Attention and Consciousness


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Attention and Consciousness

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  • Attention and Consciousness

    1. 1. Chapter 3: Attention and Consciousness
    2. 2. Attention Is… <ul><li>The concentration of mental energy that must be used to process incoming information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both conscious and preconscious </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Preconscious Attention <ul><li>Priming effects </li></ul><ul><li>Tip of the tongue experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Automatization </li></ul><ul><li>Habituation </li></ul>
    4. 4. Priming <ul><li>BREAD </li></ul><ul><li>BUTTER </li></ul><ul><li>How quickly do you process the second word? </li></ul><ul><li>Faster if you have been primed with a related word. </li></ul>NURSE DOCTOR CAT DOG
    5. 5. Marcel (1983) How fast? How fast? Reaction time Body Part or Plant? Body part or Plant? Response PINE OR WRIST PINE OR WRIST Target   XXXX Mask PALM PALM Prime Consciously Present Prime Subliminally Present Prime Condition
    6. 6. Marcel’s Procedure with Participants <ul><li>PALM </li></ul>PALM XXXX PINE PINE It’s a Plant. Umm, It’s a Plant. Subliminal Condition Conscious Condition
    7. 7. Marcel (1983) Results Only one meaning is primed, the other inhibited Both meanings were primed Interpretation Found faster RT for one of two target words, slower RT for the other target Found faster RT for both target words Targets: PINE or WRIST Consciously Present Prime Subliminally Present Prime Condition 
    8. 8. Priming Can Speed or Slow Processing <ul><li>Facilitative Priming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target stimuli (e.g., BUTTER) are processed faster if preceded by a related word (e.g., BREAD) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative Priming Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target stimuli (e.g., PINE) is processed slower if preceded by a word related to target’s alternate meaning (PALM relating to hand) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Bowers, Regehr, Balthazard & Parker (1990) Which of these triads is coherent? What is the 4 th word that ties them together? BALL 0 Mask Foot Army Room Swan Basket Triad B Triad A
    10. 10. Bowers ( Results <ul><li>Even if participants could not generate the 4 th word, they still selected the coherent triad </li></ul><ul><li>Results demonstrate preconscious processing </li></ul>0
    11. 11. Tip-of-the-tongue Experiences <ul><li>You know you know the word but you cannot fully retrieve the word </li></ul><ul><li>Paradigms used to generate TOT states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show pictures of famous people or politicians and have participants name them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask general knowledge questions to generate TOTs </li></ul></ul>0
    12. 12. TOT Demonstration <ul><li>What is the name of Dagwood Bumstead’s dog? </li></ul><ul><li>Who wrote Paradise lost? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a wheeled hospital cart called? </li></ul><ul><li>Do any of these questions put the answer on the tip of your tongue? </li></ul>
    13. 13. Controlled vs. Automatic Processing <ul><li>Automatic processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires no conscious control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires conscious control </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Is Typing Automatic or Controlled for You? <ul><li>Do you type without thinking where your fingers are? Are you a search and peck typer? </li></ul><ul><li>If you do type without using attention, what happens when you think about the letters as you are typing them? </li></ul>
    15. 16. Automization - 2 Explanations <ul><li>Integrated components theory-Anderson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice leads to integration; less and less attention is needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instance Theory - Logan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieve from memory specific answers, skipping the procedure; thus less attention is needed </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. Effect of Practice on Automization <ul><li>Rate of learning slows as amount of learning increases </li></ul>Negative- Acceleration Curve
    17. 18. Habituation <ul><li>Decrease in responsiveness when exposed to a repeated stimulus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People who smoke do not notice the smell of cigarettes on their clothes, but nonsmokers do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People get used to hearing the chiming of their clocks </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Dishabituation <ul><li>Change in familiar stimuli causes one to notice it again </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smokers who quit, suddenly notice how much their clothes smell of smoke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If clock breaks, suddenly owner notices the clock isn’t chiming </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. Habituation/Dishabituation Paradigm <ul><li>Allows psychologists to test abilities of Infants and animals </li></ul><ul><li>Measure subject’s arousal to see if a change occurs when pattern or sound is changed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If animal or infant dishabituates to a change, then they can detect the change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the animal or infant does not dishabituate to a change in stimuli, they did not detect the change </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Functions of Conscious Attention <ul><li>Signal Detection </li></ul><ul><li>Searching </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Divided Attention </li></ul>
    21. 22. Signal Detection Theory (SDT) Decision Signal Correct Rejection Miss Absent False Alarm Hit Present Absent Present  
    22. 23. Vigilance and SDT <ul><li>Vigilance is attending to a set of stimuli over a length of time in order to detect a target signal </li></ul><ul><li>Vigilance decreases rapidly over time (fatigue), thus misses and false alarms increase </li></ul>
    23. 24. Search <ul><li>Actively searching for a target </li></ul><ul><li>Number of targets and distracters influence accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Feature search versus conjunctive search </li></ul>
    24. 25. Conjunctive vs. Feature Search Which box is it easier to detect a letter that is different? The box on top is a feature search The box on the bottom is a conjunction search L L L L L L L L L T L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L O L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L
    25. 26. Treisman’s Feature-Integration Theory <ul><li>Individual Feature processing is done in parallel. Simultaneous processing is done on the whole display and if feature is present-- we detect it. </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctive searching requires attention to the integration or combination of the features. Attention to particular combination of features must be done sequentially to detect presence of a certain combination. </li></ul>
    26. 27. Another Feature Search T T T T T T T Is there a red T in the Display? T T Target is defined by a single feature According to feature integration theory the Target should “pop out” No attention required T T T T T T T T
    27. 28. Another Conjunction Search X T T X T T T Is there a red T in the Display? X X Target is defined by two Features: shape and color According FIT, the features must be combined and so attention is required Need to examine one by one X X T X T T
    28. 29. Similarity Theory <ul><li>Disagrees with Treisman’s FIT theory </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity between targets and distracters is important; not number of features to be combined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The more shared features among items in display, the more difficult to detect a particular target </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some findings cannot be explained by FIT </li></ul>
    29. 30. Guided Search <ul><li>Cave and Wolf (1990) </li></ul><ul><li>All searches have 2 phases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serial stage </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. Selectivity of Attention <ul><li>Cocktail Party Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How are we able to follow one conversation in the presence of other conversations? </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. Cherry’s Shadowing Technique The lawyer defended his client as the trial began. He was able The doctor went to the park to find the homeless man. He was ….. The doctor went to the park….. Listen to two different conversations and repeat one of the messages, may be binaural or dichotic Attended Ear Unattended Ear 0
    32. 33. Cherry’s Study Results <ul><li>Noticed in unattended ear: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change to a tone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Did not notice in unattended ear: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed topic, same speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If speech was played backwards </li></ul></ul>0
    33. 34. Models of Selective Attention <ul><li>Do they have a filter? </li></ul><ul><li>Where does the filter occur? </li></ul>0
    34. 35. Broadbent’s Model Long Term Memory Working Memory Sensory Filter Sensory Stores <ul><li>Only one sensory channel is allowed </li></ul><ul><li>to proceed </li></ul><ul><li>Stimuli filtered at sensory level </li></ul>0
    35. 36. Broadbent’s Model Could Not Explain <ul><li>Participant’s name gets through </li></ul><ul><li>Participants can shadow meaningful messages that switches from one ear to another </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of practice on detecting information in unattended ear (e.g., detect digit in unattended ear for naïve and practiced participants) </li></ul>0
    36. 37. Treisman Attenuation Model Long Term Memory Working Memory Attenuation of Unattended Sensory Stores Filter weakens the strength of unattended information. Arrow colors represent different levels of strength If arrow reaches circle, info will be activated in working memory Note some circles are closer due to different thresholds of information 0
    37. 38. Late Selection Theory Long Term Memory Working Memory Sensory Stores All stimuli is processed to the level of meaning, relevance determines further Processing and action Deutsch & Deutsch (1963) 0
    38. 39. Neisser’s Synthesis <ul><li>Preattentive Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note physical characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attentive Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled processes occur serially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur in working memory </li></ul></ul>
    39. 40. Attentional-Resource Theories <ul><li>Model A represents Kahneman (1973) model </li></ul><ul><li>Model B represents individual pools for each modality </li></ul>
    40. 41. Stroop Effect <ul><li>red yellow green blue red blue yellow green blue red </li></ul>Say the color the words are printed in as quickly as you can What errors do you make? Reading i nterferes with your ability to state the color and your reaction time is slower
    41. 42. Divided Attention Research <ul><li>How many tasks can you do at once? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. driving & talking, radio, phone... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dual Task Paradigm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neisser & Becklen (1975) superimposed film study </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ability to divide attention improves with practice </li></ul><ul><li>No built in, fixed limit, to # of tasks a human can perform simultaneously </li></ul>
    42. 43. Pashler’s PRP Effect <ul><li>Dual Task Paradigm: Two tasks at once </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task 1 may require a verbal response to an auditory stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task 2 may require a participant to push a button in response to a visual stimulus. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results indicate that responses to the second task are delayed </li></ul><ul><li>Known as the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect </li></ul>0
    43. 44. Complex Mental Processes <ul><li>Access to conscious Mental Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some say we do (Ericsson & Simon) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some say we do not (Nisbett & Wilson) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evidence on both sides: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change Blindness </li></ul></ul>0
    44. 45. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inattention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impulsivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not everyone who is overly hyperactive, inattentive, or impulsive has ADHD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior must be demonstrated to a degree that is inappropriate for the person's age </li></ul></ul>0
    45. 46. Posner & Attention <ul><li>Two attention systems; two functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior frontal lobe system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks requiring awareness (planning or writing) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior parietal lobe system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks involving visuospatial abilities (playing Tetris, vigilance tasks) </li></ul></ul></ul>0