Wind Energy Systems in the Urban Landscape

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Presentation on Wind Energy Systems in the urban Landscape, presented to the SoCal ASHRAE Chapter.

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Wind Energy Systems in the Urban Landscape

  1. 1. Small Wind in Buildings and Urban Developments Carlos Ortiz Arup Energy Los Angeles, CA
  2. 2. From: Portland Center Stages productionThe History (and Mystery) of the UniverseBased on the life of R. Buckminster Fuller
  3. 3. New York Times, 17 January 1974
  4. 4. New York Times, 17 January 1974 “Wind power is in a class by itself as the greatest terrestrial medium forharvesting, harnessing and conserving solar energy. The water and air waves circulating around our planet are unsurpassed energy accumulators whosecaptured energy may be used to generate electrical, pneumatic and hydraulic power systems.” Buckminster Fuller New York Times, 17, January, 1974
  5. 5. 20,000 MW Installed Capacity • Producing enough electricity to serve 5.3 million American homes or power a fleet of more than 1 million plug-in hybrid vehicles. Source: AWEA / Photography: Iberdrola Renewable Energies USA/PPL Corp.
  6. 6. 20% of Energy fromWind by 2030
  7. 7. Major Challenges:“Investment in the nation’s transmission system so the power generated is delivered to urban centers that need the increasing supply. Continued reduction in wind capital cost and improvement in turbine performance through technology advancement and improved manufacturing capabilities.” DOE 20% Wind Energy by 2030 May 2008
  8. 8. Cumulative Installed Wind Capacity Source: AWEA
  9. 9. Cumulative Installed Wind Capacity Production Tax Credit (PTC) expired 3 times in Seven years Source: AWEA
  10. 10. Wind Energy 101
  11. 11. What is Wind Energy?Source: NASA
  12. 12. Mandatory Textbook Slide
  13. 13. Betz LawPhotographs: Danish Wind Industry Association
  14. 14. Maximum Energy Attainable  8  P max =   * ρ * A * v 3  27  •Density of Air •Swept Area of Turbine •Cube of Wind speed
  15. 15. Betz Law Image: Danish Wind Industry Association
  16. 16. Power CurvesImage: Arup• Gamesa G80-2 MW Power Curve
  17. 17. Wind Distribution Image: Arup
  18. 18. Wind Distribution Translation Image: Arup
  19. 19. Distributed Generation Photograph: ArupPhotograph: Arup Photograph: Arup
  20. 20. Distributed Generation• The Bureaucrat Photograph: Arup
  21. 21. Distributed Generation• The Workaholic Photograph: Arup
  22. 22. Distributed Generation• The Artist Photograph: Arup
  23. 23. Technical Challenges • Noise • Vibrations • Structural Integrity • Shadow Flicker • Low Capacity Factors
  24. 24. Risk Matrix Arup
  25. 25. Risk Management Strategies • Predictive and Preventive Maintenance Program • Corrective Maintenance Response Program • Diagnosis / Failure Detection System • Turbine Locking System • Fire Extinguishing System
  26. 26. Liability Chart Negligible Liability. Considerably less than the cost of the wind energy investment. Limited Liability. Up to the cost of the wind energy investment. Unlimited Liability. From the cost of the wind energy investment to unlimited liability.
  27. 27. Wind flow2D CFD model Arup, 2007
  28. 28. Arup, 2007
  29. 29. HAWTPhotography: Richard Drew, Arup, Jan 2005
  30. 30. VAWT Photographs: Quiet Revolution CO, UK
  31. 31. Axial Fan Photographs: Windside
  32. 32. The Energy Question
  33. 33. Economic Growth and Energy Use
  34. 34. Energy Demand on the Rise
  35. 35. Made by Khebab of The Oil Drum
  36. 36. DongtanArup, 2007
  37. 37. Arup, 2007
  38. 38. The 70’s Energy Crisis
  39. 39. The 70’s Energy Crisis Cover of Mechanix Illustrated, November 1975
  40. 40. The 70’s Energy Crisis Dermont McGuigan, Small Scale Wind Power, 1978
  41. 41. New York Energy Task Force, 1977
  42. 42. Arup
  43. 43. Lebost Wind Turbine From: “The Lebost wind Turbine Experimental Program at New York University” (Department of Applied Science, NYU, 1980)
  44. 44. Lebost Wind Turbine Photograph: Jon Naar
  45. 45. Lebost Wind Turbine“This report details the results of an experimental field test/evaluation of a 20-foot diameter Lebost turbine. One conclusion of the study is that the turbine lends itself rather well to urban applications, as well as other applications.” “Lebost wind turbine experimental program” New York Univ., NY (USA). Dept. of Applied Science May 1, 1980 Photograph: Jon Naar
  46. 46. Travis Price &The Wind Farmers of East 11th Street, NYC Photograph: Jon Naar / The New York TimesPhotograph: D. Gorton/The New York Times, 1977
  47. 47. Photograph: Jon Naar
  48. 48. “The energy commission essentially said to Con Ed, ‘You’ve got to buy their power’,” Mr. Norris said. “That was huge.” By Josh Weil Published: August 3, 2008 The New York TimesPhotograph: Jon Naar
  49. 49. “But the turbine never worked well enough to provide power for the entire building, which, by 1977 or so, was home to 25 or 30 people. Either wind speeds were too low to generate to get a charge from Con Ed, the windmill provided insufficient power. Still, until 1985, when a blade was blown off during a hurricane, the windmill produced enough power to light communal areas and heat water. For the next twodecades or so, its remnants jutted into the sky until, sometime in the last few years, the tower was dismantled. sufficient power or turbulence from gusts produced a deafening noise from the windmill and caused the building to shake. Moreover,during the major blackout in 1977, unable to get a charge from Con Ed the windmill provided insufficient power.” By Josh Weil Published: August 3, 2008 The New York Times Photograph: Jon Naar
  50. 50. The 00’s Energy & Environmental Crisis /Global Warming and Energy Security
  51. 51. Photograph: The Inconvenient Truth
  52. 52. The Green Boom
  53. 53. Arups VAWTEXMike Rainbow
  54. 54. Lo-Fi Wind Tunnel Photograph: Arup, 2002
  55. 55. Mike Rainbow Photograph: Arup, 2002
  56. 56. Bahrain World Trade Center Photograph: Sami T
  57. 57. Bahrain’s Wind DistributionArup
  58. 58. Discovery Tower(Houston Texas) •Gensler •Arup •CPP Image: Gensler
  59. 59. CPP, 2007
  60. 60. CPP, 2007
  61. 61. CPP, 2007
  62. 62. Gensler
  63. 63. Gensler
  64. 64. Gensler
  65. 65. My Conclusions: 1. Capital Cost of small wind turbines must reduce dramatically if they are to provide good economic returns. 2. Technical challenges exist but none that can not be conquered. Good design and risk management strategies are a must. 3. Real energy benefits can be achieved by mass installations in combination with resource management schemes. 4. Overboard fancy engineering / building integration costs can kill the benefits of BIWT.
  66. 66. Any Questions?
  67. 67. Except for that one

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