Young Adult Gay Persons And Violence A Look At Escalation And Tolerance


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  • The first part of this presentation details the definitions pertinent to understanding what homophobia is. This definition serves as a precursor to understanding the roots of homophobia to how we come to understand it today.
  • Key definitions are used to guide the viewer with the understanding of terms used in this setting.
  • This is a brief introduction the laws, policies and procedures needed to mitigate violence and to promote tolerance.
  • This slide provides an overview of various stages a person goes through when they first determine that they might be gay until full acceptance.
  • The next few slides provide a look in to various statistics and research as it relates to young gay persons. The intent of these slides is to show the viewer that the issues faced by young gay persons are nation wide and need attention to bring about tolerance and understanding.
  • Young Adult Gay Persons And Violence A Look At Escalation And Tolerance

    1. 1. Young Adult Gay Persons and Violence A Look at Escalation and Tolerance
    2. 2. Homophobia Described <ul><li>Created in 1967 to name the fear of being around or associated with someone who is gay (Dermer, Shannon B., Smith, Shannon D., Barto, Korenna K. 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>This label opened the door to recognizing oppression based on sexual orientation (Dermer, et. al 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Sparked a movement within mental health professions to normalize non-heterosexual orientations (Dermer, et. al 2010). </li></ul>
    3. 3. Key Definitions Described <ul><ul><li>Oppression described </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oppression is the exercise of power to disenfranchise, marginalize, or unjustly ostracize particular individuals or groups (Dermer, et. al 2010). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privilege described </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The benefits, advantages, and immunity from prejudice and discrimination. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowerment described (Dermer, et. al 2010). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process through which subordinate groups attain greater decision-making power and greater access to resources (Dermer, et. al 2010). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual prejudice described </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Described as negative attitudes based on sexual orientation (Dermer, et. al 2010). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual orientation victimization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ranges from seemingly innocuous jokes, to hostile verbal comments, to physical or sexual attacks (Dermer, et. al 2010). </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Laws, Policies and Procedures <ul><ul><li>Harassment against anyone’s sexual orientation is protected under the Federal Education Amendments (Callahan, 2000). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of costs of ignoring the law have resulted in substantial monetary compensation to victims of sexual harassment (Callahan, 2000). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussed strategies for curbing sexual harassment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate incidents, educate offenders, involving parents, educating staff, educating students, and understanding problems that gay young adults face (Callahan, 2000). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussed a school’s responsibility to protect gay young adults (Callahan, 2000). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-harassment procedures, complaint procedures, create climate that accepts diversity and address hate crimes (Callahan, 2000). </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. How Young Gay Adults View Themselves <ul><ul><ul><li>Identity Comparison </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Might be gay (Callahan, 2000). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identity Confusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inner turmoil of feelings of being gay (Callahan, 2000). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identity Tolerance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Becoming more accepting of being gay (Callahan, 2000). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identity Pride </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less concern for heterosexuals (Callahan, 2000). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identity Synthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accepting of everyone (Callahan, 2000). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Sobering Statistics <ul><ul><li>Sexual minority youth have a rate of suicide two to three times the national rate (Devon, 1996). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-gay violence is the fastest rising form of hate crime (Devon, 1996). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gay and lesbian students are far more likely to have been abused, to have been kicked out of their homes (Devon, 1996). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual experiences of heterosexism were the strongest individual predictor of distress among the young people (Kelleher, 2009). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bisexually identified youths do not suffer as much psychological distress as same gendered gay persons (Mustanski, Brian S., Garofalo, Robert, Emerson, Erin M., 2010). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A study conducted in the United States showed that prevalence of mental disorders and suicidal behaviors their sample is sufficiently high to warrant special attention to the needs of this population (Mustanski et. al 2010). </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Sobering Statistics Continued <ul><ul><li>Studies have shown some increased incidences of violence within families of young adult gay persons as compared to heterosexual family units (Saewyc, Elizabeth M  ; Skay, Carol L  ; Pettingell, Sandra L  ; Reis, Elizabeth A., 2006). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “stigma” of being sexually abused may lead to decreased reports of sexual violence because of being “tainted” and “unpure”. This in turn can lead to less protection of young adult gay adults because of “old” knowledge that becoming gay was the cause of sexual abuse (Saewyc, et al., 2006). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100% of homeless young adult gay youths studied were quoted as stating they often did not share their sexual orientation because of fear of judgment, retaliation, or refusal of services (McHaelen, 2006). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>64% of sexual minority youth report feeling unsafe at their school (Wyatt, Tammy Jordan; Oswalt, Sara B; White, Christopher; Peterson, Fred L. 2008). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wyatt et al (2008), states that, “Overall moderate attitudes toward gay males and lesbians are indicative of the need for more training in this area in order to create a more positive and safe environment for LGB students. Some may argue that moderate attitudes are a step forward from previous eras with a strong negative attitude toward homosexuality.” </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Teaching Tolerance <ul><li>Engage in workshops and role play activities to learn what it is like to be a young adult gay person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, McHaelen (2006) states in one of his training events, “The intention is to provide specific information about the effect of social isolation and stigma on sexual and gender minority youth, identify areas of risk, and provide participants with a clearer understanding of the profound negative impact of imposed silence about one's identity on sexual and gender minority youth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family and community involvement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The CSHP Model (Coordinated School Health Program) invites families, schools and communities to work together in order to improve the student's health and ultimately the health of the community (Woodiel, Kay; Angermeier-Howard, Lisa; Hobson, Suzanne 2003). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Strengths of Research <ul><li>Naming sexual prejudice allows it to become a societal issue capable of scientific study and intervention (Dermer, et. al 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Discussed at length the insight in to the view of a young adult gay person. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussed the prevalence of suicide and violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussed statistical results of a sample population. </li></ul><ul><li>The strength of the research was that some articles offered statistical data that showed a trend toward teacher tolerance of young adult gay persons; however, a comparative trend of how tolerant young adult gay persons peers would be useful for comparison. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Weaknesses of Research <ul><li>Some articles did not offer solutions, but definitions only. </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics are a bit dated. </li></ul><ul><li>Some articles needed to describe what the inactions of tolerance are and what that does to a person versus the monetary cost (court awarded settlements). </li></ul><ul><li>Some articles did not expound upon more data such as escalation trends. </li></ul>
    11. 11. References <ul><li>Bekaert, Sarah (2010). Tackling homophobic attitudes and bullying in youth settings. Pediatric Nursing ; Vol. 22 Issue 3, p27-29, 3p. Retrieved from afh&AN =49698313 . </li></ul><ul><li>Callahan, Connie (2000). Schools that have not protected and worked with gay and lesbian students have been sanctioned by the courts. Education. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Davidson, Devon (1996). Safe schools and homophobia. Cambridge, NJ: American Friends Service Committee, Inc. Retrieved January 14, 2011from . </li></ul><ul><li>Dermer, Shannon B., Smith, Shannon D., Barto, Korenna K. (2010). Identifying and correctly labeling sexual prejudice, discrimination, and oppression. Journal of Counseling & Development, Vol. 88 Issue 3, p325-331; 7p. Retrieved from pbh&AN =52425743 . </li></ul>
    12. 12. References Continued <ul><li>Kelleher, Cathy (2009). Minority stress and health: Implications for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) young people. Counseling Psychology Quarterly , Vol. 22 Issue 4, p373-379; 7p, 2 Charts. Retrieved from . </li></ul><ul><li>McHaelen, Robin P. (2006). Bridges, barriers, and boundaries. Child Welfare League of America, Inc. Washington, D.C.: Child Welfare League of America, Inc. Retrieved from . </li></ul><ul><li>Mustanski, Brian S., Garofalo, Robert, Emerson, Erin M. (2010). Mental health disorders, psychological distress, and suicidality in a diverse sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youths. American Journal of Public Health , Vol. 100 Issue 12, p2426-2432; 7p, 4 Charts. Retrieved from bsh&AN =56450130 . </li></ul>
    13. 13. References Continued <ul><li>Saewyc, Elizabeth M  ; Skay, Carol L  ; Pettingell, Sandra L  ; Reis, Elizabeth A. (2006). Hazards of stigma: the sexual and physical abuse of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents in the united states and canada. Washington, D.C.: Child Welfare League of America, Inc. Retrieved from . </li></ul><ul><li>Woodiel, Kay; Angermeier-Howard, Lisa; Hobson, Suzanne. (2003). School safety for all: Using the coordinated school health program to increase safety for LGBTQ students. American Journal of Health Studies 18.2/3, 98-103. Retrieved from: . </li></ul><ul><li>Wyatt, Tammy Jordan; Oswalt, Sara B; White, Christopher; Peterson, Fred L. (2008). Are tomorrow's teachers ready to deal with diverse students? Teacher candidates' attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. Teacher Education Quarterly 35.2, 171-185. Retrieved from . </li></ul>
    14. 14. Author <ul><li>Young Adult Gay Persons and Violence: A Look at Escalation and Tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Doreen R. Patrick </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University </li></ul><ul><li>PSY 492 </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Marie Dube’ </li></ul><ul><li>February 22, 2011 </li></ul>