Journal of English for Academic Purposes4 (2005) 83–95 Pandora’s box: academic perceptionsof student plagiarism in writingWendy Sutherland-Smith*Likewise, Haggis andPouget’s (2002) research suggests that the greater heterogeneity of students incontemporary higher education means that we need greater clarity and explicitnessabout the approaches that students need to adopt in order to deal with ‘students’confusion and disorientation in the working context of specific subjects and actualwriting tasks, at the time they are experienced’is viewed by many academics as a kind of Pandora’s box - the elements containedinside are too frightening to allow escape for fear of the havoc that may result. Reluctance by many to discuss openly may contribute to the often untenable situations we face when dealing with issues.
assessment shapes students’ perceptions of learning in highereducation (Ramsden, 1992)key element of the recent drive to make assessment more transparent toboth students and tutors has been the articulation of assessment frameworks (Rustet al., 2003), such as assessment criteria and grade descriptors, so that students areprovided with written information regarding what is required of them and whatstandards must be obtained to achieve different grades.a mismatch between thecontent which is taught and the content which is assessed, failure to use appropriateassessment tasks for the type of learning required (such as using multiple choicequestions to assess bedside manner among doctors), Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 23, No. 4, 1998 351Using Marks to Assess Student Performance,some problems and alternativesJAMES DALZIEL, Department of Psychology, University of Sydney, AustraliaRust et al. (2003) stress the tacit nature of assessment criteria and the difficulty oftransferring such tacit knowledge to others.in work on ‘academicliteracy’ by Lea and Stierer (2000), which views academic writing as a ‘contexualised social practice’ where the ground rules are not made explicit to students.
ORIC Assessment and feedback
Assessment and Feedback<br />Inclusive curriculum Design<br />1<br />
Why do we have assessment in Higher Education?<br />In groups, discuss (5 minutes)<br />Can you list at least threereasons?<br />2<br />
Some words used to talk about assessment<br />standardisation;<br />objective;<br />marking criteria;<br />exam;<br />subjective;<br />low-stakes;<br />high-stakes;<br />test;<br />assignment;<br />quiz;<br />constructed response;<br />selected response;<br /><ul><li>assessed coursework;
Test and item.<br />Marker.<br />Resources.<br />“Real world”.<br />Reliability<br />Practicality<br />7<br />
Some quotations on assessment in HE<br />“For many years I taught in universities. . . . I marked thousands of scripts without examining what the scripts could teach me about my capacity as a teacher and examiner.” Ashby (1985: v)<br />“It is now thirty years since serious doubts were <br />raised about examinations, yet despite the fact <br />that there has been no serious shortage of critics <br />since then, very little has changed.” Cox (1967: 352)<br />“Something like 90% of a typical university degree depends on unseen time-constrained written examinations, and tutor-marked essays and/or reports.” Race (2001: 5)<br />8<br />
“...institutional assessment efforts should not be concerned about valuing what <br />can be measured but, instead, about measuring that which is valued.”<br /> Banta et al (1996: 5)<br />“assessment plays a critical role in determining the quality of student learning” and “a conception of assessment for learning first and grading second implies the use of a spectrum of methods” Ramsden (1992:177 and 185)<br />Some quotations on assessment in HE<br />“Description of a grade: An inadequate report of an inaccurate judgment <br />by a biased and variable judge of the extent to which a student has attained an undefined level of mastery of an unknown proportion of an indefinite material.” Dressel (1983:12)<br />9<br />
National union of students’ principles of effective assessment (2009)<br />Should be for learning, not simply of learning<br />Should be reliable, valid, fair and consistent<br />Should consist of effective and constructive feedback<br />Should be innovative and have the capacity to inspire and motivate<br />Should measure understanding and application, rather than technique and memory<br />Should be conducted throughout the course, rather than being positioned as a final event<br />Should develop key skills such as peer and reflective assessment<br />Should be central to staff development and teaching strategies, and frequently reviewed<br />Should be of a manageable amount for both tutors and students<br />Should encourage dialogue between students and their tutors and students and their peers<br />10<br />
National Student Survey<br />NUS Principles<br />What is feedback? <br />Feedback<br />Student views on feedback (10 minute video)<br />13<br />
References<br />Ashby, E. (1985), preface to Brewer, I. Learning more and Teaching less. Guildford: Society for Research into Higher Education & NFER-Nelson.<br />Atkins, M.J., Beattie, J. and Dockerell, W.B. (1993) Assessment Issues in Higher Education, Department of Employment.<br />Banta, T. W., Lund, J. P., Black, K. E., & Oblander, F. W. (1996) Assessment in practice: Putting principles to work on college campuses. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.<br />Cox, R. (1967) “Resistance to Change in Examining”, Universities Quarterly, 21, pp. 352–358.<br />DichtlJ. (2003) Teaching Integrity The History Teacher 36: 3, 367-373 Society for History Education<br />Dressel, P. (1983) "Grades: One more tilt at the windmill." in A.W. Chickering (Ed.), Bulletin. Memphis: Memphis State U. Center for the Study of Higher Education. <br />Race, P. (2001) The Lecturer's Toolkit. (2nd ed) London: Kogan Page<br />Ramsden, P. (1992) Learning to Teach in Higher Education. London: Routledge.<br />Sutherland-Smith W. (2005) Pandora’s box: academic perceptions of student plagiarism in writing. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 4 (2005) 83–95<br />UoB(2003) Statement on Academic Integrity. Academic Standards and Support Unit University of Bradford http://www.brad.ac.uk/admin/acsec/assu/statement_on_academic_integrity.htm accessed 20/1/10<br />14<br />