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Mentawir Energy PDD Updated 22 05 2015

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Mentawir Energy PDD Updated 22 05 2015

  1. 1. Project Presentation 2 x 25 MW COAL FIRED POWER PLANT
  2. 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMERY MENTAWIR ENERGY ( Coal Mining and Coal Fired Power Plant 2 x 25 MW ) Submitted By : PT. PRAKARSA MITRA ABADI Balikpapan , East Kalimantan, Indonesia.
  3. 3. 1.OVERVIEW OF INDONESIAN ELECTRICITY
  4. 4. Indonesia’s Current Electricity Condition a) Total Installed Capacity : 50,655 MW * PLN : 35,965.05 MW - 71 % * IPP : 10,131.00 MW - 20 % * PPU : 02,026.20 MW - 04 % * OP Non Oil : 02,532.75 MW - 05 %
  5. 5. b) Current Electrification Ratio : 80.51 % c) Electricity Consumption(2013): 188 TWh d) Demand Growth : 8.4% per Year (7.8% in 2013) e) Villagers are living under : 230 million unelectrified areas/ no access people to country’s electric grid status f) Total Investment in Power : +/- USD 7.16 Sector Billion (2012)
  6. 6. d) Fuel use Ratio for Power Generation - Coal : 51.6 % - Gas : 23.6 % - Oil : 12.5 % - Hydro : 7.9 % - Geothermal : 4.4 %
  7. 7. d) Electricity Consumption Ratio (188 TWh-2013) - Household : 41.0 % - Industry : 34.0 % - Business : 19.0 % - Public : 6.0 %
  8. 8. INSTALLED ELECTRICITY CAPACITY & CONSUMPTION 2009-2022
  9. 9. NATIONAL ELECTRICITY DEMAND 2013 - 2022
  10. 10. DEVELOPMENT PLANNING ON POWER GENERATION 2013 - 2022
  11. 11. GOVERNMENT’S FAST TRACK PROGRAM (FTP) - PHASE II 2013 - 2022
  12. 12. STRUCTURE OF NATIONAL TRANMISSION LINE
  13. 13. Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN) PLN (Perusahaan Listrik Negara , in english State Electricity Company ) is an Indonesian government-owned corporation which has a monopoly on elctricity generation and distribution in Indonesia.
  14. 14. INDIPENDENT POWER PRODUCERS (IPP) •An Indipendeent Power Producer (IPP) is an entity, which is privately held facilities to generate electric power from various source for sale to PLN and end users. •Private sector partnership is allowed through Independent Power Producer (“IPP”) arrangements. •IPP appointment is usually through competitive bidding except in certain circumstances (e.g. for renewable energy, mine-mouth, crisis, marginal gas, or expansion projects) in which case appointment can be direct. •The structure involves the IPP signing an Energy Sales Agreements or Power Purchase Agreement with PLN to produce electric power and supply PLN electricity at an agreed price for an agreed period.
  15. 15. PLN’s PROCUREMENT METHODS PLN procures new Indipendent Power Projects (IPP) under following strategic programmes : •Fast Track II Programme which consist of 10,147 MW of new projects and reserved 3097 MW projects for IPPs, consisting of coal , gas, geothermal and hydro technologies. •Puiblic Private Partnership ((PPP) programme. Under this programme ,Central Java project of 2000 MW unltra-super cretical coal fire power plant has beed procured.
  16. 16. Mine-Mouth Procurement Methods : PLN also procures IIPs projects outside of the above mentioned programmes of Fast Track II Programme and Public Private Partnership Programme, and currently PLN include a variety of coal mine-mouth projects. The procurement method has a bearing on the type of incentives offered for the projects , including the availability of a Government guarantee.
  17. 17. Tender Process Indipendent Power Projects (IPPs) can be procured under one of two different tender processes - direct appointment or public auction. The direct appointment process is restricted to renewable projects, Coal mine-mouth projects, purchase of excess power and situations where the local power system is in critical condition. In addition, the direct appointment must be approved by the MEMR.
  18. 18. INVESTMENT SCHEME (GOVERNMENT REGULATION NO. 14/2012 ON ACTIVITY OF ELECTRICITY PROVISION BUSINESS)
  19. 19. MINE-MOUTH POWER GENERAQTION •Mine-Mouth coal fired power plant utilize coal which economically more feasible for mine-mouth power plant; •Mine-Mouth coal fired power plant must be guaranteed by the coal availability during operation based on contract; •The power plant is near by the coal mining. •The supply of coal for the development of the mine-mouth power plant is conducted based on a coal sale agreement between a mining company and a mine-mouth power plant company.
  20. 20. • Coal base price is simply production cost plus a 25 % margin. • Coal price for a mine-mouth power plant is price calculated at the stockepile facility selling point of mine-mouth power plant. • A Coal Mining Company can only submit a coal sale price offer to a mine mouth power plant after it has obtained approval of its coal base price from the DGMC. • Coal mining companies that supply coal for mine-mouth power plant can be holders of mining business license (IUPs / Special Mining Business License) for Operation and production. • Non mine-owning companies ( e.g Coal Traders) cann’t be coal suppliers to the mine-mouth power plants. • The Coal mining company that supplier coal for mine-mouth power plant mush have a minimum of 10% shares in the mine-mouth power projects.
  21. 21. The Investment Law : Indonesian Investment law is providing a one-stop investment framwork for investors. This includes key investor guarantees nsuch as the right to freely repatriate foreign currency, and key incentives such as exemptions from import duties and VAT otherwise due on the import of capital goods, machines or equipments for production need. Negative List : The Negative List imposes maximum limits of foreign owership for various categories of business activity. 95% foreign ownership is permitted for power generation projects above 10 MW. The remaining 5% must be held by Indonesian entities or individuals
  22. 22. Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) PLN does not use one standard form PPA. Rather, the form ofthe PPA evolves from project to project, with most projects containing a generally similar risk allocation. Developer;s and lenders have become comfortable with the typical risk features of the PPA. POWER WHEELING at Free of Cost As per the newly issued Government Regulation (GR) No. 23/2014 on the Amendment to the GR No.14/2012 on Power Provision Business Activities, Power- Wheeling scheme that will allow IPP to send electricity to industrial users / smelters using PLN transmission line without any cost
  23. 23. Land Land acquisition is an important issue for power projects. PLN generally expects developers to acquire all of the land needed for the plant site and the transmission lines needed to connect the plant to the nearest substation. As foreign owned companies cannot hold unregistered land or Rights of Ownership, land which is unregistered or in theform of Right of Ownership must first be converted into either a Right of Building or a Right of Use.
  24. 24. Forestry Indonesian law distinguishes between conservation forests, protected forests and production forests; the latter category being forest areas having the main function of producing wood products. Power projects are permitted in production forests and since 2010, are permitted in protected forests. Project developers, however, must obtain a Forest Borrow Permit (Ijin Pinjam Pakai) from the Ministry of Forestry to “borrow” the forest area for this purpose.
  25. 25. Permits An Indonesian power project is subject to an extensive list of permits from a variety of Government departments and ministries. The main permits that a power project developer is required to obtain are: • Registration with the Investment Coordinating Board for the establishment of the project company and Investment Principal License • Business License or Izin Usaha • Approval of the environmental impact assessments or Analisis Mengenai Dampak Lingkungan (AMDAL)
  26. 26. • Location Permit (Izin Lokasi), which allows the Company to procure the land that is required for the project from a third party (by way of sale and purchase or relinquishment) or from the state. • Electricity Business License (izin Usaha Penyediaan Tenaga Listrik or IUPTL) • Certificate of Operation Worthiness (Sertifikat Laik Operasi or SLO). If a project company seeks finance from the international lending community, it is likely to have to comply with established environmental standards such as the Equator Principles or the IFC environmental standards.
  27. 27. Project OverviewProject OverviewProject Overview
  28. 28. PROJECT at GLANCE 1. Plant Type : Mine Mouth Categorized Coal Fired Power Plant 2. Plant Capacity : 50 MW ( 2 x 25 MW) 3. Total Area Proposed: 50 Hectares -30 hectares - Project Dev., -20 Hectares - Afforestation.
  29. 29. 4. Location : Wonosari Village & Kel. Mentawir, 5. District / Kab. : Sepaku, Penajam Paser Utara 6. Project Cost : USD 117.50 Million. 7. Capacity of Boilers : 2 x 110 T/H 8. Fuel Type / Source : Coal resource from own Mines which is laying on the Village of Wonosari and Kelurahan Mentawir.
  30. 30. INTRODUCTION About The Proposed Coal-fired Power Plant •The proposed plant will consist of two sub-critical 25 MW circulating Fluidised Bed Combustors (CFBC) boilers with two 25 MW steam turbines with Water Cooled Condenser (WCC). The plant will use run of coal from PMA Coal mine . •This plant is expected to take 16 -20 months to construct and will operate in 2017. The plant will last at least 30 years. •The plant will consume :
  31. 31. • 291.600 tons of low ash , low grade coal a year (average energy content of 5200kCal/kg) and 8.7 millions tons for 30 years of project life time. • will have an ash content of between 6% -10% , a volatiles content of between 36% and 40% • The plant will require 280 cu. meter an hour of water , for the.The source of water will be collected from Mentawir River. The Plant will operate 24 hours a day, with load factor of 90%.
  32. 32. • The proposed power plant project will be implemented through the establishment of Indonesian legal entity namely “PT. MENTAWIR ENERGI “ as a Mine-Mouth power plant company. • The supply of coal for the proposed 2 x 25 MW mine- mouth power plant will be provided by PT. Prakarsa Mitra Abadi ( PMA Coal) which is holder of 1566 hectares of coal mining business License (IUP) for operation and production.
  33. 33. Salient Feature of the Coal Mine 1. Detailes of Coal Mine of PT. Prakarsa Mitra Abadi 1.1 Mine Location : Kel. Mentawir dan Desa Wonosari, Kec. Sepaku, Kab. PPU, KALTIM 1.2.(a) Coal Mine Licenses & Permits : - SKIP dated 31st October 2008 - PU , 2186 Ha. , dated 08 January 2009 - IUP Exploration , 2186 Ha., dt 08 December 2009 - IUP Exploration – (Extention), 1704 Ha.,10 May’2011 - IUP Exploration – (Extention), 1566 Ha.,00 Jan’2013 - IUP Operation Production, 1566 Ha.,09 April’2013
  34. 34. 1.3. Coal Quiality , Specification with Ultimate & Ash Analysis
  35. 35. 1.4. Hauling Road : 11 Kms 1.5. Estimated Reserves: 24.4 millions tonnes 1.6. FeasibilityStudy : Ready 1.7. Enviro. Clearance : Ready 1.8. CnC Certificate : Under Process 1.9. Land Ownership : Forestry 1.10. Land Lease : Under process
  36. 36. 2. Study on Construction of mine-mouth Power Plant 2.1 Study Area : Kel. Mentawir, Kec. Sepaku, Sub District Penajam Paser Utara, Kaltim. 2.2.(a) Permits : Surat Keterangan Izin Survey No. 027/422.TU.P/XI/2008 from Local Government, Bupati Penajam Paser Utera, dated 03 November 2008.
  37. 37. 2.2. (b) Permit : Perpanjangan Surat Keterangan Izin Survey No. 6712/480-TU-PIM/XII/2008 from Local Government, Bupati Penajam Paser Utera, dated 03 December 2008. 2.2. (c) Permit : Perpanjangan Surat Keterangan Izin Survey No.671.2/600-TU-PIM/XII/2008 from Local Government, Bupati Penajam Paser Utera, dated 31 December 2008.
  38. 38. 2.2. (d) Permit : Surat Keterangan Izin Survey No. 072/57-TU-PIM/II/2009 from Local Government, Bupati Penajam Paser Utera, dated 04 Februari 2009. 2.3 Land Availability: 50 Hectares
  39. 39. 3. Accessibility 3.1. Nearest Highway : 5-8 kms Surat 3.2. Nearest Airport : 44 kms. 3.3. Nearest City : Balikppapan City 3.4. Nearest Sea Port : 55 kms 3.5. Nearest Water Body : River – 2 kms 3.6. Nearest River Port : 10 kms – 12 kms
  40. 40. 3.7. Nearest Village : Semoi II - 5 km 3.8. Archaeologically Impotant : None with in 10 kms 3.9. Historically Important Site :None with in 10 kms 3. 10. Sanctuaries / National :None within 10 kms
  41. 41. 4. Village Adption under Corporate Social Responsibility Programs The project covers the adoption of 2 villages (Wonosari and Semio II ) and 1 kelurahan (Mentawir) in and arround the project area, which aim at achieving greater balance between social development and economic development , and provide the basic needs of people to enrich their quality life under Corporate Social Responsibility programs.
  42. 42. 4.1 Implementing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR ) Programs 4.1.1 Distribution of Purified Drinking Waters : Under the CSR Programs, Project is covered the commitment to distribute purified water for 2 villages of Semoi II & Wonosari and 1 Kelurahan of Mentawir Fund Allocation : Capital : USD 10.000 Maintenance : USD 2500 per Month .
  43. 43. 4.1.2 Rural Electrification : Under the CSR Programs, Project is covered the commitment to implement Rural Electrification (RE) commitment for 2 villages (Semoi II and Wonosari) in kel Mentawir. About 350 houses in those villages are having no access to government electrification grid . Fund Allocation : Capital : USD 300.000 Maintenance : USD 2500 per Month
  44. 44. 4.1.3 Free Electricity : Under the CSR Programs, Project is cover the commitment to provide free Electricity to all 350 houses (free 100 units per house /month basis) in 2 villages of Semoi II & Wonosari, and all 100 Houses in Kelurahan Mentawir. Fund Allocation : Capital : USD 25.000 Value of Electricity : 350 House x 100 Units pe month x USD 0.091 per unit (PLN price) = 35.000 Units x USD 0.091 = USD 31.850 Maintanance : USD 10.000
  45. 45. 4.1.4 Free Rice Distribution : Under the CSR Programs, Project is covered the commitment to distribute Free 10 kgs of Rice per house basis for all 350 houses in 2 villages of Semoi II and Wonosari. Fund Allocation : Maintenance : USD 5000 per Month
  46. 46. 4.1.5 Free food for all School Students : Under the CSR Programs, Project is covered the commitment to provide free brench for all students studing in schools which are locating with in kel. Mentawir, village Wonosari, and village Semoi II. Food distribution will be implemented through local government approval and food will be provided in all schools. Brench: Shredded Chicken Porridge – 1 Bowl (720 gram) Boiled Egg - 1 Egg Fund Allocation : Maintenance : USD 15000 per Month
  47. 47. 4.1.6 Free Live Stocks Distribution : Under the CSR Programs, Project is covered the commitment to distribute Free 1 Cow per house basis and provide facilitate to manage all livestocks in a single formland and generate income from sale of milk and organic fertilizers, and divide the income and distribute evenly to 350 houses. Fund Allocation : Capital : (350 Baby Cows x USD 750) : USD 262.000 Maintenance : USD 10.000 per Month
  48. 48. 4.1.7 Agriculture Development : Under the CSR Programs, Project is covered the commitment to develope 700 hectares of lands (include villagers land) to suitable atmosphire for padi cultivation under 2 hectares per house management basis. Seedling padi and fertilizers will be provided to the villagers against buy back agreement . This agriculture activity enable assured income generation from agriculture for each families in the villages. Fund Allocation :
  49. 49. 4.2. Prioritizing provide employement to local villagers and the use Indonesian Manpower with social security contribution arrangments through Jamsostek , a Government controlled pension&retirement fund. 4.3. Establishing a Safe and Healthy Working Environments.
  50. 50. 5. Environmental Monitoring Program : This Project is covered the commitment to carryout monitoring of various environmental mparameters on a regular basis to ascetain the following : a) State of Pollution within the project site and in its vicinity. b) Generate data for predictive or collrective purpose in respect of pollution. c) Examine the efficiency of Pollution Control System installed in the complex d) To assess and monitor environmental impacts. Fund Allocation : USD 20.000 per month
  51. 51. PROJECT DESCRIPTION The Mentawir Energy provide approximately 50 MW of electrical production capacity to the site. Thi site is located in Kel. Mentawir and village Wonasari, Sepaku sub district, Penajam Paser Utara district. , about 60 kms away from Balikpapan City (International Airport City) and 18 kms away from Manggarsari 150 kv substation. Refere to the site map shown in Figure -1.1 . The power plant will expanded to a combined cycle facility in the future so some balance of plant support systems will need be sized to accomodate the future expansion in addition to current requirements.
  52. 52. The intended operating mode for the simple CFPP will be base load opearation. Raw water is will be collected from nearest river tank using three water supply pumps which will transport the river water to the site water pond. The water treatment system will be provided for the plant to provide trated utility water , portable water and demineralized water. The Coal is main fuel for the plant . The coal will be supplied from the own coal mine concession of PMA Coal. The consumption of coal for the plant is estimated about 291.600 metric tons for every year and 5.750.000 metric tons for total project life time of 25 years.
  53. 53. Coal Fired Power Plant There are basically Seven main units of coal fired power plant: 1.Coal Handling Plant 2.Water Tratment Plant 3.Boiler Maintanance Division 4.Turbine Maintenance Division 5.Generator 6.Switch Yard 7.Environment Protection Division.
  54. 54. 1. Coal Handling Plant The function of coal handling plant is automatic feeding of coal to the boiler furnance. This plant may require around 810 tons per day. Coal is conveyed from stock yard to hopper through conveyor system and grounded to a very fine powder by large metal spheres in the pulverized fuel mill. 1.1 Ausilaries of Coal Handling Plant (a) Conveyor Belt (b) Viberating Feeder : The coal stored in a huge hub is collected on the belt through vibrations created by the vibrating feeder.
  55. 55. (c) Magnetic Separator : These are used to separate the ferrous impurities from the coal. (d) Metal detector : These are detect the presence of any ferrous and non-ferrous metal in the coal. (e) Reclaim hopper : Reclamation is a process of taking coal from the dead storage for preparation of further feeding of reclaim hoppers. (f) Coal Conveyor : This is a belt type of arrangement where coal is transportede from coal storage place in power plant to the place near by boiler.
  56. 56. (g) Stoker : The coal which is brought near by boiler has to put in boiler furnance for combustion. This stoker is a mechanical device for feeding coal to a furnace. (h) Pulverizer : The coal is put in the boiler after pulverization. For this pulverizer is used. A pulverizer is a device for grinding coal for compution in the power plant.
  57. 57. 2. Water Treatment Plant (WTP) The water treatment plant is required at the water from river can’t be directly used in boiler for power plant. Water is converted into steam at high pressure & it is allowed to force turbine rotated and the electricity is generated. Therefore water is the basic requirement to the power plant. Generally in the power plant is employed to refine the water. 2. (a) Necessity of Water Treatment. Natural water conmtains soild , liquid & gasseous impurities and therefore this water cant be used for generation of steam in the boiler.
  58. 58. The different effect introduced due to use of unrated water in the boiler. So, the water impurities should be removed before its used as a steam. 2. (b) Flocculate Plant : Here Alum is added to water to precipitate dust particles in water . Aluminium in Alum neutralizes change dust particle & this gives result to a heavy complex compund which is settled.
  59. 59. 2. (c) Auxiliaries of W.T.P: i) Sand Filter : These stages of sand filter are put accross the flow so as to remove other suspended particle , if any. ii) Activated Carbon Filter : This filter is employed for removal of bacteria and organic material. Here anthracite (coal) is uses for filter. iii) Cation Exchanger : At this stage ions are abserved by ion exchanger method , HCL and negative resin are principle ingredient of this chemical filter. iv) Mixed Bed Exchanger : Here remaining a negative ion is removed that is extracted through resin.
  60. 60. The D.M ( De mineralized) water is now ready which has some properties: Conductivity : 0.03 to 0.5 (micro / cm2) PH : 6.5 Silica : 0.02 ppm Hardness : NIL
  61. 61. 3. Boiler Maintenance Division (B.M.D) 3. (a). Boiler : Thermal energy released by combustion of fuel is transferred to water, which vaporizes and gets converted water into stea, .The boiler is a rectangular furnance about 50 ft (15 m) on aside and 130 ft ()40 m) tall. Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2.3 inches (60mm) in diameter.
  62. 62. The thermal radiation of the fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter. The water circulation rate in the boiler is there to four times the throughput and is typically driven by pumps. As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat And changes into steam at 370 degree cencious and 1276 psi (8.8 Mpa) . Here the steam is superheated to 520 deg C to prepare it for the turbine. The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity, pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine that drives the electrical generator.
  63. 63. Number of Transformer 1 piece per unit Ambient Temperature 30 degree Cel. Elevation Relative Humidity 85% Boiler Type & Model CFBC Boiler Efficiency (Apprx) 92.41% Main Fuel Coal Evaporation Capacity 2 x 110 T / H Turbine Type Non-Reheat Single Cylinder Steam Flow 100 ton / h Steam Temperature 520 degree Cel. Steam Pressure 8.8 Mpa Gross Output 2 x 25 MW Auxilary Power (Approx) 4.5 MW Net Plant Heat Rate 2685 kcal /kWh Boiler Specification
  64. 64. 4. Turbine Maintenance Department (T.M.D) In a typical larger power stations, the steam turbines are split into three seperate stages, the first being the High Pressure (HP) , the second the Intermediate Pressure (IP) and the third the Low Pressure (LP) stage, where high , intermediate and low describe the pressure of the steam. After the steam has passed through the HP stage, its is returned to the boiler to be re-heated to its original temperature although the pressure remains greatly reduced. The reheated steam then passes through the IP stage and finally to the LP stage of turbine.
  65. 65. Type Single Casing, non-reheat Condensing, extraction type Rotation 3000 rpm Vapor Pressure 8.8 Mpa Temperature Steam 510 degree Cel. Capacity per Unit 25 MW ( Gross Output) Steam Turbine Specification
  66. 66. A distinction is made between “impulse” and “reaction” turbine designs based on the relative pressure drop accross the stage. There are two measures for pressure at the stage exit divided by the pressure at the stage entrance. Reaction is percentage is entropic enthalpy drop across the rorating blade or bucket compared to the total stage enthalpy drop. Some manufacturers utilize percent pressure drop across stage to define reaction.
  67. 67. 4. (a) Steam Property At High Pressure (H.P) Turbine : Entrance Pressure : 130 Kg/ cm2 Entrance Temperature : 535 – 540 degree Celcious Exit Pressure : 26 kg/cm2 Exit Temperature : 340 degree Celcious At Intermediate Pressure (IH.P) Turbine : Entrance Pressure : 24 kg/ cm2 . Entrance Temperature : 535 degree Celcious Exit Pressure : 1.02 kg/cm2 Exit Temperature : 140 degree Celcious
  68. 68. 5. GENERATORS The Steam turbine is coupled to an electrical generators ( Alternator) . An electric generator (alternator) is a machine which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. This energy conversion is based on the principle of the production of dynamically induced e.m.f is produced in it according to faraday’s law, “where a conductor is moving in a magnetic field then it cuts magnetic flux and there were an E.M.F ( Electro Magnetic Force) produced, which is called induced E.M.F” The electricity output from the generator is delivered to the bus bars through transformer , circuit breakers and isolators.
  69. 69. Basic Capacity 2 X 31.25 MVA Installed Capacity 2 X 25 MW Capacity Factor (CF) 0.8 lag Primary Voltage 11 kV Basic Frequency 50 Hz Number of Phases 3 Synchronous Round 3000 rounds per minute Cooling Method Closed Cycle Air Insulation Class F with temp.increase class B Generator Secification
  70. 70. Transformer Type Outer pair space , oil dip Number of Phase 3 Number of Turns 2 Basic Capacity 31.5 MVA Tension 6.3 kV to 150 kV Refreigeration ONAF / ONAF Number of Transformer 1piece per unit Transformer Specifications
  71. 71. 5. (a) Condenser Steam after rotating steam turbine comes to the condenser. Condenser here to the shell and tube heat exchanger (or surface condenser) installed at the oulet of every steam turbine in thermal power stations. The purpose of condenser is to condense the outlet steam from steam turbine to get the condensed in the form of pure water.This water is then pumped back to boiler.
  72. 72. 5. (b) Cooling Towers : The condensate (water ) formed in the condenser after condensation is initially at high temperature. This hot water is passed to cooling towers. It is a tower or building like device in which atmospheric air ( the heat receiver) circulates in direct or indirect contact with warmer water ( the heat source) and the water is thereby cooled. A cooling tower may serve as the heat sink in a conventional thermodynamic process, such as refrigeration , and when it is convenient or desirable to make final heat rejection to atmospheric air, and then cooled, is recirculated through the system , affording, economical operation of the process.
  73. 73. 6. SWITCHYAD A switch yard is apart of an electrical generation and transmission system. Switch yard transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important fuctions. As we know that the electrical energy cant be stored like cells, so what we generate should be consumed instantaneously. But, as the load is not constants therefore we generate electricity according to need i.e generation depand upon load. The yard is the place from where the electricity is send outside. It has both outdoor and indoor equipments.
  74. 74. 6. (a) Outdoor Equipments i) Busd Bar ii) Lightening Arrester iii) Breaker iv) Capacitative Voltage Transformer v) Earthing Rod vi) Current Transformer vii) Potential Transformer 6. (b) Indoor Equipments i) Relays ii) Control Pannels iii) Circuit Breakers
  75. 75. 6. (a) Outdoor Equipments i) Busd Bar ii) Lightening Arrester iii) Breaker iv) Capacitative Voltage Transformer v) Earthing Rod vi) Current Transformer vii) Potential Transformer 6. (b) Indoor Equipments i) Relays ii) Control Pannels iii) Circuit Breakers
  76. 76. 7. Environment Protection Division. 7.1. Ash Handling Plant : This plant use some conveyor arrangement to collect ash produced by the boiler and carry the ash to dumnp sitee / disposal site. 7.2. Electrostatic Precipitator : It is a device which removes dust or other finely divided particles from flue gages by charging the particles inductively with electric field, then attracting them to highly charged collector plates. 7.3 Nitrogen Oxides Control System: Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Systems are the technology of choice as the most effective method of post- combustion NOx reduction. NOx reduction can be achieved by integrating low NOx burners and staged combustion (overfire air) into the overall system.
  77. 77. 7.4 Sulfur Dioxide Control •Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) technologies offer the highest SO2 reduction levels in the industry. •Wet FGD System : Spray tower scrubber design used for SO2 control, with proven tray design for more uniform flue gas distribution and improved absorption. Reagents include limestone, lime, magnesium- enhanced lime, sodium carbonate and ammonia. •Spray Dry Absorber (SDA ) System : A rotary atomizer delivers a slurry of an alkaline reagent into the hot flue gas to absorb the SO2 and other acid gases control on utility boilers burning low sulfur coals.
  78. 78. Fuel Efficiency Analysis : Comparison of Thermal Efficiency Calorific Value ( kCal/ kg) Thermal Efficiency (%) 4000 kCal/kg 29.60% 4400 kCal/kg 32.57% 5300 kCal/kg 39.23
  79. 79. Coal Consumption Plant Capacity 2 x 25 MW Net Capacity Fuel Consumption per Hour 33.75 tons Fuel Consumption per Day 810 tons Fuel Consumption per Year 291600 tons Coal Consumption per KWh 0.675 kg/kwh Electrical Energy (KWh ) per year 432,000,000 KWh Needs of Heat Energy (Kcal) per year 1.051.200.000.000 Kcal Needs of Coal per year (kg) 291,600,000 kgs Coal Requirement for 30 years (Tons) 8,748,000 Tons Fuel Consumption Analysis :
  80. 80. Summary of Project Cost : EPCCost @usd 1500 / kWh $75.000.000 VAT+Other Tax @20% 5%Const Management $3.750.000 Total EPC Cost $78.750.000 Developmenmt Cost $3.150.000 Initial O&M Mob Cost $425.046 Working Capital $2.887.454 Financial Cost $4.725.000 Total Project Indirect Cost $11.187.500 O-INV $27.562.500 Total Project Cost $117.500.000 Project Cost (US$)
  81. 81. Electricity Tariff PLN ($/kWh) $0.096 per kW Sales372.300.000 kW x '$0.096 per kW $35.740.800 Fuel Cost ($/ Ton) @USD 30 per Ton $8.173.080 Labor Cost ($/ Ton) $313.548 Maintanance Cost ($/ Ton) $453.333 Insurance / Property Tax ($/ Ton) $225.000 Utility ($/ Ton) $25.000 Management/ Administration ($/ Ton) $258.065 Other Operating Expenses $228.645 Financial Cost $6.168.750 Net Production Cost $15.845.421 Electricity Tariff and SalesRevenue Production Cost Parameters
  82. 82. SalesRevenue $35.740.800 Production Cost $15.845.421 GrossProfit $19.895.379 In USD $0,053 In INR ₹ 3,286 GrossProfit GrossProfit Per Kw / Unit
  83. 83. THANK YOU.

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