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Partner Webcast - Oracle Digital Assistant Conversational Design & UX

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The power of a conversational interface, such as Oracle Digital Assistant, lies in the ability for a user to communicate using natural language using phrases and terms with which they are familiar and comfortable. Oracle Digital Assistant goes well beyond standard chatbots available today that provide simple, single skilled, linear responses. By applying AI for natural language processing (NLP), natural language understanding (NLU) and machine learning (ML), Oracle is...

Read More @ https://blogs.oracle.com/imc/partner-webcast-oracle-digital-assistant-conversational-design-ux

Presenter Catalin Pohrib

Published in: Technology
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Partner Webcast - Oracle Digital Assistant Conversational Design & UX

  1. 1. Digital Assistant - Conversational Design & UX Catalin Pohrib Oracle EMEA A&C Cloud Adoption & Implementation Consultant OPN Innovation and Modernization Center, EMEA A&C July 25th, 2019 Partner webcast
  2. 2. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Safe Harbor Statement The following is intended to outline our general product direction. It is intended for information purposes only, and may not be incorporated into any contract. It is not a commitment to deliver any material, code, or functionality, and should not be relied upon in making purchasing decisions. The development, release, timing, and pricing of any features or functionality described for Oracle’s products may change and remains at the sole discretion of Oracle Corporation. 3
  3. 3. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Program Agenda 4 Oracle Digital Assistant Overview Conversational Design Voice and personality Natural language intelligence Help, guidance and error handling Summary – Q&A 1 2 3 4 5 6
  4. 4. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Program Agenda 6 Oracle Digital Assistant Overview Conversational Design Voice and personality Natural language intelligence Help, guidance and error handling Summary – Q&A 1 2 3 4 5 6
  5. 5. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 7 Oracle Digital Assistant Overview
  6. 6. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Oracle Digital Assistant Overview 8 • Until now, chatbots solved simple business problems • Customer service automation • Automation of structured processes • Self-service • Digital assistants are user oriented • Assist users with various related or unrelated tasks • Conversations are context aware • Assistants learn about the user
  7. 7. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Oracle Digital Assistant Overview 9 IT Self Service Training Employee Onboarding Quick Facility Request Employee Profile Meetings Survey Policy Helpdesk Timesheet Employee Idea Submission Claims Submission Manager Approvals & Requests HR Approvals Custom Backend Services Skills HCM ERP CX 3rd Party Digital Assistant
  8. 8. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 10 Oracle Digital Assistant is Oracle's 2nd generation intelligent bot platform for customers to build composite chatbot solutions from independent skills Image courtesy of pixabay.com
  9. 9. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | About Digital Assistant • Front-end bot that redirects user messages to one of its configured skills – Routing is based on intents and utterances, context and direct addressing • Disambiguates user messages if required • Exposed on one or many messenger channels – Messenger payload differences handled by configured channel connector • Design time for digital assistant designers – Create chatbots by orchestrating individual skills • Configuration only (no coding) – Digital assistant designers may or may not be the skill developer 11
  10. 10. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Oracle Digital Assistant Overview - Skills • Skills may or may not use natural language processing (NLP) – Its common practice though that they do • User messages are interpreted by a trained model – Intents are resolved and mapped to a dialog – Entity values are extracted from user message • Skills in digital assistant may use different training models 12 Intent resolution and entity extraction
  11. 11. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Oracle Digital Assistant Overview - Skills • Conversation flows define "the chat" – The interaction between user and skill results in the completion of a task • Conversation flow design – Dialog flows • Managed by dialog flow engine • Scripted interactions that may be skipped conditionally – Composite bag entities • Smart data objects that assemble information from NLP and user interaction dialogs • Don't require a written dialog flow 13 Conversation flows
  12. 12. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 14 Successful chatbots need to do more than just having a conversation Image courtesy of pixabay.com
  13. 13. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 15 Digital Assistant • Published skills are displayed in skill catalog • Configured skills indicate when a new version is available • Update to new version keeps digital assistant level configurations 15 Adding skills
  14. 14. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 16 Digital Assistant • Invocation name • Used with explicit routing • Inherited from skill • customizable • Example utterances • Provide hints of how to invoke skill • Displayed when help system intent is invoked 16 Skill configuration
  15. 15. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 17 Digital Assistant • Requests are routed to best-fit skill model and flow • Disambiguates if needed • Implicit invocation – Uses intents and utterances of skills • Explicit invocation – Named reference for skills is used – 'Ask AMCE bank, what is my balance?' • Configurable 17 Intelligent routing Oracle Digital Assistant Skill Skill Skill Skill Skill Skill
  16. 16. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Oracle Digital Assistant Overview 18 • Routing configuration options • Embedded routing tester • System intents • Pre-defined intents • unresolvedIntent • Utterances • Smart dialog
  17. 17. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 1919 Channels connect skills and digital assistants to messenger clients Image courtesy of pixabay.com
  18. 18. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 2020 Channel creation steps
  19. 19. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 21 About channels • Declaratively created in Oracle Digital Assistant • "Native" channel support provides configuration for specific messengers – Ensures message payloads are defined as needed by channel – Provides and handles message server interactions • Webhook channel – Allows messengers with no native channel support to interact with ODA or skill – Message payload is MessageModel format – Custom message server needed to dispatch between messenger and bot
  20. 20. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 22 A digital assistant is a computer program that uses artificial intelligence and machine learning to combine independent chatbots into a single conversational interface that assists real users throughout their day Image courtesy of pixabay.com
  21. 21. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Program Agenda 23 Oracle Digital Assistant Overview Conversational Design Voice and personality Natural language intelligence Help, guidance and error handling Summary – Q&A 1 2 3 4 5 6
  22. 22. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Conversational Design 24
  23. 23. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Conversational Design 25 • What is conversational design? • Why do we need conversational design? • Conversational design strategies, tactics and examples • What do conversational designers do? • Fallback planning, escalation
  24. 24. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Working definitions con·ver·sa·tion /ˌkänvərˈsāSH(ə)n/ a talk between two or more people in which thoughts, feelings, and ideas are expressed; questions are asked and answered; or news and information is exchanged.” 26Confidential – Oracle Internal/Restricted/Highly Restricted con·ver·sa·tional de·sign /ˌkänvərˈsāSH(ə)nal/ /dəˈzīn/ the craft of imparting in a machine those human-like capabilities that enable the machine to interact with humans conversationally, on their terms – not on the machine’s.
  25. 25. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | What does it mean to “interact on human terms”? • Understanding written natural language • Understanding spoken natural language • Adjusting an interaction based on tone/syntax • Adjusting an interaction based on visual cues (body language/facial expressions) • Responding in kind (“conversationally”) to all of the above • Abstracting/simplifying otherwise complex computer experiences • Filling out forms, avoiding repetitive data entry, simplifying policies, etc. 27
  26. 26. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 28 And sometimes the user just wants the answer! 28 “Can I park here now?” And this is where a properly-designed chatbot can (and did!) really help... ”Your ‘new’ website looks like it was designed by a rocket-scientist and implemented by a politician. I can’t find ANYTHING that actually helps me!” Anonymous B2B Customer c. 2016
  27. 27. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | “We tried that once…it didn’t work.” • About the Conversational Design • Not an exact science • An iterative endeavor • Best ideas often not immediately obvious • Not every idea will work as imagined • Failure is a learning opportunity
  28. 28. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Conversation design goal #1: Don’t look dumb… • Once the user loses confidence in an interaction, the game is over… • “I’m sorry, I don’t understand. Would you please rephrase your question?” – Use this generic response sparingly – For out of scope inquiries, asking the user to “rephrase the question” will only lead to frustration – and ”looking dumb” • Conversational Designers must think hard about "sad paths". – Out of scope, off topic, user confusion, mis-classification, etc. – 80% of the work of building a good bot is thinking about the "sad path" 30
  29. 29. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Humans express symptoms, desires - not solutions “My TV is fuzzy what do I do?” vs. (FAQ) How to reset your cable box “I can’t find my hotel” vs. (UI) Enter location & destination “These shoes don’t fit” vs. (FAQ) Return Policy “Expense this receipt” vs. (UI) Fill out this expense form “Ship 3 to my home on my Visa” vs. (UI) Complete this online workflow 31 Conversational designers understand how users actually talk to the chatbot and build conversational interactions that respond in kind…
  30. 30. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | A conversational interface won’t fix a broken CX (Customer Experience) Tips: • Ensure the business stakeholders are involved and set clear objectives as to what the digital assistant should achieve and how this is measured • In planning a project you need to ensure you are not building on top of a fundamentally flawed process and be able to discriminate between feedback on the conversational channel and feedback on the underlying customer journey. 32 A digital assistant is a channel into your company and a digital assistant on top of a broken customer experience is just a new channel into that broken experience
  31. 31. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Conversational design tactics • Offer varied introductions to avoid fatigue • Recognize symptoms as ways of expressing a problem • Understand colloquialisms • Accept clicked or typed input • Always have a call to action (never leave user at a “flashing cursor”) • Limit open-ended questions • Break responses into bite-sized chunks • Offer more information in answers (e.g., hyperlinks) 33Confidential – Oracle Internal/Restricted/Highly Restricted
  32. 32. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | • Data and integration • NLP/NER • Dialog state management • Escalation/hand off • User interface • APIs/Backend systems • Metrics • Conversational design • Wording/tone • Recognition capabilities • Answer effectiveness • Conversational capability • Quick reply buttons • UX UI, buttons, etc. 34 What conversational designers do
  33. 33. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | What conversational designers do • Employ a holistic approach that considers both plumbing and design • NLP, Classification, • UI, UX (the intersection of NLP and user interface) • Language, grammar, Tone • Understand that conversational design is more like writing a song than writing a program • Embrace the “80/20 rule for chatbot development” • 20% of time spend on “Happy path” • 80% of time spent dealing with what could go wrong 35
  34. 34. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Conversational design mantra: “It’s all in the data…” • To interacts on customer's terms, you must know them… • ”Getting dirty in the real data” • Don’t have “real” customer data? • Hypothesis re: what/how customers will say • Build a ChatBot based on hypothesis • Turn it on, monitor it closely • Be ready to adjust as “real” users interact 36
  35. 35. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Tenets of conversational design • The Voice of the Customer (VoC) is king • Allow “escalation” from your chatbot • The first day is the worst day • Make it easy to escalate early in the chatbot’s life • Have a monitoring, measurement and improvement plan • Remember that words have low information density • People don’t read • More words = more confusion (KISS rule) 37Confidential – Oracle Internal/Restricted/Highly Restricted
  36. 36. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Why conversational design can be hard • Organizational challenges – Need for conversational design is not understood/embraced – Lack of skills or skills spread across different silos – No recipe for success – Every implementation is different (at least at first) • Job level challenges – Not as much about “making it work” as it is “keeping it from breaking” • Must focus on what might go wrong – and mitigate those risks – Unclear how to define “done” – Every implementation is different (at least at first) 38
  37. 37. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Design decisions: Back-up plan and when is it used? • Escalations happen • Even the best chatbots will “get off track” • Make it easy to “escalate” when user is confused/frustrated • For new bots “the first day is the worst day” • Escalation options • Live chat • Offer a call or callback • Email 39
  38. 38. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 40 Practice the philosophy of continued improvement. Get a little bit better every single day. – Brian Tracy
  39. 39. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Program Agenda 41 Oracle Digital Assistant Overview Conversational Design Voice and personality Natural language intelligence Help, guidance and error handling Summary – Q&A 1 4 5 6 3 2
  40. 40. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Voice and personality 42
  41. 41. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Consider your bot personality Your voice IS your brand 43
  42. 42. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Consider your Bot personality • We have in-built expectation that a conversation should be engaging • Decide on your bot persona – Formal? Hip? Reflection of your target audience? • Give it a name and avatar, but not necessarily human • Give a positive and welcoming introduction • The voice and tone of your bot is your brand • Words carry emotions – “You neglected to supply” vs “If you could tell us..” 44
  43. 43. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Your bot is not human • If people know it’s a bot, expectations are set accordingly • Keep bot messages short, readable and consider multiple responses – Typing indicators give think time and a clue that more is coming • Vary responses – Vary welcomes and greetings for a heavily used bot – Disclose more information as you detect the user stuck at a step • Don’t be afraid to verify understanding • Don’t overdo the empathy or humour! 45
  44. 44. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Handle Smalltalk • About 40% of conversations with a bot is “small talk” • Prepare to handle Smalltalk • Manage the conversation BACK to the known use cases • Every step in the conversation is a chance to reinforce the bot personality 46
  45. 45. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Program Agenda 47 Oracle Digital Assistant Overview Conversational Design Voice and personality Natural language intelligence Help, guidance and error handling Summary – Q&A 1 3 5 6 4 2
  46. 46. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Natural language intelligence 48
  47. 47. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Many roads lead to Rome (or Paris!) • Always consider that each intent may involve different classifications, or types or questions. In which case it is perfectly reasonable to built multiple intents for the same conversation flow
  48. 48. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Many roads lead to Rome • The same action could be triggered by different types of phrases – Have different intents which all result in the same action • Keeps related utterances together • “cleaner” separation of intents • Possibility to treat differently in future 50 RETURNS POLICY How do I return this item Can I return my purchases What is your returns policy I bought a shirt and it doesn’t fit I got this coat in the wrong size These trousers were bought as a gift but don’t fit Bought a DVD but it was scratched Drawer on my BluRay player is broken Got new iPhone but won’t hold charge
  49. 49. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Handle the things you know you don’t know • Create intents for the use cases you know you can’t handle • Your bot likely handles a subset of business functions • Gracefully handle the business function NOT supported by the bot • Allows the bot to more precisely handle failure • User knows input was understood 51
  50. 50. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Test, fix, repeat Good data comes from testing • Intent classification • From each testing or launch of your digital assistant you need to capture user utterances. • Intent testing • Ensure you have a clear plan to harvest new training data from customer logs and insights.
  51. 51. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Test, fix, repeat • NLP is only as good as the data you train it with • Real data comes from real users • 80/20 split training/test data • Use batch testing • Use analytics and insight • Test, fix, repeat 53
  52. 52. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Program Agenda 54 Oracle Digital Assistant Overview Conversational Design Voice and personality Natural language intelligence Help, guidance and error handling Summary – Q&A 1 3 4 6 2 5
  53. 53. Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Help, guidance and error handling 55
  54. 54. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Offer guidance and help • Not always clear how to start a conversation • The bot should give guidance on what services it can support • Remind & offer some sort of “help” or “reset” option • Offer human hand off as required
  55. 55. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Offer guidance and help 57 • Use quick replies, cards and carousels to select • Easier to read • Quicker and more accurate to select • Guide the conversation back to the happy path • Avoid open ended questions • “Do you want anything else” vs “Do you want to order drinks, dips or cookies?” • Ask before committing a transaction • Verbs and nouns instead of simple Yes/No
  56. 56. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Fail gracefully Or at least try your best
  57. 57. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Fail gracefully • Fail gracefully – Don’t blame the user – An opportunity to re-enforce the bot personality • Be careful with language – “That order doesn’t exist” vs “I couldn’t find that order” • Give the user intelligent options to get back on track – Show the nearest resolving intents – Give an option to reset the conversation – Human agent hand-off 59
  58. 58. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Program Agenda 60 Oracle Digital Assistant Overview Conversational Design Voice and personality Natural language intelligence Help, guidance and error handling Summary – Q&A 1 3 4 5 2 6
  59. 59. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 61 Artificial intelligence alone doesn't build the bot • Chatbots automate user interaction on the conversational channel • Requires good conversation design skills • Uses a sound mix of conversational AI and dialog flow to assist and guide users • Building chatbots is a software development project • Full development lifecycle • Artificial intelligence does not replace good design practices • It is just a tool for you to use
  60. 60. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Get Started Today 62 • Learn more - cloud.oracle.com/digital-assistant - cloud.oracle.com/digital-assistant/training • Try it Now - cloud.oracle.com/tryit • Connect - Join the Community of Oracle Mobile blogs.oracle.com/mobile/
  61. 61. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | Q&A Oracle IMC blog: http://blogs.oracle.com/imc Oracle ECEMEA Partner Hub Homepage: http://oracle.com/goto/hub-ecemea Oracle IMC Mail: partner.imc@beehiveonline.oracle.com Twitter: http://twitter.com/oracleimc Facebook: http://facebook.com/oracleimc LinkedIn: http://linkedin.com/groups/OracleIMC-4535240 Github: http://github.com/oracleimc
  62. 62. Copyright © 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. | 64

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