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Using Coal as a Precursor for Value-Added Products

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Presentation by Edgar Lara-Curzio (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) at the ORAU 74th Annual Meeting of the Council of Sponsoring Institutions

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Using Coal as a Precursor for Value-Added Products

  1. 1. 1 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Using Coal as a Precursor for Value-Added Products Edgar Lara-Curzio Oak Ridge National Laboratory 74th Annual Meeting of the ORAU Council of Sponsoring Institutions March 4-6, 2019 Pollard Technology Conference Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Ensuring A Robust U.S. Energy Future
  2. 2. 2 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 The Beginning: Einstein’s Letter August 1939
  3. 3. 3 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 The Beginning: Einstein’s Letter August 1939
  4. 4. 4 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Places of the Manhattan Project
  5. 5. 5 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Oak Ridge National Laboratory evolved from the Manhattan Project The Clinton Pile was the world’s first continuously operated nuclear reactor Chemical processing techniques were developed to separate plutonium from irradiated fuel Graphite Reactor
  6. 6. 6 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 ORNL’s mission Signature strengths Neutron science and technology Materials science and engineering Computational science and engineering Nuclear science and technology Deliver scientific discoveries and technical breakthroughs that will accelerate the development and deployment of solutions in clean energy and global security, and in doing so create economic opportunity for the nation
  7. 7. 7 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 7 $1B domestic investment in additive manufacturing PUREX: Basis for nuclear fuel reprocessing techniques used worldwide Advanced alloys: Chrome-moly steel in widespread use Reactor technology: Concept technology for light water, high temperature, molten salt reactors Instrumentation: >$1B in products and spinoffs from ORTEC and TENNELEC Ion implantation: Integrated circuits and medical implants Lab-on-a-chip: Caliper sold for $0.6B Reactor life extension: $20B cost avoidance Cesium extraction: Basis for $1.3B waste processing Radioisotopes: Multibillion dollar industry (>100 million procedures per year) Centrifuge technology: Basis for vaccine purification and US enrichment industry Cryopreservation (mouse embryos): Frozen embryo (livestock reproduction) Fueleconomy.gov: $1B in fuel cost savings New gas turbine composite material ORNL innovations have had billion dollar impacts 1940s Today
  8. 8. 8 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 8 $1B domestic investment in additive manufacturing PUREX: Basis for nuclear fuel reprocessing techniques used worldwide Advanced alloys: Chrome-moly steel in widespread use Reactor technology: Concept technology for light water, high temperature, molten salt reactors Instrumentation: >$1B in products and spinoffs from ORTEC and TENNELEC Ion implantation: Integrated circuits and medical implants Lab-on-a-chip: Caliper sold for $0.6B Reactor life extension: $20B cost avoidance Cesium extraction: Basis for $1.3B waste processing Radioisotopes: Multibillion dollar industry (>100 million procedures per year) Centrifuge technology: Basis for vaccine purification and US enrichment industry Cryopreservation (mouse embryos): Frozen embryo (livestock reproduction) Fueleconomy.gov: $1B in fuel cost savings New gas turbine composite material ORNL innovations have had billion dollar impacts 1940s Today Coal-to-High Value-Added Products
  9. 9. 9 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 U.S. coal consumption in 2018 expected to be the lowest in 39 years
  10. 10. 10 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 U.S. coal consumption in 2018 expected to be the lowest in 39 years Number of coal mining employees in the United States
  11. 11. 11 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 A presentation dedicated to generations of coal miners and coal communities that helped make America a Superpower “Mine America’s Coal” Norman Rockwell The Sweat of their Face: Portraying American Workers National Portrait Gallery (2018)
  12. 12. 12 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Using Coal as a Precursor for High Value-Added Products
  13. 13. 13 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 The Idea of Using Coal as a Precursor for Products is not New Coal—A Complex Natural Resource U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1143 (2002)
  14. 14. 14 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 The Idea of Using Coal as a Precursor for Products is not New (1921)
  15. 15. 15 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 What is new are the capabilities and expertise at National Laboratories and Universities that were not available 20 years ago!! • World’s fastest supercomputers • Electron microscopes capable of imaging single atoms • Instruments for high-throughput characterization • Light and neutron sources These toolscouldbe used to developoptimizedphysicaland chemicalcoal separationprocessesin a shorterperiodof time
  16. 16. 16 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Not all wines are the same!
  17. 17. 17 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Not all coals are the same! Lignite SubmituminousC SubmituminousB SubmituminousB High-VolatileBbituminous High-VolatileAbituminous High-VolatileCbituminous Anthracite Meta-Anthracite Semi- Anthracite
  18. 18. 18 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 The Molecular Structure of Coal: A Genomic Approach J. H. Shinn (2002)
  19. 19. 19 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 The Molecular Structure of Coal: A Genomic Approach • High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Lattice Fringe Image Analyses • Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDIMS) • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) • Raman Spectroscopy • X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) • XANES
  20. 20. 20 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 The Molecular Structure of Coal A Genomic Approach Mathews et al. (2012) J. H. Shinn (2002)
  21. 21. 21 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 21 Reaction Networks applied to Coal Processing: Finding the Most Energetically Favorable Pathways for Breaking down Coal into Products and Precursors Jens K. Nørskov et al., NATURE COMMUNICATIONS | 8:14621 | DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14621
  22. 22. 22 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 HPCApplied to Coal Processing: Finding the Most Energetically Favorable Pathways for Breaking down Coal into Products and Precursors
  23. 23. 23 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 water Coal “Refinery” Coal Mine clipartkid.com Coal as a Precursor for High Value-Added Products Lara-Curzio et al. (2016)
  24. 24. 24 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 The Rare Earth Minerals Crisis
  25. 25. 25 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019
  26. 26. 26 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 What are the Rare Earth Elements?
  27. 27. 27 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019http://www.insightsonindia.com http://cen.acs.org/ Rare Earth Elements in Toyota’s Prius
  28. 28. 28 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 http://www.insightsonindia.com http://cen.acs.org/
  29. 29. 29 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 DOE’s Critical Materials Strategy (2010)
  30. 30. 30 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 DOE’s Critical Materials Strategy (2010)
  31. 31. 31 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 DOE’s Critical Materials Institute (CMI)
  32. 32. 32 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 DOE’s Critical Materials Institute (CMI) The Critical Materials Institute is a partnership of industries, universities and national laboratories that seeks ways to: • diversify and expand the availability of these materials throughout their supply chain • to reduce demand by identifying substitutes for critical materials, and • to reduce wastes by increasing the efficiency of manufacturing and recycling. After five years of work, CMI has published over 230 refereed publications in leading scientific journals. It has issued 90 invention disclosures, 50 patent applications, five technology licenses, and two open-source software packages. It has received six U.S. patents and two R&D 100 Awards. Some CMI inventions are already in commercial use.
  33. 33. 33 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 DOE’s Critical Materials Institute: Team
  34. 34. 34 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal by-Products
  35. 35. 35 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal by-Products
  36. 36. 36 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 water Coal “Refinery” Coal Mine clipartkid.com Coal as a Precursor for High Value-Added Products Lara-Curzio et al. (2016)
  37. 37. 37 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 water Coal “Refinery” Coal Mine chemicals alpha.com clipartkid.com Coal as a Precursor for High Value-Added Products Lara-Curzio et al. (2016)
  38. 38. 38 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 water Coal “Refinery” Coal Mine activated carbon chemicals alpha.com clipartkid.com Coal as a Precursor for High Value-Added Products Lara-Curzio et al. (2016)
  39. 39. 39 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 water Coal “Refinery” Coal Mine activated carbon mesoporous carbon chemicals alpha.com clipartkid.com Coal as a Precursor for High Value-Added Products Lara-Curzio et al. (2016)
  40. 40. 40 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 water Coal “Refinery” Coal Mine activated carbon mesoporous carbon metallurgical coal chemicals alpha.com clipartkid.com Coal as a Precursor for High Value-Added Products Lara-Curzio et al. (2016)
  41. 41. 41 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 water carbon fibers Coal “Refinery” Coal Mine activated carbon mesoporous carbon metallurgical coal chemicals alpha.com clipartkid.com Coal as a Precursor for High Value-Added Products Lara-Curzio et al. (2016)
  42. 42. 42 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Carbon Fibers Rayon PAN Poly(acrylonitrile) Pitch petroleum coal Precursors textiles synthetic chemistry Lignin ORNL has developed technologies to reduce the cost of making carbon fibers to ~ $10/lb, which could enable widespread utilization in automobiles and trucks 1 short ton of coal ~ $50 1 short ton of carbon fibers ~ $10,000 ($10/kg) value-added
  43. 43. 43 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Coal-derived Carbon Fibers have been commercialized
  44. 44. 44 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Several groups are trying to develop new coal-derived Carbon Fibers
  45. 45. 45 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Several groups are trying to develop new coal-derived Carbon Fibers
  46. 46. 46 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Several groups are trying to develop new coal-derived Carbon Fibers
  47. 47. 47 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Several groups are trying to develop new coal-derived Carbon Fibers
  48. 48. 48 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Carbon Fiber Composites are widely used in Aerospace Technologies Boeing 787 fuselage
  49. 49. 49 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Carbon fiber composites have started to be used in high volume in automobiles: BMW i3: mass-produced carbon fiber cars finally come of age Lara-Curzio et al. (2016)
  50. 50. 50 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Potential of Carbon Fiber Composites Market Growth www.marketsandmarkets.com. Lara-Curzio et al. (2016)
  51. 51. 51 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 water carbon fibers Coal “Refinery” Coal Mine activated carbon mesoporous carbon metallurgical coal chemicals alpha.com 3dprint.com clipartkid.com graphene electronic devices including photovoltaics TekThink.com Coal as a Precursor for High Value-Added Products Lara-Curzio et al. (2016)
  52. 52. 52 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Coal can be used to fabricate Photovoltaics Scientific American (2012)
  53. 53. 53 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Coal can be used to fabricate Photovoltaics Scientific American (2012)
  54. 54. 54 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Coal can be used to fabricate Photovoltaics Scientific American (2012)
  55. 55. 55 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 water carbon fibers Coal “Refinery” Coal Mine activated carbon mesoporous carbon metallurgical coal thermal management chemicals alpha.com 3dprint.com thermal insulation thermal conduction clipartkid.com graphene electronic devices including photovoltaics TekThink.com Coal as a Precursor for High Value-Added Products Lara-Curzio et al. (2016)
  56. 56. 56 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 water carbon fibers Coal “Refinery” Coal Mine Electrodes for Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors activated carbon mesoporous carbon metallurgical coal thermal management chemicals alpha.com 3dprint.com thermal insulation thermal conduction clipartkid.com graphene lithiumion-batteries.com electronic devices including photovoltaics TekThink.com Coal as a Precursor for High Value-Added Products Lara-Curzio et al. (2016)
  57. 57. 57 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Carbon is used for anodes of most Li-ion batteries https://electrek.co $2,500 $3,500 $4,500 ($ per tonne) 54kg of graphite 2014 2016 2018 2020 There is 54kg of graphite in the battery anode of each Tesla Model S (85kWh)
  58. 58. 58 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019
  59. 59. 59 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Lower Chinese graphite production could mean higher battery prices China has steadily been forcing producers of graphite — a material commonly used in smartphone and laptop batteries — to close in response to rising pollution, as mining companies fail to improve the conditions of local land and water resources. Why it matters: Batteries account for roughly 30% of the global demand for graphite, and China produces 70% of the world's graphite supply. As demand for the material continues to grow, battery prices may rise, which would impede progress toward the $100 per kilowatt hour lithium-ion target that many companies, including Tesla and BMW, are looking to achieve. Background: The expanding electric vehicle market has been a major contributor to the global rise in graphite demand. Axios. March 1, 20
  60. 60. 60 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 water carbon fibers Coal “Refinery” Coal Mine activated carbon mesoporous carbon metallurgical coal thermal management chemicals alpha.com 3dprint.com thermal insulation thermal conduction clipartkid.com graphene lithiumion-batteries.com electronic devices including photovoltaics TekThink.com building and construction materials midwestasphalt.com greenbuildingadvisor.com Electrodes for Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors Coal as a Precursor for High Value-Added Products Lara-Curzio et al. (2016)
  61. 61. 61 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 water carbon fibers Coal “Refinery” Coal Mine activated carbon mesoporous carbon metallurgical coal thermal management chemicals alpha.com 3dprint.com ethanol heat and power thermal insulation thermal conduction clipartkid.com graphene lithiumion-batteries.com value-added products carbon capture building materials electronic devices including photovoltaics TekThink.com building and construction materials midwestasphalt.com greenbuildingadvisor.com Electrodes for Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors Coal as a Precursor for High Value-Added Products Lara-Curzio et al. (2016) inding use for every molecule that is mine No molecule left behind!
  62. 62. 62 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Technoeconomic Analysis
  63. 63. 63 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 ORNL is collaborating with Ramaco, WRI, MIT and the Universities of Wyoming, Utah and Kentucky to turn coal into high value-added products
  64. 64. 64 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Social & Economic Perspective The Sweat of their Face: Portraying American Workers,” National Portrait Gallery “Mine America’s Coal” Norman Rockwell
  65. 65. 65 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Bringing Manufacturing Jobs to Coal Communities Opportunities for retraining and work force development
  66. 66. 66 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Summary • The National Laboratories are ready to collaborate with the Coal Industry and Academic Institutions to develop the underlying science that will enable the development of cost-effective and energy-efficient processes for converting coal into value-added products. • The commercialization of these technologies will result in the creation of new manufacturing industries and well-paying jobs in coal communities across the U.S.
  67. 67. 67 Lara-Curzio E. ORAU March 6, 2019 Questions?

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