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Carbon Capture Program Overview


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Presentation by Lynn Brickett (National Energy Technology Laboratory) at the ORAU 74th Annual Meeting of the Council of Sponsoring Institutions

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Carbon Capture Program Overview

  1. 1. Lynn Brickett Carbon CaptureTechnology Manager National EnergyTechnology Laboratory 74th Annual Meeting of the ORAU Council of Sponsoring Institutions March 5, 2019 Carbon Capture Program Overview Solutions for Today Options for Tomorrow|
  2. 2. 2 Agenda • Introduction to NETL • Fossil energy is foundational – will not go away any time soon • CCS is critical to meeting CO2 emission reductions • CCS technology basics • NETL research
  3. 3. 3 The National Laboratory System Office of Science National Nuclear Security Administration Environmental Management Fossil Energy Nuclear Energy Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Pacific Northwest National Lab Lawrence Berkeley National Lab SLAC National Accelerator Lawrence Livermore National Lab Sandia National Lab Brookhaven National Lab Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Savannah River National Lab Oak Ridge National Lab Argonne National Lab Fermi National Accelerator Lab Ames Lab Idaho National Lab National Renewable Energy LabLos Alamos National Lab
  4. 4. 4 5,362 BkWh / Year 57% Fossil Energy Renewables 32% Nuclear 11% Coal 16% Gas 40% Oil <1% 38,857 BkWh / Year 58% Fossil Energy Renewables 32% Nuclear 10% Coal 29% Gas 28% Oil 1% 2050 +71% 2014 4,118 BkWh / Year 67% Fossil Energy Renewables 14% Nuclear 19% Coal 39% Gas 27% Oil 1% 22,665 BkWh / Year 66% Fossil Energy Data from EIA, International Energy Outlook 2017, Reference Case U.S. and World Electricity Generation UnitedStatesWorld +30% Renewables 24% Nuclear 11% Coal 40% Gas 22% Oil 4%
  5. 5. 5 The World and U.S. Energy Future 44% growth in world energy use 2014–2050 ~80% Fossil Energy Today AND Tomorrow Dominated by Global Growth 83% Fossil 83% Fossil 79% Fossil 79% Fossil 78% Fossil 79% Fossil 77% Fossil 79% Fossil Data from EIA, International Energy Outlook 2017, Reference Case
  6. 6. 6 CCS and CCU Value Chains Source: NETL, Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Revision 3, July 2015 Monitoring (5%)Storage (8%)Transportation (3%)Compression (11%)Capture (73%)
  7. 7. 7 Carbon Capture Demo NRG W.A. Parish Generating Station – Petra Nova
  8. 8. 8 Carbon Capture Demo Kemper - 1st Syngas Produced July 14, 2016
  9. 9. 9 Fossil Energy Technology Budget $13M $18M $18M $20M $22M $25M $30M $48M $56M $98M $101M Coal Beneficiation Gasification Rare Earth Elements Advanced Turbines STEP Transformative Coal Pilots SOFC Transformative Power Gen Crosscutting Carbon Storage Carbon Capture
  10. 10. 10 Integrated R&D Approach for Future Commercial-Scale Deployment 2017 Large Capture Pilots Initiated 2017 Initiate Storage Feasibility for Integrated CCS 2020 R&D Completed for Carbon Capture 2nd Generation Technologies 2025 Integrated CCS Projects initiated 2022 Commercial-scale storage complexes characterized 2035 Advanced technologies available for broad commercial-scale deployment Carbon Capture Carbon Storage
  11. 11. 11 CO2 Concentrations Coal Power Plant Gas Power Plant Air Capture 11-14% CO2 4-6% CO2 400 ppm CO2 INDUSTRIAL
  12. 12. 12 Carbon Capture Goals Ready to demo by 2025 2nd Generation Transformational $30 Per tonne of CO2 95% Purity Ready to demo by 2030 $40 Per tonne of CO2
  13. 13. 13 TECHNOLOGY AREAS KEY TECHNOLOGIES RESEARCH FOCUS Carbon Capture PRE-COMBUSTION Sorbents Membranes Solvents POST-COMBUSTION • Advanced Regeneration Processes • Increased Selectivity • High temperature operation • Dual Swing Absorption/Regeneration Cycles • Cyclic PSA • WGS/CO2 Separation Process • Advanced Membrane Materials • Silica Molecular Sieve • Gas/Liquid Contactor • WGS/CO2 Separation Process • High Density and Pressure Nano- Scale Membranes • High-temperature/High-pressure Seals • Process Intensification • Improved Kinetics and Capacity • Reduced Regeneration Energy • Reduced Heat Capacity • Process Intensification/Heat integration • High Performance Functionalized Solvents • Catalyzed Absorption • Phase-Change Solvents • Improved Attrition Rates • Improved Heat Transfer • Improved CO2 Adsorption Capacity and CO2 Selectivity • Process Intensification/Heat integration • Enhanced PSA/TSA • Improved Permeance and Selectivity • Improved Thermal, Chemical, and Physical Stability • Tolerance to Flue Gas Contaminants • Novel Process Conditions • Nano-materials PRE-COMBUSTION POST-COMBUSTION Novel Concepts • WGS/CO2 Separation Process • Hybrid Systems • Process Intensification • Supersonic Shockwave CO2 Compression • Hybrid Systems • Process Conditions (Cryogenic Capture) • Process Intensification/Heat Integration Program Structure
  14. 14. 14 2nd Generation Technologies
  15. 15. 15 Carbon Capture Simulation for Industry Impact Accomplishments • Framework for non-aqueous solvents developed • Use of rigorous models to inform accurate and predicative feed forward control resulting in rapidly achieving optimal operations • NG interest Work with industry partners on pilot & early TRL projects –Ensure success & maximize learning at this scale • Data collection & experimental design • Develop & validate models • UQ to identify critical data • Develop demonstration plant design • Utilize optimization tools (OUU, heat integration) • Quantitative confidence on predicted performance • Predict dynamic performance
  16. 16. 16 2nd Generation Pilot-scale Technologies Reduced Cost Reduced Energy Penalty Program Activity $100+/tonne 30+% Penalty 180+ Projects ~50% Reduction ~20% Penalty 15 Technologies Tested at Pilot Scale Technologies Tested at Pilot Scale
  17. 17. 17 Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. CO2 Capture Development Timeline TRL3 TRL4 TRL5 TRL6 TRL7 TRL8 Feasibility Study (NT43085) • Sweep concept proposed • Polaris membrane conceived APS Red Hawk NGCC Demo • First Polaris flue gas test • 250 lb/d CO2 used for algae farm 2016 2020201820142012201020082006 APS Cholla Demo (NT0005312) • First Polaris coal flue gas test • 1TPD CO2 captured (50kWe) NCCC 1 MWe Demo (FE0005795) • 10,000 hrs of 1 TPD system operation • 1 MWe (20 TPD) system operation Low Pressure Mega Module (FE0007553) • Design and build 500 m2 optimized module B&W Integrated (FE0026414) • Integrated operation of 1 MWe system with B&W’s 0.6 MWe coal-fired boiler Hybrid Capture (FE0013118) • Membrane solvent hybrids with UT, Austin 10 MWe Large Pilot (FE0031587) • Phase I (feasibility) for 200 TPD large pilot • Potential for Phase II (design) and Phase III (construction/operation)
  18. 18. 18 National Carbon Capture Center – World Class Carbon Capture Technology Test Facility – Post-combustion Technology Testing  PC4 Facility – 4.3 MWe  Actual PC flue gas  Bench through pilot scale  > 101,000 hours of testing  > 30 Technologies tested  US & 6 other countries 5 year $150 Million of DOE Investment $100 Million Capture Funding Independent Test Facility
  19. 19. 19 Technology Centre Mongstad (TCM) 13 MWe Solvent System; Cracker & NGCC flue gas • ION Engineering – Semi-aqueous solvent (2016-2017) • Completed testing • Carbon Capture Simulation for Industry Impact (CCSI2) • Fluor/PNNL – Water-lean solvent (2018) • RTI – Water-lean solvent • MTR – Membrane • TDA – Hybrid membrane & solvent • SRI – Advanced solvent Pathway to Scale-up NCCC 0.5 MWe SINTEF ION Engineering at TCM (13 MWe) Amine Degradation Testing Examples of Ongoing International Collaboration 2019-2021
  20. 20. 20 Transformational Technologies
  21. 21. 21 • Can use 1st and 2nd generation infrastructure • Lower reboiler duties (due to reduced water content) • Lower heat capacity = reduced duty on heat exchangers • Faster mass transfer (due to higher physical solubility of CO2) • Lower water content usually leads to lower corrosion • Different physical properties that can be leveraged for potential efficiency gains Reducing Water in Solvents (<5 wt.%) Offers Sizable Gains for CO2 Capture Why Water- Lean Solvents? Polarity Swing Regeneration Mathias et. al. Energy Environ. Sci. 2013, 6 (7) 2233-2242.
  22. 22. 22 Approach – Use additive manufacturing (AM), a device-scale prototype reactor that combines multiple thermodynamic operations into one unit (intensified device) for enhanced solvent-based CO2 capture, & test using simulated flue gas Additively Manufactured Intensified Device for Enhanced Carbon Capture Oak Ridge National Laboratory Advantages • Enhanced absorption kinetics due to increased reactive surface area • Enhanced heat exchange efficiency • Smaller equipment size Challenges • Printing devices with intricate geometric features using AM • Ensuring the prototype is structurally sound with increasing height Benefits • Combining multiple thermodynamic operations into one intensified device increases energy efficiency • Reduced equipment size lowers CAPEX & OPEX Model of absorption in corrugated structured packing sheet
  23. 23. 23 Approach – Design 3D-printed modular adaptive packings with internal heating or cooling capabilities for gas-liquid contacting Rapid Design and Testing of Novel Gas-Liquid Contacting Devices for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Via 3D Printing: Modular Adaptive Packing ION Engineering LLC Advantages • Modular and adaptable to both small- & large-scale applications • Dual functionality of heat & mass transfer in single packing medium • Improved mass transfer & pressure drop across packing Challenges • Module leakage • Structure of 3D-printed modules • Blockage of intercooling tubes in 3D-printed modules Benefits • 3D-printing of packing internals minimizes manufacturing costs (reduced CAPEX) • Maximized contactor surface area/volume ratio results in smaller footprint (lower CAPEX) & higher mass transfer rate • Lower solvent make-up rates (reduced OPEX) & reduced emissions, allows for CAPEX savings on the water wash section ION’s 0.01 MWe CO2 capture lab pilot unit
  24. 24. 24 Approach – Design novel geometries (triply periodic minimal surface [TPMS] & hierarchical structures) that support an advanced sorbent, solvent, or membrane to achieve transformational CO2 capture High-Efficiency Integrated Reactors for Sorbents, Solvents, and Membranes using Additive Manufacturing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Advantages • Reduced reactor volume & improved material utilization • Enhanced mass & heat transfer Challenges • Optimization of reactor structure for enhanced efficiency • Practicality of materials used to print 3D modules Benefits • AM of novel designs with advanced capture materials improves energy efficiency and reduces CAPEX & OPEX • Increased interfacial area reduces footprint & lowers CAPEX TPMS structure printed using additive manufacturing at LLNL
  25. 25. 25 Complementary AM Efforts Ongoing FWPs ORNL • Baselines conventional packing • Baselines manufacturability • Prototypes Packing improvements • CFD  Fundamental ROM understanding ION • Intercooled packing • Packing screening – test rig • Design modeling tools LLNL • Whitespace exploration of optimal geometry • 3D printing of TPMS Structures • Optimal design prototyping • Geometry optimization framework
  26. 26. Questions John Litynski Program Manager, Carbon Capture U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy 202-586-8087 Lynn Brickett Technical Manager, Carbon Capture Team U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory 412-386-6574