4 60.4 80.4 70.6 88.4 86.2 55.6 60.4 73.7 75.6 80.8 86.3 91.6 94.6 95.1 2015 2010
  15. 15. Engagement
  16. 16. /SURVEY/ENGAGEMENT/ MUSIC ENGAGEMENT BY NATION, 2010-2015 PHILIPPINES SINGAPORE US INDIA S. AFRICA UK CANADA AUSTRALIA 0 25 50 75 100 73 73 65.4 89.7 92.1 64.7 90.3 98.4 75 78.2 87.2 94.1 95.2 95.8 96.2 98.8 2015 2010
  17. 17. /SURVEY/ENGAGEMENT/ VIDEO ENGAGEMENT BY NATION, 2010-2015 PHILIPPINES INDIA US CANADA S. AFRICA UK SINGAPORE AUSTRALIA 0 25 50 75 100 52.4 69.4 53.8 71.9 53.4 53.8 84.5 84.5 59 65.4 68 70.6 75.4 87.2 92.5 92.8 2015 2010
  18. 18. /SURVEY/ENGAGEMENT/ GLOBAL AWARENESS VS. CONSUMPTION VS. ENGAGEMENT, 2014/15 PHOTOSHOP MUSIC MASHUP MEMES VID REMIX AMV MACHINIMA 0 25 50 75 100 5 4 5 22 7 34 15 19 24 43 33 53 27 46 52 58 63 79 Awareness Consumption Engagement
  19. 19. Opinions
  20. 20. /SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT ORIGINALITY, 2006 25 50 75 100 32.3 49.1 18.5 25 50 75 100 44.6 44.7 10.7 18-25 35-44 55+ 0 25 50 75 100 22.2 59.9 17.9 Original Sometimes Never
  21. 21. /SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT ORIGINALITY, 2006-2010 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 18.7 18.7 32.3 48.7 49.1 13.918.5 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 26.7 25.2 44.6 38.7 44.7 9.410.7 0 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 10.4 20.8 22.2 60.4 59.9 8.3 17.9 Original Sometimes Never No Answer 18-25 35-44 55+
  22. 22. /SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT ORIGINALITY, 2006-2014 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 2014 1 18.7 13.7 18.7 32.3 62.7 48.7 49.1 22.5 13.9 18.5 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 2014 12.126.7 30.3 25.2 44.6 42.4 38.7 44.7 15.2 9.410.7 0 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 2014 3.8 10.4 11.3 20.8 22.2 57.5 60.4 59.9 27.4 8.3 17.9 Original Sometimes Never No Answer 18-25 35-44 55+
  23. 23. /SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT COPYRIGHT, 2006 25 50 75 100 42.2 45.6 12.2 25 50 75 100 60.5 33.9 5.7 0 25 50 75 100 27.7 53.3 18.9 All Fair Some Uses All Theft 18-25 35-44 55+
  24. 24. /SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT COPYRIGHT, 2006-2010 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 18.2 31.6 42.2 43.9 45.6 6.412.2 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 17.7 47.4 60.5 30.8 33.9 4.15.7 0 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 16.7 29.2 27.7 43.8 53.3 10.4 18.9 All Fair Some Uses All Theft No Answer 18-25 35-44 55+
  25. 25. /SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT COPYRIGHT, 2006-2014 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 2014 18.2 18.6 31.6 42.2 56.9 43.9 45.6 24.5 6.412.2 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 2014 9.117.7 36.4 47.4 60.5 48.5 30.8 33.9 6.14.15.7 0 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 2014 2.8 16.7 12.3 29.2 27.7 49.1 43.8 53.3 35.8 10.4 18.9 All Fair Some Uses All Theft No Answer 18-25 35-44 55+
  26. 26. /SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT ORIGINALITY BY EXPOSURE, 2015 Heard of
 Mashups 0 25 50 75 100 2.3 10.1 65.5 22.1 Original Sometimes Unoriginal No Answer 25 50 75 100 1.7 6.1 69.1 23.2 Heard of
 Machinima 25 50 75 100 1.6 8.9 65.9 23.6 Heard of
 AMVs 25 50 75 100 13.6 27.2 40.9 18.2 Never Heard of These Four 25 50 75 100 1.6 10.3 64.6 23.5 Heard of
 Vid Remix
  27. 27. /SURVEY/OPINIONS/ ALL/SOME USES CAN BE “ORIGINAL”, 2010-2015 US PHILIPPINES INDIA SINGAPORE CANADA UK MALAYSIA S AFRICA AUSTRALIA 0 25 50 75 100 44.4 56.8 65 55.8 52.7 56.5 51.9 62.8 54.8 45.1 58.8 63.8 65.1 65.3 65.4 68 79.5 84.1 2015 2010
  28. 28. /SURVEY/OPINIONS/ ALL/SOME USES SHOULDN’T REQUIRE PERMISSION, 2010-2015 US PHILIPPINES UK MALAYSIA CANADA INDIA SINGAPORE S AFRICA AUSTRALIA 0 25 50 75 100 34.9 44.5 56.5 45 45.3 52.5 50 47.3 44.6 38.9 49 51.9 54.4 55.1 57.4 58.7 62.7 79.4 2015 2010
  29. 29. Ethics
  30. 30. /SURVEY/ETHICS/ THE ETHICS OF CONFIGURABILITY: 12 CRITERIA Unethical Criterion (n = 574) Ethical Unpermissioned Legal (91) Permissioned For profit Commercial (37) Not for profit Pretension AuthenAcity (24) Referenced Unoriginal InnovaAon (121) Original Easy Labor (7) Hard work BastardizaAon Moral (8) Homage Rupture ConAnuity (17) EvoluAon Useless/Harmful Use Value (112) Fun/Beneficial Ugly AestheAc (69) BeauAful Subversive Power RelaAons (37) Empowering Meaningless Self Expression (35) Expressive ExploitaAve Industry RelaAons (16) PromoAonal
  31. 31. /SURVEY/ETHICS/ CRITERION: AUTHENTICITY “Remixes are fun, but the original creators should be given their due credit as well.” 
 - Irish F, 26-29 “Remixes are enjoyed by some people but those who are making it should consider crediting the owner of material.”
 - Filipino M, 30-34 “They’re fine as long as they aren’t blatantly ripping off other remixes.”
 - U.S. M, 22-25
  32. 32. /SURVEY/ETHICS/ CRITERION: INNOVATION “I have NEVER seen or heard anything that, in my opinion, is better than the original.” 
 - Australian M, 70+ “I think mashups are a form of musical art and and sometimes even sound better than the original.”
 - S. African M, 22-25 “Some remixes are very innovative others are poor copies.”
 - U.K. M, 60-64
  33. 33. /SURVEY/ETHICS/ CRITERION: POWER RELATIONS “I feel that technology has moved to a point where legislation can no longer keep up with controlling permissions on copyright materials”
 - Australian M, 65-69 “The DMCA system is corrupted and abused to hell and needs a reform”
 - U.S. M, 30-34 “i think major copyright reform is required. The law has lost its meaning. How does applying copyright for 50 years after the death of a person provide incentives to continue creating.”
 - Irish M, 30-34
  34. 34. /SURVEY/ETHICS/ CRITERION: INDUSTRY RELATIONS “I think copyright holders (music labels, movie companies) could do more to make material available to talented remixers and masher-uppers - supporting people who can get their stuff to new audiences could be a good business move.”
 - Australian F, 30-34 “So long as the individual does not make money from somebody's work, mashups and remixes should be allowed. In my eyes I see it as free advertisement.”
 - U.K. M, 18-21 “I think large organizations should view mash-ups as free advertising and be glad that they're getting extra exposure, as long as no one is making money off it..”
 - Canadian F, 26-29
  35. 35. /SURVEY/ETHICS/ ETHICAL FRAMEWORKS VARY BY NATION (2014/15 DATA) US Phil Aust MalayCanada NZ UK India S. Afr Innovation Use Value Legal Aesthetic Power Expression Commercial Authentic Industry Continuity
  36. 36. Law
  37. 37. /COPYRIGHT LAW/ CHANGES AFOOT IN COPYRIGHT LANDSCAPE (2016 EDITION) TPP COMPLETION
 LONGER (C) TERMS
 ANTI-CIRCUMVENTION DRM MANDATE
 RESTRICTIONS ON FAIR USE CISA PASSAGE
 IP AS “CYBERSECURITY” CORPORATE IMMUNITY FOR SURVEILLANCE FAIR USE WINS
 GOOGLE BOOKS
 LENZ V. UNIVERSAL TUFAMERICA V. JAY-Z ORACLE V. GOOGLE U.S. OPEN LICENSING
 CREATIVE COMMONS:
 1 BILLION LICENSED WORKS International FAIR DEALING EXPANSION PIRATE PARTY ADVANCES ACROSS EUROPE TTIP NEGOTIATIONS:
 STRONGER IP ENFORCEMENT NEW LIMITS ON USER RIGHTS “ACTA 2”?
  38. 38. /CONCLUSION/ WHAT ROLE CAN LIBRARIES PLAY? ‣ Preserve the public domain ‣ Protect access to knowledge ‣ Stand up for user rights ‣ Educate the citizenry ‣ Support open source technology ‣ Respect privacy and data security
  39. 39. THANK YOU. ARAM@AMERICAN.EDU

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