Materials Of Storage

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Lecture for Week 6 of ENGI/HUMA 240: Engineering Design for Art and Artifact Conservation

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  • Materials Of Storage

    1. 1. Materials of Storage<br />ENGI/HUMA 240<br />Matthew Wettergreen, PhD<br />
    2. 2. Overview<br />Materials – Engineering focus<br />Properties of Materials<br />Engineering focus<br />Conservation & Storage Focus <br />Properties of Conservation & Storage Materials<br />Desirable properties<br />Ideal materials<br />Materials to stay away from<br />
    3. 3. Engineering Materials<br />Engineers are interested in the material properties of objects, how they interact with the environment and how they degrade<br />Full characterization of these materials is required because they may be subjected to any number of conditions<br />Heat<br />Humidity<br />Chemical environments<br />
    4. 4. Use of Engineering Materials<br />No one material will have all the desired properties<br />Most materials will have a mix of these properties<br />As engineers we can create a matrix of characteristics <br />A balancing act is required between what you have and what you need<br />
    5. 5. Properties of Materials - Engineering<br />When we are researching materials to use for a design project, what are some of the properties that we wish to look at?<br />Structure<br />Characterization<br />Processing possibilities<br />Properties<br />Performance<br />
    6. 6. Standard Engineering Materials Properties<br />Electrical properties<br />Charge<br />Chemical properties<br />pH<br />Physical or architectural properties<br />Open celled vs. close celled<br />Transparency<br />Mechanical properties<br />Strength / Stiffness<br />Ductility<br />
    7. 7. Conservation Material Properties<br />In the world of conservation our materials need not be characterized as fully<br />Conservators are not interested in: <br />Crystallinity<br />Atomic structure<br />Thermal expansion<br />Density (quantitative)<br />Conservators are more interested in more general qualities:<br />Physical properties<br />Mechanical properties<br />Aesthetic properties<br />
    8. 8. Materials for Conservation<br />Conservators are mainly concerned with the following questions:<br />Will the material physically protect the object?<br />Will the material affect the object chemically?<br />Will the material shield the object?<br />
    9. 9. Desirable Properties<br />Low weight<br />Does not interact with surface of artwork<br />Shields against light<br />Non-flammable<br />Water resistant<br />Does not degrade<br />Does not support organic growth<br />Cushions against shock/vibration<br />
    10. 10. The question of pH<br />Storage materials are in in direct contact with art objects<br />pH neutral is required<br />Low pH can discolor objects<br />Low pH can accelerate degradation<br />Low pH can support organic growth<br />
    11. 11. Closed Cell vs. Open Cell<br />Closed Cell<br />Open Cell<br />Advantages<br />Higher cushioning<br />Disadvantages<br />Closed cells may contain undesirable chemicals<br />Advantages<br />All chemicals leached<br />High interconnectivity<br />High moisture absorption<br />Disadvantages<br />Structurally weaker<br />Lends to breakdown of material<br />
    12. 12. Translucent vs. Transparent<br />Translucent<br />Advantages<br />Protects object from light damage<br />Disadvantages<br />visibility<br />Transparent<br />Advantages<br />Does not obscure object while in storage<br />Disadvantages<br />Does not protect object from light damage<br />
    13. 13. Types of Materials for Conservation<br />Wraps<br />Tyvek<br />Glassine<br />Bubble wrap<br />Foams<br />Ethafoam<br />Volara<br />Natural Materials<br />Cloth<br />Paper<br />Rigid Materials<br />Wood<br />
    14. 14. A Note on Desirable Polymers<br />Polyethylene<br />Many molecular strengths<br />High molecular weight, low, ultra-high<br />Several forms<br />Sheets, rolls, films<br />Very desirable properties<br />Smooth, inert, translucent, chemically resistant<br />
    15. 15. A Note on Undesirable Polymers<br />Polystyrene<br />Several forms<br />Sheets, rolls, foams<br />Foams created with blowing agents<br />Residuals may offgass into storage<br />Increase the flammability of the styrofoam<br />Trace chemicals exist which can damage artwork<br />Very undesirable properties<br />Carries charge, offgasses, trace chemicals<br />
    16. 16. Foams<br />
    17. 17. Ethafoam<br />Polyethylene foam<br />Uses<br />Packaging, gaskets, barriers<br />Always inert<br />Nontranslucent, gray, black<br />pH neutral<br />Not clear (gray, black)<br />Susceptible to UV degradation<br />Recyclable<br />High strength, <br />impervious to mold, rot, bacteria<br />lightweight<br />
    18. 18. Volara<br />Closed Cell PE<br />Uses<br />Lining for display cases<br />Varying densities<br />Nontranslucent, white<br />Water retention can promote organic growth<br />Recyclable<br />Nonabrasive, chemical resistance,<br />Water absorption qualities<br />Advantages<br />Disadvantages<br />
    19. 19. Wraps<br />
    20. 20. Tyvek Soft structure 1443-R <br />HDPE<br />Uses<br />Lining cavities on foam pads<br />Dust cover<br />Always inert (UV, oxi)<br />Translucent, white<br />Recyclable <br />pH neutral<br />Allows transmission of moisture<br />Degraded by Freon, pine oil, toluene<br />Lightweight, non-abrasive<br />Tear resistant<br />Water resistant but still vapor permeable as it &quot;breathes&quot;<br />Advantages<br />Disadvantages<br />
    21. 21. Tyvek 1025 - Hard Structure<br />HDPE<br />Uses<br />Wrapping<br />support for transport/storage<br />Always inert (UV, oxi)<br />Translucent, white<br />pH neutral<br />Allows transmission of moisture<br />Not a good barrier to plywood off-gassing<br />Mold/mildew resistant<br />Lint-free, acid-free<br />Allows transmission of moisture<br />Recyclable<br />Advantages<br />Disadvantages<br />
    22. 22. Bubble Wrap<br />Polyethylene, PVC<br />Uses<br />Large bubble for sculptures and packing crates<br />Antistatic pink double bubble for framed works<br />Cushioning, good for corners and general padding use<br />Translucent<br />Not for use in direct contact with object<br />Bubbles deflate over time<br />Bubbles leave pattern on object<br />Recyclable<br />flexible, can be double layered, inexpensive<br />tear resistant<br />
    23. 23. Organic<br />
    24. 24. Cotton<br />Natural material<br />Uses<br />Liner for foam padding<br />Cradling delicate surfaces<br />Multiple forms<br />Straps, sheets, felt<br />Multiple strengths<br />Non-aligned, aligned fibers<br />Translucent, natural color<br />Natural materials can support organic growth<br />Absorbs liquids and humidity<br />Natural materials<br />Soft surface will not cut other objects<br />
    25. 25. Glassine<br />Paper product<br />Uses<br />interleaving prints, photographs, drawings<br />wrapping and packaging<br />Translucent, off-white<br />pH neutral<br />Creases easily<br />Unstable<br />Not always lignin free<br />Tears easily<br />Acid free<br />Recyclable<br />Inexpensive<br />Advantages<br />Disadvantages<br />
    26. 26. Acid Free Tissue Paper<br />Archival non-buffered acid free tissue<br />High alpha cellulose<br />pH neutral<br />Uses<br />interleaving, wrapping, cushioning<br />padding for textiles<br />Advantages<br />Disadvantages<br />
    27. 27. New materials<br />
    28. 28. Silicone<br />Si based polymers <br />Largely inert and easily functionalized<br />Uses<br />Cushioning objects<br />Encasing objects<br />Translucent and nontranslucent<br />pH neutral<br />Degrade over time if not crosslinked fully<br />Easy to trap particles inside<br />Requires technical training to mold<br />Inert<br />Chemically easily customizable<br />Moldable to custom shape<br />
    29. 29. Additional Resources<br />Packing Art handling and Crating Information Network (PACIN, http://pacin.org)<br />Dow Ethafoam (http://www.qualityfoam.com/ethafoam.asp)<br />

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