Assuring a Future U.S.-Based
Nuclear and Radiochemistry
Expertise
Carolyn J. Anderson, PhD
University of Pittsburgh
69th
m...
• C. BRADLEY MOORE (Chair), University of California,
Berkeley
• CAROLYN J. ANDERSON, University of Pittsburgh
• TRISH BAI...
Examine supply and demand for nuclear and
radiochemistry expertise and discuss possible
approaches for ensuring adequate a...
I. AVAILABILITY AND NEED FOR
EXPERTS
More than 100 years of nuclear and radiochemistry
discoveries, achievements, and societal impact in
ENERGY, ENVIRONMENT, M...
--Chemists, who hold one or more degrees in chemistry and have
taken specialized courses and conducted lab work in nuclear...
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Count
Year
Encouraging numbers of new nuclear che...
II. GAP BETWEEN AVAILABILITY AND NEED,
AND IMPACT ON THE RELEVANT SECTORS
Nuclear and radiochemistry expertise will continue
to be critical to the nation for 100s of more years
for…
• Protection a...
Estimated Supply of and Demand for Nuclear and
Radiochemist Degree Holders over the Next 5 Years
BS MS PhD
Currently Emplo...
• Too few graduate programs
with more than a single
nuclear or radiochemist exist
to support educational and
workforce nee...
1.The committee commends the current and past
efforts of federal agencies to support nuclear and
radiochemistry workforce ...
III. APPROACHES THAT COULD BE
IMPLEMENTED TO ASSURE THE U.S.
SUPPLY OF EXPERTS IS ADEQUATE
1. Institutional: structural support and collaboration
2. Educational: on-the-job training and knowledge
transfer and rete...
• Between the larger nuclear and radiochemistry programs
at universities and national laboratories, and the programs
of 2-...
BNL
PNNL
INL
LBNL
&LLNL
SRNL
ANL
LANL
Four to six partnerships suggested, roughly based on
number of application areas and...
• Maintain international leadership to support critical
US missions that require this expertise,
• Attract and educate exc...
Committee Conclusions
• Based on the state of research funding and the
academic pipeline, the committee is not optimistic ...
Thank you!
For more information about this study:
Dorothy Zolandz, Director
Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology
dzol...
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Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise

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Carolyn Anderson ORAU Board Meeting Presentation 2014

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  • An ad hoc committee was appointed by the National Academies to conduct the study.
  • Therefore, the NRC was called upon to evaluate the supply and demand and provide guidance for assuring there will be an adequata supply of this expertise for years to come.
  • Nuclear and radiochemistry is significant for many reasons--for fundamental science and critical application areas. The full time line is in the report
  • Here, we answer the question -- Who are Nuclear and Radiochemists? This is needed in order to differentiate between nuclear physicists, nuclear engineers, and other areas of chemistry.
  • Counting PhD degrees or theses provides one indicator of the availability of expertise – PhDs provide the backbone of expertise as academic faculty advisors and national laboratory researchers. Current numbers of PhD theses indicate recovery, compared to past declines.
  • The significance of this field and expertise needs will not diminish in time.
  • The committee recommended actions in three main areas. However, here we will just focus on the main recommendation for institutional needs—which provides the framework for addressing the other two.
  • Describes the recommended partnerships and desired goals.
  • Map showing geographic location of graduate level nuclear and radiochemistry academic programs and relevant national labs. Application areas just shown for illustrative purposes.
  • List of overarching desired impacts of the partnershops.
  • Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise

    1. 1. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise Carolyn J. Anderson, PhD University of Pittsburgh 69th meeting of ORAU Council of Sponsoring Institutions March 5, 2014
    2. 2. • C. BRADLEY MOORE (Chair), University of California, Berkeley • CAROLYN J. ANDERSON, University of Pittsburgh • TRISH BAISDEN, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory • CAROL J. BURNS, Los Alamos National Laboratory • RONALD A. CHRZANOWSKI, Exelon Nuclear • SUE B. CLARK, Washington State University • RICHARD B. FREEMAN, Harvard University • HOWARD L. HALL, University of Tennessee • LESTER R. MORSS, University of Maryland • GRAHAM PEASLEE, Hope College • GEORGINE M. PION, Vanderbilt University • HENRY F. VANBROCKLIN, University of California, San Francisco, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory • JOHN F. WACKER, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Study Committee 13 members, four in-person meetings, expertise in basic research, nuclear medicine, nuclear power, nuclear security, environmental management, scientific workforce, university administration, etc. Labor economist Scientist career development and workforce policy
    3. 3. Examine supply and demand for nuclear and radiochemistry expertise and discuss possible approaches for ensuring adequate availability of these skills in the future I. Estimate the availability and need for experts II. Estimate the gap between availability and need, and discuss the impact of this gap on the relevant sectors III. Suggest approaches that could be implemented to assure the U.S. supply of experts is adequate for the next 20 years* STUDY CHARGE *Note: committee was only able to look out 5 years due to data limitations
    4. 4. I. AVAILABILITY AND NEED FOR EXPERTS
    5. 5. More than 100 years of nuclear and radiochemistry discoveries, achievements, and societal impact in ENERGY, ENVIRONMENT, MEDICINE, and SECURITY Concerns about expertise supply and demand date back to 1970s
    6. 6. --Chemists, who hold one or more degrees in chemistry and have taken specialized courses and conducted lab work in nuclear and radiochemistry, including: •radioactive nuclei •formation and properties of radioactive elements •Nuclear processes •Nuclear applications in which chemical behavior is important --The core are members of American Chemical Society, Division of Nuclear Science and Technology --Thesis subject terms – sometimes, but often do not, include “nuclear chemistry” – can be used to track PhDs in lieu of Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED) --Often cross-trained inorganic or organic chemists Nuclear and Radiochemists are…
    7. 7. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Count Year Encouraging numbers of new nuclear chemistry PhDs Average of 13 nuclear chemistry PhD theses per year 2005-2010 PhD degrees PhD theses ~60 graduate faculty each year since 2005 Last year nuclear chemistry listed on Survey of Earned Doctorates
    8. 8. II. GAP BETWEEN AVAILABILITY AND NEED, AND IMPACT ON THE RELEVANT SECTORS
    9. 9. Nuclear and radiochemistry expertise will continue to be critical to the nation for 100s of more years for… • Protection against nuclear threats • Management of waste (legacy issues) • Growing use of nuclear medicine • Potential expansion of nuclear power Uranium clusters for understanding the nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear waste Radiotracers for Medical imaging Separation technologies for long-term remediation
    10. 10. Estimated Supply of and Demand for Nuclear and Radiochemist Degree Holders over the Next 5 Years BS MS PhD Currently Employed 416 256 765 Demand for new hires (due to retirements and some growth) 200 93 306 Supply of new degree holders 250 50 65 The needs for expertise are barely being met by current supply—and future needs may not be met by future supply Includes academic faculty, government agencies, industry, and national laboratories Security & Medicine
    11. 11. • Too few graduate programs with more than a single nuclear or radiochemist exist to support educational and workforce needs • Very little in-depth nuclear and radiochemistry content is taught at undergraduate and graduate level A traditional academic career path is not always viable for obtaining urgently needed expertise Only about 13 university programs have two or more faculty members and offer specialized course and laboratory work -Seven of these are members of American Association of Universities (AAU) Creative approaches are needed to maintain expertise
    12. 12. 1.The committee commends the current and past efforts of federal agencies to support nuclear and radiochemistry workforce education and development (see report for list). • e.g. the long-standing Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored Summer Schools in Nuclear and Radiochemistry, DNDO programs, etc. 1.However, all have largely been created independently by different federal funding agencies each with different emphasis on outcome. There exists a great potential for gaps in funding between the various parts of the academic pipeline, and there is no comprehensive plan to address academic pipeline issues.
    13. 13. III. APPROACHES THAT COULD BE IMPLEMENTED TO ASSURE THE U.S. SUPPLY OF EXPERTS IS ADEQUATE
    14. 14. 1. Institutional: structural support and collaboration 2. Educational: on-the-job training and knowledge transfer and retention 3. Workforce Data: data collection and tracking of workforce The Committee Recommends Actions in Three Main Areas of Need
    15. 15. • Between the larger nuclear and radiochemistry programs at universities and national laboratories, and the programs of 2- and 4-year colleges, research institutes, medical facilities, and industry. • To satisfy both current and future professional and academic needs, including – Traditional academic education – Internships, fellowships, and on-the-job training opportunities – Access to equipped experimental and theoretical facilities; – Access to highly qualified and knowledgeable experts to assure knowledge transfer and retention of critical information • Supported by federal agencies that depend on nuclear and radiochemistry expertise (e.g. DHS, DOD, DOE, NSF, NIH, etc.) Establish multiple formalized collaborative partnerships for research and education
    16. 16. BNL PNNL INL LBNL &LLNL SRNL ANL LANL Four to six partnerships suggested, roughly based on number of application areas and location of national labs Auburn Tennessee Tech Alabama Idaho Washington ORNL Medicine Environmental Management Security Energy Basic Science
    17. 17. • Maintain international leadership to support critical US missions that require this expertise, • Attract and educate exceptionally capable students to sustain the pipeline – Offer focused summer schools for junior and senior level undergraduates • Provide coursework, facilities, and other support to, or collaborate with, university chemistry departments that need expertise • Collaborate in the education of 2- and 4-year college faculty for preparation of educational materials and outreach. Desired Impacts of Partnerships
    18. 18. Committee Conclusions • Based on the state of research funding and the academic pipeline, the committee is not optimistic about the projected state of nuclear and radiochemistry expertise. • The projected supply of U.S. nuclear and radiochemistry expertise will barely meet basic demands for at least the next 5 years. • The small size of the expertise pool makes it fragile and vulnerable; it should be supported in a more coordinated and strategic manner than it is currently. • Should there be major funding cuts, policy changes, or world events, the U.S. supply of nuclear and radiochemistry expertise will be inadequate.
    19. 19. Thank you! For more information about this study: Dorothy Zolandz, Director Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology dzolandz@nas.edu www.nas.edu/bcst U.S. Department of Energy: National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Nuclear Energy, and Office of Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Homeland Security: Domestic Nuclear Detection Office National Science Foundation: Chemistry Division

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