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Deployment of Subsurface Carbon Sequestration with and without EOR: Challenges and Lessons Learned

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Presentation by Brian McPherson (University of Utah) at the ORAU 74th Annual Meeting of the Council of Sponsoring Institutions

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Deployment of Subsurface Carbon Sequestration with and without EOR: Challenges and Lessons Learned

  1. 1. Deployment of Subsurface Carbon Sequestration with and without EOR: Challenges and Lessons Learned Brian McPherson University of Utah
  2. 2. Utah Science,Technology and Research (USTAR) Initiative U.S. Department of Energy National EnergyTechnology Laboratory Acknowledgements: Deployment of Subsurface Carbon Sequestration with and without EOR: Challenges and Lessons Learned
  3. 3. Deployment of Subsurface Carbon Sequestration with and without EOR: Challenges and Lessons Learned Student Researchers at the University of Utah! Acknowledgements:
  4. 4. Outline - Premise: CCS and CCUS - The Southwest Regional Partnership - Selected Scientific Results - Goals Achieved and Not Achieved - Conclusions
  5. 5. Outline - Premise: CCS and CCUS - The Southwest Regional Partnership - Selected Scientific Results - Goals Achieved and Not Achieved - Conclusions
  6. 6. Departuresintemperature(°C) fromthe1961-1990average Premise: CO2 and Climate
  7. 7. CO2CO2 Premise: CO2 and Climate
  8. 8. CO2CO2
  9. 9. 10
  10. 10. 11
  11. 11. 12
  12. 12. 13
  13. 13. 14
  14. 14. Replacing fossil fuels with renewables is an ultimate goal; baseload power is obstacle
  15. 15. Replacing fossil fuels with renewables is an ultimate goal; baseload power is obstacle
  16. 16. Might Carbon Sequestration (CCS and CCUS) be a Solution to Emissions Reduction? Yes, but perhaps only in the short term. The ultimate goal is to reduce emissions with “clean” energy. Fossil fuels will continue to serve as a bridge.
  17. 17. Outline - Premise: CCS and CCUS - The Southwest Regional Partnership - Selected Scientific Results - Goals Achieved and Not Achieved - Conclusions
  18. 18. The U.S. Department of Energy and NETL are Leading CCS and CCUS Research Efforts
  19. 19. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration SWP Partners
  20. 20. SWP Partners
  21. 21. SWP Region 23
  22. 22. www.agrium.com http://www.conestogaenergy.com/arkalon-ethano Anthropogenic Supply: 500-600,000 Metric tons CO2/year supply 24 Farnsworth Unit
  23. 23. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration ACTIVE AND CURRENTLY PLANNED CO2 PATTERNS Detailed in SPE 180408 2010-11 2013-14 2018? 2012-13 1.0 mile2016 2016
  24. 24. Outline - Premise: CCS and CCUS - The Southwest Regional Partnership - Selected Scientific Results - Goals Achieved and Not Achieved - Conclusions
  25. 25. COLLABORATIVE SCIENCEVERY SUCCESSFUL: - Characterization: geology, geophysics, hydrology, geomechanics - Simulation: multiphase flow and transport, seismic, chemistry - Monitoring: surface, near-surface, deep subsurface - Risk assessment: qualitative to quantitative, including mitigation plans Some selected examples:
  26. 26. Characterization of geology at Multiple Scales 28 Facies model – reservoir scale MicroCT Imaging – pore scale, can differentiate between HFUs defined by R35 method
  27. 27. MVA OVERVIEW – SUCCESSES Reservoir Tracers – Aqueous Phase • Aqueous-phase tracer slugs (Naphthalene sulfonates) were injected into 5 well patterns to successfully evaluate fluid velocities, interwell connectivity and identify and characterize significant reservoir heterogeneities (faults). • The latest injection (FWU #13-3) yielded results indicating significant preferential fluid flow along two adjacent faults <map at right> • Relative tracer recovery along (#8-2 and #20-2) and across faults (#9-1) indicate variable transmissive versus sealed characteristics 45% 41% 14% 2-NS Relative recovery between FWU wells #8-1, #9-1 and #20-2 20-2 Well 8-1 Well 9-1 Well 6/4/2018 29
  28. 28. MVA OVERVIEW – MIXED SUCCESSES Reservoir Tracers – Vapor Phase • Vapor-phase tracer slugs (Perfluorocarbons) were injected into 4 well patterns in an attempt to assess CO2 migration in the reservoir. • An injection into FWU #13-1 yielded results suggesting preferential fluid flow along two adjacent faults <map at right> • However, vapor-phase tracer recovery is not as straightforward (multiple spikes) as the aqueous-phase tracers, leading to uncertainty in analysis. • Despite technological advancements made by NMT for the purpose of gas tracer collection, injection and sampling sampling both require specialized equipment and procedures that increase on-site access, effort and costs. -4.0E+04 0.0E+00 4.0E+04 8.0E+04 1.2E+05 1.6E+05 2.0E+05 2.4E+05 PECH Tracer Recovery (FWU #8-2) 6/4/2018 30 GOST: Gas Oil Separation Tank for collection of vapor-phase tracers Fluctuating vapor-phase tracer return curve for FWU well #8-2 is indicative of most wells sampled.
  29. 29. MONITORING SUCCESS: COUPLING OF GEOPHYSICS, MODELING & TRACERS Geophysical modeling & structural interpretation using 3D reflection seismic • Seismically resolvable faults/fault-like features interpreted by seismic attributes • Implies many smaller faults/fractures • Faults probably act as sealing features rather than seal bypass systems • Faults affect geologic properties in geomodel Reservoir Tracers • Reservoir tracer data yielded useful model development data, including verification of and characterization of faults and transport pathways. Modeling & Simulation • Numerical simulations of the aqueous-phase tracer injections were able to successfully predict fluid transport in specific well patterns and increased permeabilities along adjacent faults. 31
  30. 30. • Incorporation of Geologic models from characterization • UU’s model and NMT’s history matched model are in good agreement with historical data • Used as the basis for relative permeability analysis, fluid substitution analyses, etc. 32 SIMULATION: WHAT WORKED
  31. 31. Exchange of field data, geologic models, and PVT data between disparate modeling / simulation software (e.g., for different capabilities, including Petrel, Eclipse, STOMP, TOUGHREACT) 33 SIMULATION: WHAT WORKED
  32. 32. What didn’t work and needs further evaluation • Recover predictions for tracer 2,7-NDS at production well #20-8 • STOMP-EOR simulations require longer execution time than Eclipse, demonstrating difference between production and scientific software (and the need for parallelization) SIMULATION: WHAT DIDN’T WORK Initial inversions with full surface seismic What didn’t work and needs further evaluation • Differences in modeling approaches for faults between Eclipse and STOMP • Modifications required in STOMP to match fault modeling approach in Eclipse
  33. 33. Outline - Premise: CCS and CCUS - The Southwest Regional Partnership - Selected Scientific Results - Goals Achieved and Not Achieved - Conclusions
  34. 34. • 739,863 tonnes stored since October 2013 • 688,183 tonnes recycled since October 2013 • 1,180,379 tonnes stored since November 2010 • 92.7% of purchased CO2 still in the system • Average monthly oil rate increased from ~3,500 to ~65,000 BBL’s in first 4 years of CO2 Flood • Initial production response within 6 months • ~3.8 million STB produced during CO2 flood Monthly accounting since October of 2013 Monthly CO2 Injection and Oil Production Oil Produced CO2 Injected ThousandsSTBOil ThousandsMetricTonnesCO2 Goal Achieved: Dramatic Increase of Oil Production with Significant CO2 Stored
  35. 35. Goal Not Achieved: 1M tonnes CO2 Stored Why not? Oil price drop
  36. 36. Goal Not Achieved: 1M tonnes CO2 Stored Why not? Oil price drop A better paradigm: CCS *under* in oil reservoirs AND in deep saline reservoirs underneath those oil fields
  37. 37. A better paradigm: CCS *under* oil reservoirs AND in deep saline reservoirs underneath those oil fields
  38. 38. A better paradigm: CCS *under* oil reservoirs AND in deep saline reservoirs underneath those oil fields
  39. 39. A better paradigm: CCS *under* oil reservoirs AND in deep saline reservoirs underneath those oil fields • Store CO2 via EOR when oil prices are high and favor production • Oil fields are necessarily controlled pressure settings, and thus induced seismicity potential is minimized • When oil prices are high and do not favor production, storage in deeper saline formations preferred; pressure-related risks are increased, but leakage risks are reduced • No approach is without risk, be it technical or financial
  40. 40. Outline - Premise: CCS and CCUS - The Southwest Regional Partnership - Selected Scientific Results - Goals Achieved and Not Achieved - Conclusions
  41. 41. Conclusions • Big, multidisciplinary teams *can* collaborate effectively
  42. 42. • Big, multidisciplinary teams *can* collaborate effectively • Big collaborative teams can produce great science (the SWP itself has an h-index of 15!) Conclusions
  43. 43. Conclusions • Big, multidisciplinary teams *can* collaborate effectively • Big collaborative teams can produce great science (the SWP itself has an h-index of 15!) • Carbon sequestration within oil reservoirs is effective for both increased oil production and for CO2 storage (EOR)
  44. 44. Conclusions • Big, multidisciplinary teams *can* collaborate effectively • Big collaborative teams can produce great science (the SWP itself has an h-index of 15!) • Carbon sequestration within oil reservoirs is effective for both increased oil production and for CO2 storage (EOR) • CO2 sequestration with EOR minimizes technical risk because pressure in oil reservoirs is controlled
  45. 45. Conclusions • Big, multidisciplinary teams *can* collaborate effectively • Big collaborative teams can produce great science (the SWP itself has an h-index of 15!) • Carbon sequestration within oil reservoirs is effective for both increased oil production and for CO2 storage (EOR) • CO2 sequestration with EOR minimizes technical risk because pressure in oil reservoirs is controlled • However, a major risk to CCS with EOR is oil prices (higher oil prices = reduced storage)
  46. 46. Conclusions • Big, multidisciplinary teams *can* collaborate effectively • Big collaborative teams can produce great science (the SWP itself has an h-index of 15!) • Carbon sequestration within oil reservoirs is effective for both increased oil production and for CO2 storage (EOR) • CO2 sequestration with EOR minimizes technical risk because pressure in oil reservoirs is controlled • However, a major risk to CCS with EOR is oil prices (higher oil prices = reduced storage) • A good paradigm might be storage of CO2 in and below oil reservoirs, and shift to deep saline storage (underneath the oil field) when oil prices do not favor production

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