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  1. 1. India agriculture has an extensive background which goes back to 10 thousandyears. At present, in terms of agricultural production, the country holds thesecond position all over the world. In 2007, agriculture and other associatedindustries such as lumbering and forestry represented around 16.6% of the GrossDomestic Product of the country. In addition, the sector recruited about 52% ofthe entire manpower.Regardless of the fact that there has been a gradual slump in its contributionto the gross domestic product of the country, India agriculture is currently thebiggest industry in India. On the whole, it has a key role in the socioeconomicgrowth of the country.In terms of agricultural contribution, the following states in India are themost developed states:PunjabUttar PradeshMadhya PradeshHaryanaBiharAndhra PradeshMaharashtraWest BengalAll these states play a key role in the agrarian development of India.The total arable territory in India is 1,269,219 km2, which represents about56.78% of the overall land zone of the country. Arable land in India isdiminishing because of continuous strain from an ever-increasing number ofinhabitants and growing urbanization.The overall water surface area of the country is 31440 km2 and the countryexperiences a mean yearly precipitation of 1,100 mm. Irrigation represents 92%of the consumption of water and in 1974, it was 380 km2. By 2025, the capacitywill probably increase to 1,050 km2, with the equilibrium justifying bothhousehold and industrial usage.Agricultural Products in IndiaIndia ranks first in producing the following agricultural outputs:AniseFresh fruitBadianFennelTropical fresh fruitCorianderPigeon peasJuteSpicesPulsesCastor oil seedMilletsSafflower seedsSesame seedsLimesLemonsDry chillies and peppersCows milkCashew nutsChickpeasGingerOkraGuavasTurmericGoat milk
  2. 2. MangoesMeatBuffalo milkIn addition, the country also ranks as the top producer of millets such asBajra, Jowar, and Ragi. In terms of rice production, India holds the secondposition after China.About 10% of the fruits produced in the world are produced in India. India holdsthe first position in the world in producing the following fruits:PapayaMangoesSapotaBananaIndia holds the third rank in the world in the production of the following:SorghumTobaccoCoconutsRapeseedTomatoesHens eggsBy coffee production, India holds the sixth rank in the world.India houses the biggest number of livestock in the world and the count is 281million. In 2008, the country housed the second biggest number of cattle in theworld and the count was 175 million livestock.India ranks as the second biggest producer of the following:CabbagesCashewsFresh vegetablesCotton seed and lintBrinjalGarlicSilkGoat meatCardamomNutmeg and MaceWheatOnionsSugarcaneRiceDry beansLentilTeaGroundnutCauliflowersGreen peasPumpkinsPotatoesGourdsSquashesInland fishThe population of India is increasing at a faster pace than its capacity toproduce wheat and rice.India holds the second position in production of wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane,and groundnuts. It is also the second biggest harvester of vegetables and fruit,representing 8.6% and 10.9% of the overall vegetable and fruit production in theworld correspondingly.The country is the top producer of jute, milk, and pulses and holds the secondrank in the production of silk and it is the biggest consumer of silk in the
  3. 3. world. In 2005, the country produced 77,000 million tons of silk.What are the initiatives taken by Government for India Agriculture?In a huge country like India, the necessary extent of outlay for the expansionof merchandising, warehousing, and cold storage arrangement is expected to bemassive.The Government of India has been earnestly trying to put into operationdifferent plans to increase investment or outlay in merchandizing andcommercializing. Some of the known plans and strategies of the Indian Governmentinclude the following:Market Research and Information NetworkConstruction of Rural GodownsGrading and StandardizationDevelopment/Strengthening of Agricultural Marketing InfrastructureThe Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is the principal authority infarming and ancillary industries, which comprise learning and research.The post of the President of the ICAR is held by the Union Minister ofAgriculture and at present, Mr. Sharad Pawar is holding the position.The Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) was set up in the year 1905.The institute had a key role in the studies and explorations that resulted inthe Green Revolution in the decade of the 1970s. The Indian AgriculturalStatistics Research Institute formulates new methods for the planning ofagricultural testing. It also evaluates information associated with cultivationand offers expert advices in statistical methods for livestock and tree raising.Of late, the Government of India has established Farmers Commission to fullyassess the cultivation plan. Nonetheless, the suggestions received variedresponses.Other interesting facts about India AgricultureIndia enjoys the second position all over the world in terms of agriculturalproduction. During the period of 2009-10, farming and associated industries suchas lumbering, forestry, and fishing represented approximately 15.7% of the GrossDomestic Product of the country. These industries also recruited 52.1% of theoverall manpower of India.Outputs on a unitary basis for every type of harvest have increased from 1950.This has been possible since the government has put particular focus on farmingoperations in the five-year plans (Panchabarshiki Parikalpana) and stabledevelopments in the domains of engineering science, irrigation, implementationof contemporary farming operations, and supply of cultivation loans and grantsafter the Green Revolution took place in the country.Nonetheless, worldwide evaluative studies disclose that the mean agriculturaloutput in the country is typically 30%-50% of the maximum average output in theworld.