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Ethics Evolved: An International Perspective on Copying in the Networked Age

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Analysis of data from surveys from 2006-2015 covering the awareness, consumption, engagement, opinions, ethics and laws surrounding "configurable" culture, such as mashups, remixes, machinima, memes, mods, and anime music videos.

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Ethics Evolved: An International Perspective on Copying in the Networked Age

  1. ETHICS EVOLVEDAN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON COPYING IN THE NETWORKED AGE Aram Sinnreich, PhD
 Associate Professor
 American University SOC Presented at
 American University SOC
 Faculty Forum
 November 3, 2015
  2. /INTRODUCTION/ MY PARENTS’ DINNER TABLE CONVERSATION, C. 1982 Yiddish 17% Latin 22% Curse Words 13% Grownup English 29% Regular English 19%
  3. Configurable
 Culture
  4. /CONFIGURABLE CULTURE/ NEW CULTURAL FORMS & PRACTICES MemesMashups Machinima …& Much More
  5. /CONFIGURABLE CULTURE/ CONSUMPTION VS. PRODUCTION CONSUMPTION PRODUCTIONPRODUCTION-
 ADJACENT CONSUMPTION-
 ADJACENT ???
  6. /CONFIGURABLE CULTURE/ NEW CULTURAL LOGICS, NEW SOCIAL FORMATIONS & INSTITUTIONS
  7. Survey
  8. /SURVEY/ RESPONDENTS: ONLINE, ENGLISH-SPEAKING ADULTS 2006 1,779
 U.S. 2014-15 452 U.S.
 945 non-US U.S. 452
 U.K. 172
 India 147
 Australia 144
 Canada 118
 Philippines 83
 New Zealand 52
 Ireland 52
 Singapore 52
 South Africa 51
 Malaysia 47 2010 1,100 U.S.
 1,955 non-US U.S. 971
 India 291 
 Turkey 270
 Canada 148 
 Canada 148
 South Africa 146 
 Philippines 129
 Israel 64
 Australia 63
 Singapore 62
 U.K. 52 
 Sweden 41
 Malaysia 40
  9. Awareness
  10. /SURVEY/AWARENESS/ AWARENESS OF CONFIGURABLE CULTURE HAS JUMPED IN THE U.S. PHOTOSHOP MUSIC MASHUP MODS AMV VID REMIX MACHINIMA NONE 0 25 50 75 100 17.9 11 27.6 21.5 16.6 24.1 42.8 14.6 10.6 31.8 25.1 12.9 31.4 39.6 1.3 40 53.8 57.1 58.4 77 90.3 US 2014 US 2010 US 2006
  11. /SURVEY/AWARENESS/ MUSIC MASHUPS: U.S. AWARENESS BY AGE, 2006-2014 18-25 26-34 35-44 45-54 55+ 0 25 50 75 100 8.3 20.7 26.8 28.8 49.2 21.1 21.8 36.9 48 60.4 51.5 65.8 71.6 82.1 85.8 US 2014 US 2010 US 2006
  12. /SURVEY/AWARENESS/ MUSIC MASHUPS: AWARENESS BY NATION, 2010-2015 US PHILIPPINES UK S. AFRICA CANADA SINGAPORE AUSTRALIA INDIA 0 25 50 75 100 44.3 30.2 41.9 41.2 47.9 34.6 56.6 31.4 42.2 44.4 57.7 61.9 62.8 69.8 69.9 77 2015 2010
  13. Consumption
  14. ≈ /SURVEY/CONSUMPTION/ CONSUMPTION HAS SKYROCKETED IN THE U.S. PHOTOSHOP MUSIC MASHUP MODS VID REMIX MACHINIMA AMVS NONE 0 25 50 75 100 44.4 7.1 5.2 10 6.9 11.9 14.5 4.9 19 20.1 25.2 38.9 43.4 68.1 US 2014 US 2010
  15. /SURVEY/CONSUMPTION/ GENERAL CONSUMPTION BY NATION, 2010-2015 US INDIA PHILIPPINES S. AFRICA SINGAPORE UK CANADA AUSTRALIA 0 25 50 75 100 59.3 61.4 60.4 80.4 70.6 88.4 86.2 55.6 60.4 73.7 75.6 80.8 86.3 91.6 94.6 95.1 2015 2010
  16. GLOBAL CONSUMPTION BY AGE, 2010-2015 18-25 26-34 35-44 45-54 55+ 0 25 50 75 100 55.3 58.8 73.4 83.8 95.3 52.8 69.6 85.8 91.9 95.6 2015 2010 /SURVEY/CONSUMPTION/
  17. Engagement
  18. /SURVEY/ENGAGEMENT/ MUSIC ENGAGEMENT BY NATION, 2010-2015 PHILIPPINES SINGAPORE US INDIA S. AFRICA UK CANADA AUSTRALIA 0 25 50 75 100 73 73 65.4 89.7 92.1 64.7 90.3 98.4 75 78.2 87.2 94.1 95.2 95.8 96.2 98.8 2015 2010
  19. /SURVEY/ENGAGEMENT/ VIDEO ENGAGEMENT BY NATION, 2010-2015 PHILIPPINES INDIA US CANADA S. AFRICA UK SINGAPORE AUSTRALIA 0 25 50 75 100 52.4 69.4 53.8 71.9 53.4 53.8 84.5 84.5 59 65.4 68 70.6 75.4 87.2 92.5 92.8 2015 2010
  20. /SURVEY/ENGAGEMENT/ MUSIC: U.S. ENGAGEMENT BY AGE, 2006-2014 18-25 26-34 35-44 45-54 55+ 0 25 50 75 100 20.5 29.2 36.5 43 61.2 56.4 60.2 67.4 74.9 87.5 93.9 97.4 95.1 96.5 95.3 US 2014 US 2010 US 2006
  21. /SURVEY/ENGAGEMENT/ CUSTOM MUSIC RADIO: U.S. ENGAGEMENT BY AGE, 2006-2014 18-25 26-34 35-44 45-54 55+ 0 25 50 75 100 1.2 2.5 4.8 8 9.5 7.5 9.9 11.8 20.1 16.7 9.1 31.6 41.2 39.9 48.1 US 2014 US 2010 US 2006
  22. /SURVEY/ENGAGEMENT/ GLOBAL AWARENESS VS. CONSUMPTION VS. ENGAGEMENT, 2014/15 PHOTOSHOP MUSIC MASHUP MEMES VID REMIX AMV MACHINIMA 0 25 50 75 100 5 4 5 22 7 34 15 19 24 43 33 53 27 46 52 58 63 79 Awareness Consumption Engagement
  23. Opinions
  24. /SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT ORIGINALITY, 2006 25 50 75 100 32.3 49.1 18.5 25 50 75 100 44.6 44.7 10.7 18-25 35-44 55+ 0 25 50 75 100 22.2 59.9 17.9 Original Sometimes Never
  25. /SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT ORIGINALITY, 2006-2010 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 18.7 18.7 32.3 48.7 49.1 13.9 18.5 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 26.7 25.2 44.6 38.7 44.7 9.410.7 18-25 35-44 55+ 0 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 10.4 20.8 22.2 60.4 59.9 8.3 17.9 Original Sometimes Never No Answer
  26. /SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT ORIGINALITY, 2006-2014 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 2014 1 18.7 13.7 18.7 32.3 62.7 48.7 49.1 22.5 13.9 18.5 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 2014 12.126.7 30.3 25.2 44.6 42.4 38.7 44.7 15.2 9.410.7 18-25 35-44 55+ 0 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 2014 3.8 10.4 11.3 20.8 22.2 57.5 60.4 59.9 27.4 8.3 17.9 Original Sometimes Never No Answer
  27. /SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT COPYRIGHT, 2006 25 50 75 100 42.2 45.6 12.2 25 50 75 100 60.5 33.9 5.7 18-25 35-44 55+ 0 25 50 75 100 27.7 53.3 18.9 All Fair Some Uses All Theft
  28. /SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT COPYRIGHT, 2006-2010 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 18.2 31.6 42.2 43.9 45.6 6.412.2 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 17.7 47.4 60.5 30.8 33.9 4.15.7 18-25 35-44 55+ 0 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 16.7 29.2 27.7 43.8 53.3 10.4 18.9 All Fair Some Uses All Theft No Answer
  29. /SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT COPYRIGHT, 2006-2014 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 2014 18.2 18.6 31.6 42.2 56.9 43.9 45.6 24.5 6.412.2 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 2014 9.117.7 36.4 47.4 60.5 48.5 30.8 33.9 6.14.15.7 18-25 35-44 55+ 0 25 50 75 100 2006 2010 2014 2.8 16.7 12.3 29.2 27.7 49.1 43.8 53.3 35.8 10.4 18.9 All Fair Some Uses All Theft No Answer
  30. /SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT ORIGINALITY BY EXPOSURE, 2015 Heard of
 Mashups 0 25 50 75 100 2.3 10.1 65.5 22.1 Original Sometimes Unoriginal No Answer 25 50 75 100 1.7 6.1 69.1 23.2 Heard of
 Machinima 25 50 75 100 1.6 8.9 65.9 23.6 Heard of
 AMVs 25 50 75 100 13.6 27.2 40.9 18.2 Never Heard of These Four 25 50 75 100 1.6 10.3 64.6 23.5 Heard of
 Vid Remix
  31. /SURVEY/OPINIONS/ ALL/SOME USES CAN BE “ORIGINAL”, 2010-2015 US PHILIPPINES INDIA SINGAPORE CANADA UK MALAYSIA S AFRICA AUSTRALIA 0 25 50 75 100 44.4 56.8 65 55.8 52.7 56.5 51.9 62.8 54.8 45.1 58.8 63.8 65.1 65.3 65.4 68 79.5 84.1 2015 2010
  32. /SURVEY/OPINIONS/ ALL/SOME USES SHOULDN’T REQUIRE PERMISSION, 2010-2015 US PHILIPPINES UK MALAYSIA CANADA INDIA SINGAPORE S AFRICA AUSTRALIA 0 25 50 75 100 34.9 44.5 56.5 45 45.3 52.5 50 47.3 44.6 38.9 49 51.9 54.4 55.1 57.4 58.7 62.7 79.4 2015 2010
  33. Ethics
  34. /SURVEY/ETHICS/ THE ETHICS OF CONFIGURABILITY: 12 CRITERIA Unethical Criterion (n = 574) Ethical Unpermissioned Legal (91) Permissioned For profit Commercial (37) Not for profit Pretension AuthenAcity (24) Referenced Unoriginal InnovaAon (121) Original Easy Labor (7) Hard work BastardizaAon Moral (8) Homage Rupture ConAnuity (17) EvoluAon Useless/Harmful Use Value (112) Fun/Beneficial Ugly AestheAc (69) BeauAful Subversive Power RelaAons (37) Empowering Meaningless Self Expression (35) Expressive ExploitaAve Industry RelaAons (16) PromoAonal
  35. /SURVEY/ETHICS/ CRITERION: AUTHENTICITY “Remixes are enjoyed by some people but those who are making it should consider crediting the owner of material.”
 - Filipino M, 30-34 “They’re fine as long as they aren’t blatantly ripping off other remixes.”
 - U.S. M, 22-25 “Remixes are fun, but the original creators should be given their due credit as well.” 
 - Irish F, 26-29
  36. /SURVEY/ETHICS/ CRITERION: INNOVATION “I have NEVER seen or heard anything that, in my opinion, is better than the original.” 
 - Australian M, 70+ “I think mashups are a form of musical art and and sometimes even sound better than the original.”
 - S. African M, 22-25 “Some remixes are very innovative others are poor copies.”
 - U.K. M, 60-64
  37. /SURVEY/ETHICS/ CRITERION: POWER RELATIONS “I feel that technology has moved to a point where legislation can no longer keep up with controlling permissions on copyright materials”
 - Australian M, 65-69 “The DMCA system is corrupted and abused to hell and needs a reform”
 - U.S. M, 30-34 “i think major copyright reform is required. The law has lost its meaning. How does applying copyright for 50 years after the death of a person provide incentives to continue creating.”
 - Irish M, 30-34
  38. /SURVEY/ETHICS/ CRITERION: INDUSTRY RELATIONS “I think copyright holders (music labels, movie companies) could do more to make material available to talented remixers and masher- uppers - supporting people who can get their stuff to new audiences could be a good business move.”
 - Australian F, 30-34 “So long as the individual does not make money from somebody's work, mashups and remixes should be allowed. In my eyes I see it as free advertisement.”
 - U.K. M, 18-21 “I think large organizations should view mash-ups as free advertising and be glad that they're getting extra exposure, as long as no one is making money off it..”
 - Canadian F, 26-29
  39. /SURVEY/ETHICS/ ETHICAL FRAMEWORKS VARY BY NATION (2014/15 DATA) US Phil Aust Malay Canada NZ UK India S. Afr Innovation Use Value Legal Aesthetic Power Expression Commercial Authentic Industry Continuity
  40. Law
  41. /COPYRIGHT LAW/ CHANGES AFOOT IN COPYRIGHT LANDSCAPE (OCTOBER 2015 EDITION) TPP COMPLETION:
 LONGER (C) TERMS
 ANTI-CIRCUMVENTION DRM MANDATE
 RESTRICTIONS ON FAIR USE CISA PASSAGE:
 IDENTIFIES IP AS A “CYBERSECURITY” ISSUE
 GRANTS LEGAL IMMUNITY FOR CORPORATE SURVEILLANCE FAIR USE WINS:
 GOOGLE BOOKS
 LENZ V. UNIVERSAL TUFAMERICA V. JAY-Z Domestic OPEN LICENSING:
 CREATIVE COMMONS:
 1 BILLION LICENSED WORKSInternational DMCA EXEMPTIONS
  42. THANK YOU. ARAM@AMERICAN.EDU Download this presentation:

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